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ps(1)			    General Commands Manual			 ps(1)

       ps - print process status statistics

       ps [ options ] [	namelist ] [ corefile ]

       The  command  displays information about	processes. Information on pro-
       cesses can change while is running, so the information it  gives	 is  a
       snapshot	taken at a given time.

       If  you	omit  the  -a option, only your	processes are candidates to be
       displayed by Specifying the -a option causes  information  about	 other
       users' processes	to be displayed; specifying the	-x option includes in-
       formation on processes without control terminals.

       You must	use the	-k option and specify both the namelist	 and  corefile
       arguments  when	you look at a crash dump.  The namelist	argument indi-
       cates that information is to be gathered	 using	the  specified	system
       namelist	 file.	 (The  namelist	 file is a kernel image	file).	If you
       omit namelist, uses The core argument indicates that information	is  to
       be gathered using the specified core file.  If you omit core, uses

       -#	 Represents  any given process number and must be the last op-
		 tion given.  You cannot use this option with the -a  and  -tx

       -C	 Causes	 the %CPU field	of the display to reflect the absolute
		 percentage of cpu used	by the process for  scheduling	during
		 its resident time .

       -S	 Causes	the TIME field of the display to reflect the amount of
		 user+system time spent	by a process and its children.

       -a	 Displays information for processes executed from  all	users'
		 terminals.   The  default  is to show processes executed from
		 your terminal only.  You cannot use this option with  the  -#
		 or -t option.

       -c	 Displays the command names as stored internally in the	system
		 for accounting	purposes instead  of  the  command  arguments,
		 which are kept	in the process address space.  This display is
		 more reliable,	if less	informative, because a process is free
		 to destroy the	latter information.

       -e	 Displays the environment as well as the command arguments.

       -g	 Displays  all	processes  within  the process group.  Without
		 this option, displays only ``interesting''  processes.	  Pro-
		 cesses	 that are process group	leaders	are not	considered in-
		 teresting; therefore, top-level command interpreters and pro-
		 cesses	waiting	for users to log in are	normally not shown.

       -k	 Uses  the file	specified in the core argument in place	of and
		 If you	specify	the -k option but no core argument, uses

       -l	 Displays information in long format, showing the fields PPID,
		 CP,  PRI,  NI,	 ADDR, SIZE, RSS, and WCHAN as described under
		 Output	Fields.

       -s	 Adds the size SSIZ of the kernel stack	of each	process	to the
		 basic output format for use by	system administrators.

       -tx	 Displays  information	for only the specified terminal.  This
		 option	restricts output to processes whose controlling	termi-
		 nal  is x.  Specify x in the same format as displays terminal
		 names.	For example,  displays	for  tty3,  for	 console,  for
		 ttyd0,	 for  processes	with no	terminal, and for processes at
		 the current terminal.	This  option  must  be	the  last  one
		 given.	 You cannot use	this option with the -#	or -a options.

       -u	 Displays  user-oriented  output,  which includes fields USER,
		 %CPU, and %MEM. This option also displays SZ and  RSS,	 which
		 are  computed differently than	they are for the -l and	-v op-
		 tions.	 The SZ	field is computed as SIZE + TSIZ (virtual size
		 plus  size  of	 text).	  The  RRS  field is computed as RSS +
		 (TRS/xccount) where xccount is	the number of  processes  cur-
		 rently	sharing	the text.

       -v	 Displays process system time and user time in addition	to cu-
		 mulative time.	 This display includes fields RE, SL,  PAGEIN,
		 SIZE,	RSS,  LIM,  TSIZ, TRS, %CPU, and %MEM, described under
		 Output	Fields.

       -w	 Produces 132-column rather than 80  column  output.   If  re-
		 peated,  as  -ww, produces arbitrarily	wide output.  This op-
		 tion allows to	display	more of	wide displays.

       -x	 Displays information for all processes, including  those  not
		 executed from terminals.

Output Fields
       The command displays the	following fields in all	output formats:

       PID	 The process identification (PID) number

       TT	 The control terminal of the process

       TIME	 The time, including both user and system time

       STAT	 The state of the process given	by a sequence of five letters,
		 such as RWNAV.

		 The first letter indicates the	run status of the process:

		 R    The process is running.

		 T    The process is stopped.

		 P    The process is in	page wait.

		 D    The process is in	disk (or other short-term) wait.

		 S    The process is sleeping for less than about 20 seconds.

		 I    The process is idle (sleeping longer than	about 20  sec-

		 The second letter indicates whether a process is swapped out:

		 W	The process is swapped out.

		 Z	The process is killed, but not yet removed.

			The process is in core.

		 >	The  process  has a specified soft limit on memory re-
			quirements and is exceeding that limit.	 This type  of
			process	is not swapped.

		 The  third letter indicates whether a process is running with
		 an altered CPU	scheduling priority, using

		 N    The process priority is reduced.

		 <    The process priority has been artificially raised.

		      The process is running without special treatment.

		 The fourth letter indicates  any  special  treatment  of  the
		 process for virtual memory:

		 A    Represents  VA_ANOM.  This status	typically represents a
		      process using a disk more	efficiently by	removing  gaps
		      caused  by  deletes  and	then  collecting the remaining

		 S    Represents VA_SEQL.  This	status is typical of large im-
		      age processing programs that are using virtual memory to
		      sequentially address voluminous data.

		      Represents VA_NORM.

		 The fifth letter indicates whether the	process	 is  a	vector

		 V	Indicates  that	 the process is	using vector hardware.
			Only processes running on a VAX	 processor  that  con-
			tains vector hardware can have this status.

			Indicates the process is not using vector hardware.

       The following fields are	not displayed in all output formats:

       USER	 Names the owner of the	process.

       %CPU	 Describes the use of the CPU by the process.  This percentage
		 is a decaying average over  a	minute	or  less  of  previous
		 (real)	 time.	 The  time  base over which this percentage is
		 computed varies because processes may be new.	The sum	of all
		 %CPU fields can therefore exceed 200%.

       NICE (or	NI)
		 Indicates  the	process	scheduling increment.  For further in-
		 formation, see

       SIZE (or	SZ)
		 Shows the virtual size	of the process in 1024-byte units.

       RSS	 Shows the real	memory (resident set) size of the  process  in
		 1024-byte units.

       LIM	 Indicates  the	 soft limit on memory used, which is specified
		 by a call to If no limit has been specified,  this  limit  is
		 shown as

       TSIZ	 Shows the size	of the text (shared program) image.

       TRS	 Shows the size	of resident (real memory) set of text.

       %MEM	 Gives the percentage of real memory used by this process.

       RE	 Indicates  the	 residency  time  of  the  process (seconds in

       SL	 Indicates the sleep time of the process (seconds blocked).

       PAGEIN	 Shows the number of disk input	and output operations  result-
		 ing  from  references	by  the	process	to pages not loaded in

       UID	 Shows the numerical user identification number	of the process

       PPID	 Shows	the  numerical	identification number of the parent of

       CP	 Displays the short-term CPU use factor	used in	scheduling.

       PRI	 Displays process priority. (This value	 is  nonpositive  when
		 the process is	in a wait state	that cannot be interrupted.)

       ADDR	 Displays the swap address of the process or page frame	of the
		 beginning of the user page table entries.

       WCHAN	 Indicates the event for which the process is waiting (an  ad-
		 dress	in  the	 system), with the initial part	of the address
		 truncated.  For example, the  address	80004000  displays  as

       F	 Displays flags	associated with	the process as in

       SLOAD	  00000001    Process is resident in memory.
       SSYS	  00000002    System process:  swapper,	pager,
			      idle (RISC only),	trusted	path daemon.
       SLOCK	  00000004    Process is being swapped out.
       SSWAP	  00000008    Process requested	to swap	out for	page table
       STRC	  00000010    Traced.
       SWTED	  00000020    Used in tracing.
       SULOCK	  00000040    Locked in	by plock(2).
       SPAGE	  00000080    Process is waiting for page-in to	complete.
       SKEEP	  00000100    Process is protected from	swapout	while transferring.
			      resources	to another process.
       SOMASK	  00000200    Used by sigpause(2).
       SWEXIT	  00000400    Process is exiting.
       SPHYSIO	  00000800    Process is protected from	swapout	while doing physical
			      input or output.
       SVFORK	  00001000    Process resulted from a vfork(2) that is not
			      yet complete.
       SVFDONE	  00002000    Parent has received resources returned by
			      vfork(2) child.
       SNOVM	  00004000    Process has no virtual memory, as	it is a
			      parent in	the context of vfork(2).
       SPAGI	  00008000    Process is demand-paging data pages from its
			      text gnode.
       SSEQL	  00010000    Process has advised of sequential	memory access.
       SUANOM	  00020000    Process has advised of random memory access.
       SXCTDAT	  00080000    Process has indicated intent to execute data
			      or stack (RISC only).
       SNOCLDSTP  00100000    POSIX environment: no SIGCLD generated when
			      children stop (formerly named SOUSIG).
       SOWEUPC	  00200000    Process is owed a	profiling tick.
       SSEL	  00400000    Used by select(2).
       SLOGIN	  00800000    Process is a login process.
       SPTECHG	  01000000    The page table entries for the process have changed.
       SLKDONE	  04000000    System V file lock has been applied.
       SFIXADE	  08000000    Fix of unaligned accesses	is being attempted
			      (RISC only).
       SEXECDN	  10000000    Process has done an execve(2).
       SIDLEP	  20000000    The idle process (RISC only).

       A  process  that	 has a parent and has exited, but for which the	parent
       has not yet waited, is marked <defunct>.	 A  process  that  is  blocked
       trying to exit is marked	<exiting>. The command determines the filename
       and arguments given when	the process was	created	by examining memory or
       the  swap  area.	  The  method  is  unreliable because, for example,  a
       process can destroy this	information. The filename and  arguments  dis-
       plays might be incorrect.

       Searched	to find	swap device and	terminal names

       Swap device

       Kernel memory

       User process information

       Core file

       System namelist

See Also
       kill(1),	w(1), getpriority (2), getrlimit(2), dump(5)


Name | Syntax | Description | Options | Output Fields | Files | See Also

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