Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages

  
 
  

home | help
PS(1)			FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual			 PS(1)

NAME
     ps	-- display process status

SYNOPSIS
     ps	[[-]AaceHhjkLlmrSTuvwx]	[-M core] [-N system] [-O fmt] [-o fmt]
	[-p pid] [-t tty] [-U username]	[-W swap]

DESCRIPTION
     The ps utility displays information about active processes.  When given
     no	options, ps prints information about processes of the current user
     that have a controlling terminal.

     The information displayed is selected based on a set of keywords (and for
     even more control,	see the	-L, -O,	and -o options).  The default output
     format includes, for each process,	the process's ID, controlling termi-
     nal, state, CPU time (including both user and system time), and associ-
     ated command.

     The options are as	follows:

     -A	     Display information about processes for all users,	including
	     those without controlling terminals.

     -a	     Display information about processes for all users with control-
	     ling terminals.

     -c	     Do	not display full command with arguments, but only the exe-
	     cutable name.  This may be	somewhat confusing; for	example, all
	     sh(1) scripts will	show as	"sh".

     -e	     Display the environment as	well.

     -H	     Also display information about kernel visible threads.

     -h	     Repeat the	information header as often as necessary to guarantee
	     one header	per page of information.

     -j	     Print information associated with the following keywords: user,
	     pid, ppid,	pgid, sess, jobc, state, tt, time, and command.

     -k	     Also display information about kernel threads.

     -L	     List the set of available keywords.  This option should not be
	     specified with other options.

     -l	     Display information associated with the following keywords: uid,
	     pid, ppid,	cpu, pri, nice,	vsz, rss, wchan, state,	tt, time, and
	     command.

     -M	core
	     Extract values associated with the	name list from the specified
	     core instead of the running kernel.

     -m	     Sort by memory usage, instead of by start time ID.

     -N	system
	     Extract the name list from	the specified system instead of	the
	     running kernel.

     -O	fmt  Add the information associated with the space or comma separated
	     list of keywords specified, after the process ID, in the default
	     information display.  Keywords may	be appended with an equals
	     sign (`=')	and a string.  This causes the printed header to use
	     the specified string instead of the standard header.

     -o	fmt  Display information associated with the space or comma separated
	     list of keywords specified.  Keywords may be appended with	an
	     equals sign (`=') and a string.  This causes the printed header
	     to	use the	specified string instead of the	standard header.

     -p	pid  Display information associated with the specified process ID.

     -r	     Sort by current CPU usage,	instead	of by start time ID.

     -S	     Change the	way the	process	time is	calculated by summing all ex-
	     ited children to their parent process.

     -T	     Display information about processes attached to the device	asso-
	     ciated with the standard input.

     -t	tty  Display information about processes attached to the specified
	     terminal device.

     -U	username
	     Display the processes belonging to	the specified username.

     -u	     Display information associated with the following keywords: user,
	     pid, %cpu,	%mem, vsz, rss,	tt, state, start, time,	and command.
	     The -u option implies the -r option.

     -v	     Display information associated with the following keywords: pid,
	     state, time, sl, re, pagein, vsz, rss, lim, tsiz, %cpu, %mem, and
	     command.  The -v option implies the -m option.

     -W	swap
	     When not using the	running	kernel,	extract	swap information from
	     the specified file.

     -w	     Use 132 columns to	display	information, instead of	the default,
	     which is the window size.	If the -w option is specified more
	     than once,	ps will	use as many columns as necessary without re-
	     gard for window size.

     -x	     Display information about processes without controlling termi-
	     nals.

KEYWORDS
     The following is a	complete list of the available keywords	and their
     meanings.	Several	of them	have aliases, which are	also noted.

	%cpu	     Alias: pcpu.  The CPU utilization of the process; this is
		     a decaying	average	over up	to a minute of previous	(real)
		     time.  Since the time base	over which this	is computed
		     varies (since processes may be very young)	it is possible
		     for the sum of all	%cpu fields to exceed 100%.

	%mem	     Alias: pmem.  The percentage of real memory used by this
		     process.

	acflag	     Alias: acflg.  Accounting flag.

	command	     Alias: args.  Command and arguments.

	cpu	     Short-term	CPU usage factor (for scheduling).

	cpuid	     CPU ID (zero on single processor systems).

	cwd	     Current working directory.

	dsiz	     Data size,	in Kilobytes.

	emul	     Name of system call emulation environment.

	etime	     Elapsed time since	the process was	started.

	flags	     Alias: f.	The thread flags (in hexadecimal), as defined
		     in	the include file <sys/proc.h>:

		     P_INKTR	       0x1 writing ktrace(2) record
		     P_PROFPEND	       0x2 this	thread needs SIGPROF
		     P_ALRMPEND	       0x4 this	thread needs SIGVTALRM
		     P_SIGSUSPEND      0x8 need	to restore before-suspend mask
		     P_CANTSLEEP      0x10 this	thread is not permitted	to sleep
		     P_SELECT	      0x40 selecting; wakeup/waiting danger
		     P_SINTR	      0x80 sleep is interruptible
		     P_SYSTEM	     0x200 system process: no sigs, stats, or
					   swapping
		     P_TIMEOUT	     0x400 timing out during sleep
		     P_WEXIT	    0x2000 working on exiting
		     P_OWEUPC	    0x8000 profiling sample needs recording
		     P_SUSPSINGLE  0x80000 need	to suspend for single threading
		     P_CONTINUED  0x800000 thread has continued	after a	stop
		     P_THREAD	 0x4000000 not the original thread
		     P_SUSPSIG	 0x8000000 stopped because of a	signal
		     P_SOFTDEP	0x10000000 stuck processing softdep worklist
		     P_CPUPEG	0x40000000 do not move to another cpu

	gid	     Effective group.

	group	     Text name of effective group ID.

	inblk	     Alias: inblock.  Total blocks read.

	jobc	     Job control count.

	ktrace	     Tracing flags.

	ktracep	     Tracing vnode.

	lim	     The soft limit on memory used, specified via a call to
		     setrlimit(2).

	logname	     Alias: login.  Login name of user who started the
		     process.

	lstart	     The exact time the	command	started, using the "%c"	format
		     described in strftime(3).

	majflt	     Total page	faults.

	maxrss	     Maximum resident set size (in 1024	byte units).

	minflt	     Total page	reclaims.

	msgrcv	     Total messages received (reads from pipes/sockets).

	msgsnd	     Total messages sent (writes on pipes/sockets).

	nice	     Alias: ni.	 The process scheduling	increment (see
		     setpriority(2)).

	nivcsw	     Total involuntary context switches.

	nsigs	     Alias: nsignals.  Total signals taken.

	nswap	     Total swaps in/out.

	nvcsw	     Total voluntary context switches.

	nwchan	     Wait channel (as an address).

	oublk	     Alias: oublock.  Total blocks written.

	p_ru	     Resource usage (valid only	for zombie processes).

	paddr	     Swap address.

	pagein	     Pageins (same as majflt).

	pgid	     Process group number.

	pid	     Process ID.

	pledge	     Comma separated list of active pledge(2) promises.

	ppid	     Parent process ID.

	pri	     Scheduling	priority.

	procflags    The process flags (in hexadecimal), as defined in the in-
		     clude file	<sys/proc.h>:

		     PS_CONTROLT	    0x1	process	has a controlling
						terminal
		     PS_EXEC		    0x2	process	called exec(3)
		     PS_INEXEC		    0x4	process	is doing an exec right
						now
		     PS_EXITING		    0x8	process	is exiting
		     PS_SUGID		   0x10	process	had set	ID privileges
						since last exec
		     PS_SUGIDEXEC	   0x20	last exec(3) was set[ug]id
		     PS_PPWAIT		   0x40	parent is waiting for process
						to exec/exit
		     PS_ISPWAIT		   0x80	process	is parent of PPWAIT
						child
		     PS_PROFIL		  0x100	process	has started profiling
		     PS_TRACED		  0x200	process	is being traced
		     PS_WAITED		  0x400	debugging process has waited
						for child
		     PS_COREDUMP	  0x800	busy coredumping
		     PS_SINGLEEXIT	 0x1000	other threads must die
		     PS_SINGLEUNWIND	 0x2000	other threads must unwind
		     PS_NOZOMBIE	 0x4000	pid 1 waits for	me instead of
						dad
		     PS_STOPPED		 0x8000	just stopped, need to send
						SIGCHLD
		     PS_SYSTEM		0x10000	No signals, stats or swapping
		     PS_EMBRYO		0x20000	New process, not yet fledged
		     PS_ZOMBIE		0x40000	Dead and ready to be waited for
		     PS_NOBROADCASTKILL	0x80000	Process	excluded from kill -1
		     PS_PLEDGE	       0x100000	process	has called pledge(2)

	re	     Core residency time (in seconds; 127 = infinity).

	rgid	     Real group	ID.

	rgroup	     Text name of real group ID.

	rlink	     Reverse link on run queue,	or 0.

	rss	     The real memory (resident set) size of the	process	(in
		     1024 byte units).

	rsz	     Alias: rssize.  Resident set size + (text size / text use
		     count).

	rtable	     Routing table.

	ruid	     Real user ID.

	ruser	     User name (from ruid).

	sess	     Session pointer.

	sig	     Alias: pending.  Pending signals.

	sigcatch     Alias: caught.  Caught signals.

	sigignore    Alias: ignored.  Ignored signals.

	sigmask	     Alias: blocked.  Blocked signals.

	sl	     Sleep time	(in seconds; 127 = infinity).

	ssiz	     Stack size, in Kilobytes.

	start	     The time the command started.  If the command started
		     less than 24 hours	ago, the start time is displayed using
		     the "%l:%M%p" format described in strftime(3).  If	the
		     command started less than 7 days ago, the start time is
		     displayed using the "%a%I%p" format.  Otherwise, the
		     start time	is displayed using the "%e%b%y"	format.

	state	     Alias: stat.  The state is	given by a sequence of let-
		     ters, for example,	"RWN".	The first letter indicates the
		     run state of the process:

		     D	     Marks a process in	disk (or other short term, un-
			     interruptible) wait.
		     I	     Marks a process that is idle (sleeping for	longer
			     than about	20 seconds).
		     R	     Marks a runnable process.
		     S	     Marks a process that is sleeping for less than
			     about 20 seconds.
		     T	     Marks a stopped process.
		     Z	     Marks a dead process (a "zombie").

		     Additional	characters after these,	if any,	indicate addi-
		     tional state information:

		     +	     The process is in the foreground process group of
			     its control terminal.
		     <	     The process has a raised CPU scheduling priority
			     (see setpriority(2)).
		     >	     The process has specified a soft limit on memory
			     requirements and is currently exceeding that
			     limit; such a process is (necessarily) not
			     swapped.
		     E	     The process is trying to exit.
		     K	     The process is a kernel thread.
		     N	     The process has a reduced CPU scheduling prior-
			     ity.
		     p	     The process has called pledge(2).
		     s	     The process is a session leader.
		     U	     The process has unveiled, and unveil(2) is	now
			     locked.
		     u	     The process has unveiled, but not yet locked
			     unveil(2) (could be a program error).
		     V	     The process is suspended during a vfork(2).
		     X	     The process is being traced or debugged.
		     /n	     On	multiprocessor machines, specifies processor
			     number n.

	svgid	     Saved GID from a setgid executable.

	svuid	     Saved UID from a setuid executable.

	tdev	     Control terminal device number.

	tid	     Thread ID.	 Used together with -H.

	time	     Alias: cputime.  Accumulated CPU time, user + system.

	tpgid	     Control terminal process group ID.

	tsess	     Control terminal session pointer.

	tsiz	     Text size,	in Kilobytes.

	tt	     An	abbreviation for the pathname of the controlling ter-
		     minal, if any.  The abbreviation consists of the two let-
		     ters following "/dev/tty",	or, for	the console, "co".
		     This is followed by a `-' if the process can no longer
		     reach that	controlling terminal (i.e. it has been re-
		     voked).

	tty	     Full name of control terminal.

	ucomm	     Alias: comm.  Name	to be used for accounting.

	uid	     Effective user ID.

	upr	     Alias: usrpri.  Scheduling	priority on return from	system
		     call.

	user	     User name (from uid).

	vsz	     Alias: vsize.  Virtual size, in Kilobytes.

	wchan	     The event (an address in the system) on which a process
		     waits.  When printed numerically, the initial part	of the
		     address is	trimmed	off and	the result is printed in hex;
		     for example, 0x80324000 prints as 324000.

	xstat	     Exit or stop status (valid	only for stopped or zombie
		     process).

ENVIRONMENT
     The following environment variables affect	the execution of ps:

     COLUMNS   If set to a positive integer, output is formatted to the	given
	       width in	columns.  Otherwise, ps	defaults to the	terminal width
	       minus 1.	 If none of stdout, stderr, and	stdin are a terminal,
	       79 columns are used.

     LC_CTYPE  The character encoding locale(1).  It decides which byte	se-
	       quences form characters,	which characters are printable,	and
	       what their display width	is.  If	unset or set to	"C", "POSIX",
	       or an unsupported value,	only printable ASCII characters	are
	       printed.	 Tabs, newlines, non-printable ASCII characters, and
	       non-ASCII bytes are encoded with	vis(3).	 If UTF-8 output is
	       enabled,	valid characters that are not printable	are replaced
	       with the	Unicode	replacement character U+FFFD.  These rules for
	       example apply to	command	names, arguments, and environments and
	       to directory, user, and group names.

     TZ	       The time	zone to	use when displaying dates.  See	environ(7) for
	       more information.

FILES
     /dev		    special files and device names
     /var/db/kvm_bsd.db	    system namelist database
     /var/run/dev.db	    /dev name database

EXIT STATUS
     The ps utility exits 0 on success,	and >0 if an error occurs.

EXAMPLES
     Display information on all	system processes:

	   $ ps	-auxw

SEE ALSO
     fstat(1), kill(1),	netstat(1), pgrep(1), pkill(1),	procmap(1), systat(1),
     top(1), w(1), kvm(3), strftime(3),	dev_mkdb(8), iostat(8),	pstat(8),
     vmstat(8)

STANDARDS
     The ps utility is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 ("POSIX.1")
     specification, except that	the flag [-G] is unsupported and the flags
     [-ptU] support only single	arguments, not lists.

     The flags [-defglnu] are marked by	IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 ("POSIX.1") as
     being an X/Open System Interfaces option.	Of these, [-dfgn] are not sup-
     ported by this implementation of ps; behaviour for	the flags [-elu] dif-
     fers between this implementation and the X/Open System Interfaces option
     of	IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 ("POSIX.1").

     The flags [-cHhjkLMmNOrSTvWwx] are	extensions to IEEE Std 1003.1-2008
     ("POSIX.1").

     Only the following	keywords are recognised	by IEEE	Std 1003.1-2008
     ("POSIX.1"): args,	comm, etime, group, nice, pcpu,	pgid, pid, ppid,
     rgroup, ruser, time, tty, user, and vsz.

HISTORY
     A ps command first	appeared in Version 3 AT&T UNIX.

CAVEATS
     When printing using the command keyword, a	process	that has exited	and
     has a parent that has not yet waited for the process (in other words, a
     zombie) is	listed as "<defunct>", and a process which is blocked while
     trying to exit is listed as "<exiting>".  ps makes	an educated guess as
     to	the file name and arguments given when the process was created by ex-
     amining memory or the swap	area.  The method is inherently	somewhat unre-
     liable and	in any event a process is entitled to destroy this informa-
     tion, so the names	cannot be depended on too much.	 The ucomm (account-
     ing) keyword can, however,	be depended on.

     The information displayed is only a snapshot of a constantly changing
     system.

FreeBSD	13.0		       February	8, 2020			  FreeBSD 13.0

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | KEYWORDS | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | EXIT STATUS | EXAMPLES | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS | HISTORY | CAVEATS

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=ps&sektion=1&manpath=OpenBSD+6.9>

home | help