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ps(1)									 ps(1)

NAME
       ps - report process status

SYNOPSIS
       ps  [-aAcdefjlLPyZ] [-g grplist]	[-n namelist]  [-o format]... [-p pro-
       clist] [-s sidlist] [-t term]  [-u uidlist]  [-U	uidlist]  [-G gidlist]
       [-z zonelist]

       The  ps	command	prints information about active	processes. Without op-
       tions, ps prints	information about processes that have the same	effec-
       tive user ID and	the same controlling terminal as the invoker. The out-
       put contains only the process ID, terminal identifier, cumulative  exe-
       cution  time,  and the command name. Otherwise, the information that is
       displayed is controlled by the options.

       Some options accept lists as arguments. Items in	a list can  be	either
       separated  by commas or else enclosed in	quotes and separated by	commas
       or spaces. Values for proclist and grplist must be numeric.

       The following options are supported:

       -a	       Lists information about all processes  most  frequently
		       requested:  all	those  except session leaders and pro-
		       cesses not associated with a terminal.

       -A	       Lists information for all processes. Identical  to  -e,
		       below.

       -c	       Prints  information in a	format that reflects scheduler
		       properties as described in priocntl(1). The  -c	option
		       affects	the  output  of	 the -f	and -l options,	as de-
		       scribed below.

       -d	       Lists information about all  processes  except  session
		       leaders.

       -e	       Lists information about every process now running.

       -f	       Generates  a  full listing. (See	below for significance
		       of columns in a full listing.)

       -g grplist      Lists only process data whose group  leader's  ID  num-
		       ber(s) appears in grplist. (A group leader is a process
		       whose process ID	number is  identical  to  its  process
		       group ID	number.)

       -G gidlist      Lists  information  for	processes  whose real group ID
		       numbers are given in gidlist. The  gidlist  must	 be  a
		       single  argument	in the form of a blank-	or comma-sepa-
		       rated list.

       -j	       Prints session ID and process group ID.

       -l	       Generates a long	listing. (See below.)

       -L	       Prints information  about  each	light  weight  process
		       (lwp) in	each selected process. (See below.)

       -n namelist     Specifies  the  name  of	an alternative system namelist
		       file in place of	the default. This option  is  accepted
		       for compatibility, but is ignored.

       -o format       Prints  information  according to the format specifica-
		       tion given in format. This is fully described  in  DIS-
		       PLAY FORMATS. Multiple -o options can be	specified; the
		       format specification will be interpreted	as the	space-
		       character-separated concatenation of all	the format op-
		       tion-arguments.

       -p proclist     Lists only process data whose process  ID  numbers  are
		       given in	proclist.

       -P	       Prints the number of the	processor to which the process
		       or lwp is bound,	if any,	 under	an  additional	column
		       header, PSR.

       -s sidlist      Lists  information on all session leaders whose IDs ap-
		       pear in sidlist.

       -t term	       Lists only process data associated with term.  Terminal
		       identifiers are specified as a device file name,	and an
		       identifier. For example,	term/a,	or pts/0.

       -u uidlist      Lists only process data whose effective user ID	number
		       or  login name is given in uidlist. In the listing, the
		       numerical user ID will be printed unless	you  give  the
		       -f option, which	prints the login name.

       -U uidlist      Lists information for processes whose real user ID num-
		       bers or login names are given in	uidlist.  The  uidlist
		       must  be	 a  single argument in the form	of a blank- or
		       comma-separated list.

       -y	       Under a long listing (-l), omits	 the  obsolete	F  and
		       ADDR  columns  and includes an RSS column to report the
		       resident	set size of the	process. Under the -y  option,
		       both  RSS  and SZ (see below) will be reported in units
		       of kilobytes instead of pages.

       -z zonelist     Lists only processes in the specified zones. Zones  can
		       be  specified either by name or ID. This	option is only
		       useful when executed in the global zone.

       -Z	       Prints the name of the zone with	which the  process  is
		       associated under	an additional column header, ZONE.

       Many  of	the options shown are used to select processes to list.	If any
       are specified, the default list will be ignored and ps will select  the
       processes represented by	the inclusive OR of all	the selection-criteria
       options.

DISPLAY	FORMATS
       Under the -f option, ps tries to	determine the command name  and	 argu-
       ments  given  when the process was created by examining the user	block.
       Failing this, the command name is printed, as it	 would	have  appeared
       without the -f option, in square	brackets.

       The  column headings and	the meaning of the columns in a	ps listing are
       given below; the	letters	f and l	indicate the option (full or long, re-
       spectively)  that causes	the corresponding heading to appear; all means
       that the	heading	always appears.	Note: These two	options	determine only
       what information	is provided for	a process; they	do not determine which
       processes will be listed.

       F    (l)	       Flags (hexadecimal and additive)	 associated  with  the
		       process.	 These flags are available for historical pur-
		       poses; no meaning should	be currently ascribed to them.

       S (l)	       The state of the	process:

		       O	Process	is running on a	processor.

		       S	Sleeping: process is waiting for an  event  to
				complete.

		       R	Runnable: process is on	run queue.

		       Z	Zombie	state:	process	 terminated and	parent
				not waiting.

		       T	Process	is stopped, either by  a  job  control
				signal or because it is	being traced.

       UID (f,l)       The  effective user ID number of	the process (the login
		       name is printed under the -f option).

       PID  (all)      The process ID of the process (this datum is  necessary
		       in order	to kill	a process).

       PPID (f,l)      The process ID of the parent process.

       C    (f,l)      Processor  utilization  for  scheduling (obsolete). Not
		       printed when the	-c option is used.

       CLS  (f,l)      Scheduling class. Printed only when the	-c  option  is
		       used.

       PRI  (l)	       The  priority  of  the  process.	Without	the -c option,
		       higher numbers mean lower priority. With	the -c option,
		       higher numbers mean higher priority.

       NI   (l)	       Nice  value,  used in priority computation. Not printed
		       when the	-c option is used. Only	processes in the  cer-
		       tain scheduling classes have a nice value.

       ADDR (l)	       The memory address of the process.

       SZ   (l)	       The  total  size	 of the	process	in virtual memory, in-
		       cluding all mapped files	and devices, in	pages. See pa-
		       gesize(1).

       WCHAN	 (l)   The address of an event for which the process is	sleep-
		       ing (if blank, the process is running).

       STIME	 (f)   The starting time of the	process, given in hours,  min-
		       utes,  and  seconds. (A process begun more than twenty-
		       four hours before the ps	inquiry	is executed  is	 given
		       in months and days.)

       TTY  (all)      The  controlling	terminal for the process (the message,
		       ?, is printed when there	is no controlling terminal).

       TIME (all)      The cumulative execution	time for the process.

       CMD  (all)      The command name	(the full command name and  its	 argu-
		       ments,  up to a limit of	80 characters, are printed un-
		       der the -f option).

       The following two additional columns are	printed	when the -j option  is
       specified:

       PGID	The process ID of the process group leader.

       SID	The process ID of the session leader.

       The  following two additional columns are printed when the -L option is
       specified:

       LWP	The lwp	ID of the lwp being reported.

       NLWP	The number of lwps in the process (if -f is also specified).

       Under the -L option, one	line is	printed	for each lwp  in  the  process
       and  the	 time-reporting	 fields	STIME and TIME show the	values for the
       lwp, not	the process. A traditional  single-threaded  process  contains
       only one	lwp.

       A process that has exited and has a parent, but has not yet been	waited
       for by the parent, is marked <defunct>.

   -o format
       The -o option allows the	output format to be specified under user  con-
       trol.

       The  format specification must be a list	of names presented as a	single
       argument, blank-	 or  comma-separated.  Each  variable  has  a  default
       header.	The  default  header  can be overridden	by appending an	equals
       sign and	the new	text of	the header. The	rest of	the characters in  the
       argument	 will be used as the header text. The fields specified will be
       written in the order specified on the command line, and should  be  ar-
       ranged  in  columns in the output. The field widths will	be selected by
       the system to be	at least as wide as the	header text (default or	 over-
       ridden  value). If the header text is null, such	as -o user=, the field
       width will be at	least as wide as  the  default	header	text.  If  all
       header text fields are null, no header line will	be written.

       The following names are recognized in the POSIX locale:

       user	       The  effective user ID of the process. This will	be the
		       textual user ID,	if it can be obtained  and  the	 field
		       width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

       ruser	       The  real user ID of the	process. This will be the tex-
		       tual user ID, if	it can be obtained and the field width
		       permits,	or a decimal representation otherwise.

       group	       The effective group ID of the process. This will	be the
		       textual group ID, if it can be obtained and  the	 field
		       width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

       rgroup	       The real	group ID of the	process. This will be the tex-
		       tual group ID, if it can	 be  obtained  and  the	 field
		       width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

       pid	       The decimal value of the	process	ID.

       ppid	       The decimal value of the	parent process ID.

       pgid	       The decimal value of the	process	group ID.

       pcpu	       The  ratio of CPU time used recently to CPU time	avail-
		       able in the same	period,	expressed as a percentage. The
		       meaning of ``recently'' in this context is unspecified.
		       The CPU time available is determined in an  unspecified
		       manner.

       vsz	       The  total  size	 of  the process in virtual memory, in
		       kilobytes.

       nice	       The decimal value of the	system scheduling priority  of
		       the process. See	nice(1).

       etime	       In the POSIX locale, the	elapsed	time since the process
		       was started, in the form:

		       [[dd-]hh:]mm:ss

		       where

		       dd	is the number of days

		       hh	is the number of hours

		       mm	 is the	number of minutes

		       ss	is the number of seconds

		       The dd field will be a decimal integer. The hh, mm  and
		       ss  fields will be two-digit decimal integers padded on
		       the left	with zeros.

       time	       In the POSIX locale, the	cumulative  CPU	 time  of  the
		       process in the form:

		       [dd-]hh:mm:ss

		       The  dd,	hh, mm,	and  ss	fields will be as described in
		       the etime specifier.

       tty	       The name	of the controlling terminal of the process (if
		       any) in the same	format used by the who(1) command.

       comm	       The  name of the	command	being executed (argv[0]	value)
		       as a string.

       args	       The command with	all its	arguments as a string. The im-
		       plementation  may  truncate  this  value	 to  the field
		       width; it is implementation-dependent whether any  fur-
		       ther  truncation	 occurs. It is unspecified whether the
		       string represented is a version of the argument list as
		       it  was	passed to the command when it started, or is a
		       version of the arguments	as they	may have been modified
		       by the application. Applications	cannot depend on being
		       able to modify their argument list and having that mod-
		       ification  be  reflected	 in the	output of ps.  The So-
		       laris implementation limits the string to 80 bytes; the
		       string  is  the	version	of the argument	list as	it was
		       passed to the command when it started.

       The following names are recognized in the Solaris implementation:

       f	       Flags (hexadecimal and additive)	 associated  with  the
		       process.

       s	       The state of the	process.

       c	       Processor utilization for scheduling (obsolete).

       uid	       The  effective user ID number of	the process as a deci-
		       mal integer.

       ruid	       The real	user ID	number of the process as a decimal in-
		       teger.

       gid	       The effective group ID number of	the process as a deci-
		       mal integer.

       rgid	       The real	group ID number	of the process	as  a  decimal
		       integer.

       projid	       The project ID number of	the process as a decimal inte-
		       ger.

       project	       The project ID of the process as	 a  textual  value  if
		       that value can be obtained; otherwise, as a decimal in-
		       teger.

       zoneid	       The zone	ID number of the process as a decimal integer.

       zone	       The zone	ID of the process as a textual value  if  that
		       value can be obtained; otherwise, as a decimal integer.

       sid	       The process ID of the session leader.

       taskid	       The task	ID of the process.

       class	       The scheduling class of the process.

       pri	       The priority of the process. Higher numbers mean	higher
		       priority.

       opri	       The obsolete priority of	 the  process.	Lower  numbers
		       mean higher priority.

       lwp	       The  decimal  value of the lwp ID. Requesting this for-
		       matting option causes one line to be printed  for  each
		       lwp in the process.

       nlwp	       The number of lwps in the process.

       psr	       The number of the processor to which the	process	or lwp
		       is bound.

       pset	       The ID of the processor set to which  the  process   or
		       lwp is bound.

       addr	       The memory address of the process.

       osz	       The  total  size	 of  the process in virtual memory, in
		       pages.

       wchan	       The address of an event for which the process is	sleep-
		       ing (if -, the process is running).

       stime	       The  starting time or date of the process, printed with
		       no blanks.

       rss	       The resident set	size of	the process, in	kilobytes. The
		       rss  value  reported  by	 ps is an estimate provided by
		       proc(4) that may	underestimate the actual resident  set
		       size.  Users who	wish to	get more accurate usage	infor-
		       mation for capacity planning should use pmap(1) -x  in-
		       stead.

       pmem	       The  ratio  of  the  process's resident set size	to the
		       physical	memory on the machine, expressed as a percent-
		       age.

       fname	       The first 8 bytes of the	base name of the process's ex-
		       ecutable	file.

       ctid	       The contract ID of the process contract the process  is
		       a member	of as a	decimal	integer.

       Only comm and args are allowed to contain blank characters; all others,
       including the Solaris implementation variables, are not.

       The following table specifies the default header	 to  be	 used  in  the
       POSIX locale corresponding to each format specifier.

       +--------------------------------+--------------------------------+
       |Format		 Default	|Format		  Default	 |
       |Specifier	 Header		|Specifier	  Header	 |
       |args		 COMMAND	|ppid		  PPID		 |
       |comm		 COMMAND	|rgroup		  RGROUP	 |
       |etime		 ELAPSED	|ruser		  RUSER		 |
       |group		 GROUP		|time		  TIME		 |
       |nice		 NI		|tty		  TT		 |
       |pcpu		 %CPU		|user		  USER		 |
       |pgid		 PGID		|vsz		  VSZ		 |
       |pid		 PID		|				 |
       +--------------------------------+--------------------------------+

       The  following table lists the Solaris implementation format specifiers
       and the default header used with	each.

       +--------------------------------+--------------------------------+
       |Format		 Default	|Format		  Default	 |
       |Specifier	 Header		|Specifier	  Header	 |
       |addr		 ADDR		|projid		  PROJID	 |
       |c		 C		|project	  PROJECT	 |
       |class		 CLS		|psr		  PSR		 |
       |f		 F		|rgid		  RGID		 |
       |fname		 COMMAND	|rss		  RSS		 |
       |gid		 GID		|ruid		  RUID		 |
       |lwp		 LWP		|s		  S		 |
       |nlwp		 NLWP		|sid		  SID		 |
       |opri		 PRI		|stime		  STIME		 |
       |osz		 SZ		|taskid		  TASKID	 |
       |pmem		 %MEM		|uid		  UID		 |
       |pri		 PRI		|wchan		  WCHAN		 |
       |ctid		 CTID		|zone		  ZONE		 |
       |				|zoneid		  ZONEID	 |
       +--------------------------------+--------------------------------+

       Example 1: Using	ps Command

       The command:

       example%	ps -o user,pid,ppid=MOM	-o args

       writes the following in the POSIX locale:

	USER  PID   MOM	  COMMAND
       helene  34    12	  ps -o	uid,pid,ppid=MOM -o args

       The contents of the COMMAND field need not be the same due to  possible
       truncation.

       See  environ(5) for descriptions	of the following environment variables
       that affect the execution of ps:	LANG, LC_ALL,  LC_CTYPE,  LC_MESSAGES,
       LC_TIME,	and NLSPATH.

       COLUMNS		       Override	 the system-selected horizontal	screen
			       size, used to determine the number of text col-
			       umns to display.

       The following exit values are returned:

       0		       Successful completion.

       >0		       An error	occurred.

       /dev/pts/*

       /dev/term/*	       terminal	(``tty'') names	searcher files

       /etc/passwd	       UID information supplier

       /proc/*		       process control files

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled (see )		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Standard			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

       kill(1),	 nice(1), pagesize(1), pgrep(1), pmap(1), priocntl(1), who(1),
       getty(1M),  proc(4),  ttysrch(4),  attributes(5),   environ(5),	 stan-
       dards(5), zones(5)

       Things  can  change  while ps is	running. The snapshot it gives is true
       only for	a split-second,	and it may not be accurate by the time you see
       it. Some	data printed for defunct processes is irrelevant.

       If  no  options	to  select processes are specified, ps will report all
       processes associated with the controlling terminal. If there is no con-
       trolling	terminal, there	will be	no report other	than the header.

       ps  -ef	or  ps -o stime	may not	report the actual start	of a tty login
       session,	but rather an earlier time, when a getty was last respawned on
       the tty line.

       ps is CSI-enabled except	for login names	(usernames).

				  9 Mar	2005				 ps(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DISPLAY FORMATS

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