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ps(1)			    General Commands Manual			 ps(1)

NAME
       ps - report process status

SYNOPSIS
       ps [ -aAcdefjl ]	[ -g grplist ] [ -n namelist ]
	    [[ -o format ] ... ] [ -p proclist ]
	    [ -s sidlist ] [ -t	term ] [ -u uidlist ]
	    [ -U uidlist ] [ -G	gidlist	]

AVAILABILITY
       SUNWcsu

DESCRIPTION
       The  ps command prints information about	active processes.  Without op-
       tions, ps prints	information about processes associated with  the  con-
       trolling	 terminal.   The output	contains only the process ID, terminal
       identifier, cumulative execution	time, and the  command	name.	Other-
       wise, the information that is displayed is controlled by	the options.

       Some  options accept lists as arguments.	 Items in a list can be	either
       separated by commas or else enclosed in quotes and separated by	commas
       or spaces.  Values for proclist and grplist must	be numeric.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -a	      Print  information  about	 all processes most frequently
		      requested: all those except process  group  leaders  and
		      processes	not associated with a terminal.

       -A	      Write information	for all	processes.

       -c	      Print  information  in  a	format that reflects scheduler
		      properties as described in priocntl(1).  The  -c	option
		      affects  the  output  of	the  -f	and -l options,	as de-
		      scribed below.

       -d	      Print information	about  all  processes  except  session
		      leaders.

       -e	      Print information	about every process now	running.

       -f	      Generate a full listing.	(See below for significance of
		      columns in a full	listing.)

       -g grplist     List only	process	data whose group leader's ID number(s)
		      appears  in grplist.  (A group leader is a process whose
		      process ID number	is identical to	its process  group  ID
		      number.)

       -G gidlist     Write information	for processes whose real group ID num-
		      bers are given in	gidlist.  The gidlist must be a	single
		      argument	in  the	 form  of  a blank- or comma-separated
		      list.

       -j	      Print session ID and process group ID.

       -l	      Generate a long listing.	(See below.)

       -n namelist    Specify the name of an alternative system	namelist  file
		      in  place	 of  the default.  This	option is accepted for
		      compatibility, but is ignored.

       -o format      Write information	according to the format	 specification
		      given  in	 format.   This	 is fully described in DISPLAY
		      FORMATS.	Multiple -o options can	be specified; the for-
		      mat specification	will be	interpreted as the space-char-
		      acter-separated concatenation of all the format  option-
		      arguments.

       -p proclist    List  only  process  data	 whose	process	ID numbers are
		      given in proclist.

       -s sidlist     List information on all session leaders whose IDs	appear
		      in sidlist.

       -t term	      List  only  process data associated with term.  Terminal
		      identifiers are specified	as a device file name, and  an
		      identifier.  For example,	term/a,	or pts/0.

       -u uidlist     List only	process	data whose effective user ID number or
		      login name is given in uidlist.  In the listing, the nu-
		      merical  user  ID	will be	printed	unless you give	the -f
		      option, which prints the login name.

       -U uidlist     Write information	for processes whose real user ID  num-
		      bers  or	login names are	given in uidlist.  The uidlist
		      must be a	single argument	in the form  of	 a  blank-  or
		      comma-separated list.

       With  the  exception of -o format, all of the options shown are used to
       select processes.  If any are specified,	the default list will  be  ig-
       nored  and ps will select the processes represented by the inclusive OR
       of all the selection-criteria options.

DISPLAY	FORMATS
       Under the -f option, ps tries to	determine the command name  and	 argu-
       ments  given  when the process was created by examining the user	block.
       Failing this, the command name is printed, as it	 would	have  appeared
       without the -f option, in square	brackets.

       The  column headings and	the meaning of the columns in a	ps listing are
       given below; the	letters	f and l	indicate the option (full or long, re-
       spectively)  that causes	the corresponding heading to appear; all means
       that the	heading	always appears.	 Note:	These  two  options  determine
       only  what information is provided for a	process; they do not determine
       which processes will be listed.

       F	 (l)	   Flags (hexadecimal and  additive)  associated  with
			   the process.	 These flags are available for histor-
			   ical	purposes; no meaning should be	currently  as-
			   cribed to them.

       S	 (l)	   The state of	the process:

			   O	Process	is running on a	processor.
			   S	Sleeping:  process  is waiting for an event to
				complete.
			   R	Runnable: process is on	run queue.
			   Z	Zombie state: process  terminated  and	parent
				not waiting.
			   T	Process	 is  stopped,  either by a job control
				signal or because it is	being traced.

       UID	 (f,l)	   The effective user ID number	of  the	 process  (the
			   login name is printed under the -f option).

       PID	 (all)	   The process ID of the process (this datum is	neces-
			   sary	in order to kill a process).

       PPID	 (f,l)	   The process ID of the parent	process.

       C	 (f,l)	   Processor utilization  for  scheduling  (obsolete).
			   Not printed when the	-c option is used.

       CLS	 (f,l)	   Scheduling  class.  Printed only when the -c	option
			   is used.

       PRI	 (l)	   The priority	of the process.	 Without  the  -c  op-
			   tion, higher	numbers	mean lower priority.  With the
			   -c option, higher numbers mean higher priority.

       NI	 (l)	   Nice	value,	used  in  priority  computation.   Not
			   printed when	the -c option is used.	Only processes
			   in the  certain  scheduling	classes	 have  a  nice
			   value.

       ADDR	 (l)	   The memory address of the process.

       SZ	 (l)	   The	size (in pages)	of the swappable process's im-
			   age in main memory.

       WCHAN	 (l)	   The address of an event for which  the  process  is
			   sleeping (if	blank, the process is running).

       STIME	 (f)	   The	starting  time of the process, given in	hours,
			   minutes, and	seconds.  (A process begun  more  than
			   twenty-four hours before the	ps inquiry is executed
			   is given in months and days.)

       TTY	 (all)	   The controlling terminal for	the process (the  mes-
			   sage,  ?,  is  printed when there is	no controlling
			   terminal).

       TIME	 (all)	   The cumulative execution time for the process.

       CMD	 (all)	   The command name (the full command name and its ar-
			   guments,  up	 to  a	limit  of  80  characters, are
			   printed under the -f	option).

       The following two additional columns are	printed	when the -j option  is
       specified:

       PGID		   The process ID of the process group leader.

       SID		   The process ID of the session leader.

       A process that has exited and has a parent, but has not yet been	waited
       for by the parent, is marked <defunct>.

   -o format
       The -o option allows the	output format to be specified under user  con-
       trol.

       The  format specification must be a list	of names presented as a	single
       argument, blank-	or  comma-separated.   Each  variable  has  a  default
       header.	 The  default  header can be overridden	by appending an	equals
       sign and	the new	text of	the header.  The rest of the characters	in the
       argument	will be	used as	the header text.  The fields specified will be
       written in the order specified on the command line, and should  be  ar-
       ranged  in columns in the output.  The field widths will	be selected by
       the system to be	at least as wide as the	header text (default or	 over-
       ridden value).  If the header text is null, such	as -o user=, the field
       width will be at	least as wide as the  default  header  text.   If  all
       header text fields are null, no header line will	be written.

       The following names are recognized in the POSIX locale:

       user	   The	effective  user	 ID  of	the process.  This will	be the
		   textual user	ID, if it can be obtained and the field	 width
		   permits, or a decimal representation	otherwise.

       ruser	   The	real user ID of	the process.  This will	be the textual
		   user	ID, if it can be obtained and the field	width permits,
		   or a	decimal	representation otherwise.

       group	   The	effective  group  ID of	the process.  This will	be the
		   textual group ID, if	it can be obtained and the field width
		   permits, or a decimal representation	otherwise.

       rgroup	   The real group ID of	the process.  This will	be the textual
		   group ID, if	it can be obtained and the  field  width  per-
		   mits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

       pid	   The decimal value of	the process ID.

       ppid	   The decimal value of	the parent process ID.

       pgid	   The decimal value of	the process group ID.

       pcpu	   The	ratio  of CPU time used	recently to CPU	time available
		   in the same period, expressed as a percentage.  The meaning
		   of  ``recently''  in	 this context is unspecified.  The CPU
		   time	available is determined	in an unspecified manner.

       vsz	   The size of the process in (virtual)	memory in kilobytes as
		   a decimal integer.

       nice	   The	decimal	value of the system scheduling priority	of the
		   process.  See nice(1).

       etime	   In the POSIX	locale,	the elapsed time since the process was
		   started, in the form:
		   [[dd-]hh:]mm:ss

		   where

		   dd	  will represent the number of days,
		   hh	  the number of	hours,
		   mm	  the number of	minutes, and
		   ss	  the number of	seconds.

		   The	dd field will be a decimal integer.  The hh, mm	and ss
		   fields will be two-digit decimal  integers  padded  on  the
		   left	with zeros.

       time	   In the POSIX	locale,	the cumulative CPU time	of the process
		   in the form:
		   [dd-]hh:mm:ss

		   The dd, hh, mm, and ss fields will be as described  in  the
		   etime specifier.

       tty	   The	name  of  the  controlling terminal of the process (if
		   any)	in the same format used	by the who(1) command.

       comm	   The name of the command being executed (argv[0] value) as a
		   string.

       args	   The command with all	its arguments as a string.  The	imple-
		   mentation may truncate this value to	the field width; it is
		   implementation-dependent whether any	further	truncation oc-
		   curs.  It is	unspecified whether the	string represented  is
		   a version of	the argument list as it	was passed to the com-
		   mand	when it	started, or is a version of the	 arguments  as
		   they	 may  have been	modified by the	application.  Applica-
		   tions cannot	depend on being	able to	modify their  argument
		   list	 and having that modification be reflected in the out-
		   put of ps.  The Solaris implementation limits the string to
		   80 bytes; the string	is the version of the argument list as
		   it was passed to the	command	when it	started.

       The following names are recognized in the Solaris implementation:

       f	   Flags  (hexadecimal	and  additive)	associated  with   the
		   process.

       s	   The state of	the process.

       c	   Processor utilization for scheduling	(obsolete).

       uid	   The	effective  user	 ID number of the process as a decimal
		   integer.

       ruid	   The real user ID number of the process as a	decimal	 inte-
		   ger.

       gid	   The	effective  group ID number of the process as a decimal
		   integer.

       rgid	   The real group ID number of the process as a	decimal	 inte-
		   ger.

       sid	   The process ID of the session leader.

       class	   The scheduling class	of the process.

       pri	   The	priority  of  the process.  Higher numbers mean	higher
		   priority.

       opri	   The obsolete	priority of the	process.  Lower	 numbers  mean
		   higher priority.

       addr	   The memory address of the process.

       osz	   The	size  (in  pages)  of the swappable process's image in
		   main	memory.

       wchan	   The address of an event for which the process  is  sleeping
		   (if -, the process is running).

       stime	   The	starting  time or date of the process, printed with no
		   blanks.

       rss	   The resident	set size of the	process,  in  kilobytes	 as  a
		   decimal integer.

       pmem	   The	ratio of the process's resident	set size to the	physi-
		   cal memory on the machine, expressed	as a percentage.

       fname	   The first 8 bytes of	the base name of  the  process's  exe-
		   cutable file.

       Only comm and args are allowed to contain blank characters; all others,
       including the Solaris implementation variables, are not.

       The following table specifies the default header	 to  be	 used  in  the
       POSIX locale corresponding to each format specifier.

	   +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
	   |Format Specifier   Default Header |	Format Specifier   Default Header |
	   +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
	   |args	       COMMAND	      |	ppid		   PPID		  |
	   |comm	       COMMAND	      |	rgroup		   RGROUP	  |
	   |etime	       ELAPSED	      |	ruser		   RUSER	  |
	   |group	       GROUP	      |	time		   TIME		  |
	   |nice	       NI	      |	tty		   TT		  |
	   |pcpu	       %CPU	      |	user		   USER		  |
	   |pgid	       PGID	      |	vsz		   VSZ		  |
	   |pid		       PID	      |					  |
	   +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
       The  following table lists the Solaris implementation format specifiers
       and the default header used with	each.

	   +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
	   |Format Specifier   Default Header |	Format Specifier   Default Header |
	   +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
	   |addr	       ADDR	      |	pri		   PRI		  |
	   |c		       C	      |	rgid		   RGID		  |
	   |class	       CLS	      |	rss		   RSS		  |
	   |f		       F	      |	ruid		   RUID		  |
	   |fname	       COMMAND	      |	s		   S		  |
	   |gid		       GID	      |	sid		   SID		  |
	   |opri	       PRI	      |	stime		   STIME	  |
	   |osz		       SZ	      |	uid		   UID		  |
	   |pmem	       %MEM	      |	wchan		   WCHAN	  |
	   +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
EXAMPLES
       The command:
	      example% ps -o user,pid,ppid=MOM -o args

       writes the following in the POSIX locale:

	 USER	PID   MOM   COMMAND
       helene	 34    12   ps -o uid,pid,ppid=MOM -o args

       The contents of the COMMAND field need not be the same due to  possible
       truncation.

ENVIRONMENT
       See  environ(5) for descriptions	of the following environment variables
       that affect the execution of ps:	LC_CTYPE,  LC_MESSAGES,	 LC_TIME,  and
       NLSPATH.

       COLUMNS		   Override   the  system-selected  horizontal	screen
			   size, used to determine the number of text  columns
			   to display.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0	 Successful completion.

       >0	 An error occurred.

FILES
       /dev/pts/*
       /dev/term/*    terminal (``tty'') names searcher	files
       /etc/passwd    UID information supplier
       /proc/*	      process control files
       /tmp/ps_data   internal data structure

SEE ALSO
       kill(1),	 nice(1), priocntl(1), who(1), getty(1M), proc(4), ttysrch(4),
       environ(5)

NOTES
       Things can change while ps is running; the snap-shot it gives  is  true
       only for	a split-second,	and it may not be accurate by the time you see
       it.  Some data printed for defunct processes is irrelevant.

       If no options to	select processes are specified,	 ps  will  report  all
       processes  associated  with  the	 controlling terminal.	If there is no
       controlling terminal, there will	be no report.

       ps -ef or ps -o stime may not report the	actual start of	 a  tty	 login
       session,	but rather an earlier time, when a getty was last respawned on
       the tty line.

				  18 Sep 1995				 ps(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | AVAILABILITY | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | DISPLAY FORMATS | EXAMPLES | ENVIRONMENT | EXIT STATUS | FILES | SEE ALSO | NOTES

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