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PROVE(1)	       Perl Programmers	Reference Guide		      PROVE(1)

       prove - Run tests through a TAP harness.

	prove [options]	[files or directories]

       Boolean options:

	-v,  --verbose	       Print all test lines.
	-l,  --lib	       Add 'lib' to the	path for your tests (-Ilib).
	-b,  --blib	       Add 'blib/lib' and 'blib/arch' to the path for
			       your tests
	-s,  --shuffle	       Run the tests in	random order.
	-c,  --color	       Colored test output (default).
	     --nocolor	       Do not color test output.
	     --count	       Show the	X/Y test count when not	verbose
	     --nocount	       Disable the X/Y test count.
	-D   --dry	       Dry run.	Show test that would have run.
	-f,  --failures	       Show failed tests.
	-o,  --comments	       Show comments.
	     --ignore-exit     Ignore exit status from test scripts.
	-m,  --merge	       Merge test scripts' STDERR with their STDOUT.
	-r,  --recurse	       Recursively descend into	directories.
	     --reverse	       Run the tests in	reverse	order.
	-q,  --quiet	       Suppress	some test output while running tests.
	-Q,  --QUIET	       Only print summary results.
	-p,  --parse	       Show full list of TAP parse errors, if any.
	     --directives      Only show results with TODO or SKIP directives.
	     --timer	       Print elapsed time after	each test.
	     --trap	       Trap Ctrl-C and print summary on	interrupt.
	     --normalize       Normalize TAP output in verbose output
	-T		       Enable tainting checks.
	-t		       Enable tainting warnings.
	-W		       Enable fatal warnings.
	-w		       Enable warnings.
	-h,  --help	       Display this help
	-?,		       Display this help
	-V,  --version	       Display the version
	-H,  --man	       Longer manpage for prove
	     --norc	       Don't process default .proverc

       Options that take arguments:

	-I		       Library paths to	include.
	-P		       Load plugin (searches App::Prove::Plugin::*.)
	-M		       Load a module.
	-e,  --exec	       Interpreter to run the tests (''	for compiled
	     --ext	       Set the extension for tests (default '.t')
	     --harness	       Define test harness to use.  See	TAP::Harness.
	     --formatter       Result formatter	to use.	See FORMATTERS.
	     --source	       Load and/or configure a SourceHandler. See
	-a,  --archive out.tgz Store the resulting TAP in an archive file.
	-j,  --jobs N	       Run N test jobs in parallel (try	9.)
	     --state=opts      Control prove's persistent state.
	     --statefile=file  Use `file` instead of `.prove` for state
	     --rc=rcfile       Process options from rcfile
	     --rules	       Rules for parallel vs sequential	processing.

       If ~/.proverc or	./.proverc exist they will be read and any options
       they contain processed before the command line options. Options in
       .proverc	are specified in the same way as command line options:

	   # .proverc

       Additional option files may be specified	with the "--rc"	option.
       Default option file processing is disabled by the "--norc" option.

       Under Windows and VMS the option	file is	named _proverc rather than
       .proverc	and is sought only in the current directory.

   Reading from	"STDIN"
       If you have a list of tests (or URLs, or	anything else you want to
       test) in	a file,	you can	add them to your tests by using	a '-':

	prove -	< my_list_of_things_to_test.txt

       See the "README"	in the "examples" directory of this distribution.

   Default Test	Directory
       If no files or directories are supplied,	"prove"	looks for all files
       matching	the pattern "t/*.t".

   Colored Test	Output
       Colored test output using TAP::Formatter::Color is the default, but if
       output is not to	a terminal, color is disabled. You can override	this
       by adding the "--color" switch.

       Color support requires Term::ANSIColor and, on windows platforms, also
       Win32::Console::ANSI. If	the necessary module(s)	are not	installed
       colored output will not be available.

   Exit	Code
       If the tests fail "prove" will exit with	non-zero status.

   Arguments to	Tests
       It is possible to supply	arguments to tests. To do so separate them
       from prove's own	arguments with the arisdottle, '::'. For example

	prove -v t/mytest.t :: --url

       would run t/mytest.t with the options '--url'.  When
       running multiple	tests they will	each receive the same arguments.

       Normally	you can	just pass a list of Perl tests and the harness will
       know how	to execute them.  However, if your tests are not written in
       Perl or if you want all tests invoked exactly the same way, use the
       "-e", or	"--exec" switch:

	prove --exec '/usr/bin/ruby -w'	t/
	prove --exec '/usr/bin/perl -Tw	-mstrict -Ilib'	t/
	prove --exec '/path/to/my/customer/exec'

       If you need to make sure	your diagnostics are displayed in the correct
       order relative to test results you can use the "--merge"	option to
       merge the test scripts' STDERR into their STDOUT.

       This guarantees that STDOUT (where the test results appear) and STDERR
       (where the diagnostics appear) will stay	in sync. The harness will
       display any diagnostics your tests emit on STDERR.

       Caveat: this is a bit of	a kludge. In particular	note that if anything
       that appears on STDERR looks like a test	result the test	harness	will
       get confused. Use this option only if you understand the	consequences
       and can live with the risk.

       The "--trap" option will	attempt	to trap	SIGINT (Ctrl-C)	during a test
       run and display the test	summary	even if	the run	is interrupted

       You can ask "prove" to remember the state of previous test runs and
       select and/or order the tests to	be run based on	that saved state.

       The "--state" switch requires an	argument which must be a comma
       separated list of one or	more of	the following options.

	   Run the same	tests as the last time the state was saved. This makes
	   it possible,	for example, to	recreate the ordering of a shuffled

	       # Run all tests in random order
	       $ prove -b --state=save --shuffle

	       # Run them again	in the same order
	       $ prove -b --state=last

	   Run only the	tests that failed on the last run.

	       # Run all tests
	       $ prove -b --state=save

	       # Run failures
	       $ prove -b --state=failed

	   If you also specify the "save" option newly passing tests will be
	   excluded from subsequent runs.

	       # Repeat	until no more failures
	       $ prove -b --state=failed,save

	   Run only the	passed tests from last time. Useful to make sure that
	   no new problems have	been introduced.

	   Run all tests in normal order. Multple options may be specified, so
	   to run all tests with the failures from last	time first:

	       $ prove -b --state=failed,all,save

	   Run the tests that most recently failed first. The last failure
	   time	of each	test is	stored.	The "hot" option causes	tests to be
	   run in most-recent- failure order.

	       $ prove -b --state=hot,save

	   Tests that have never failed	will not be selected. To run all tests
	   with	the most recently failed first use

	       $ prove -b --state=hot,all,save

	   This	combination of options may also	be specified thus

	       $ prove -b --state=adrian

	   Run any tests with todos.

	   Run the tests in slowest to fastest order. This is useful in
	   conjunction with the	"-j" parallel testing switch to	ensure that
	   your	slowest	tests start running first.

	       $ prove -b --state=slow -j9

	   Run test tests in fastest to	slowest	order.

	   Run the tests in newest to oldest order based on the	modification
	   times of the	test scripts.

	   Run the tests in oldest to newest order.

	   Run those test scripts that have been modified since	the last test

	   Save	the state on exit. The state is	stored in a file called	.prove
	   (_prove on Windows and VMS) in the current directory.

       The "--state" switch may	be used	more than once.

	   $ prove -b --state=hot --state=all,save

       The "--rules" option is used to control which tests are run
       sequentially and	which are run in parallel, if the "--jobs" option is
       specified. The option may be specified multiple times, and the order

       The most	practical use is likely	to specify that	some tests are not
       "parallel-ready".  Since	mentioning a file with --rules doesn't cause
       it to be	selected to run	as a test, you can "set	and forget" some rules
       preferences in your .proverc file. Then you'll be able to take maximum
       advantage of the	performance benefits of	parallel testing, while	some
       exceptions are still run	in parallel.

       --rules examples

	   # All tests are allowed to run in parallel, except those starting with "p"
	   --rules='seq=t/p*.t'	--rules='par=**'

	   # All tests must run	in sequence except those starting with "p", which should be run	parallel

       --rules resolution

       o   By default, all tests are eligible to be run	in parallel.
	   Specifying any of your own rules removes this one.

       o   "First match	wins". The first rule that matches a test will be the
	   one that applies.

       o   Any test which does not match a rule	will be	run in sequence	at the
	   end of the run.

       o   The existence of a rule does	not imply selecting a test. You	must
	   still specify the tests to run.

       o   Specifying a	rule to	allow tests to run in parallel does not	make
	   them	run in parallel. You still need	specify	the number of parallel
	   "jobs" in your Harness object.

       --rules Glob-style pattern matching

       We implement our	own glob-style pattern matching	for --rules. Here are
       the supported patterns:

	   ** is any number of characters, including /,	within a pathname
	   * is	zero or	more characters	within a filename/directory name
	   ? is	exactly	one character within a filename/directory name
	   {foo,bar,baz} is any	of foo,	bar or baz.
	   \ is	an escape character

       More advanced specifications for	parallel vs sequence run rules

       If you need more	advanced management of what runs in parallel vs	in
       sequence, see the associated 'rules' documentation in TAP::Harness and
       TAP::Parser::Scheduler.	If what's possible directly through "prove" is
       not sufficient, you can write your own harness to access	these features

       prove introduces	a separation between "options passed to	the perl which
       runs prove" and "options	passed to the perl which runs tests"; this
       distinction is by design. Thus the perl which is	running	a test starts
       with the	default	@INC. Additional library directories can be added via
       the "PERL5LIB" environment variable, via	-Ifoo in "PERL5OPT" or via the
       "-Ilib" option to prove.

   Taint Mode
       Normally	when a Perl program is run in taint mode the contents of the
       "PERL5LIB" environment variable do not appear in	@INC.

       Because "PERL5LIB" is often used	during testing to add build
       directories to @INC prove passes	the names of any directories found in
       "PERL5LIB" as -I	switches. The net effect of this is that "PERL5LIB" is
       honoured	even when prove	is run in taint	mode.

       You can load a custom TAP::Parser::Formatter:

	 prove --formatter MyFormatter

       You can load custom TAP::Parser::SourceHandlers,	to change the way the
       parser interprets particular sources of TAP.

	 prove --source	MyHandler --source YetAnother t

       If you want to provide config to	the source you can use:

	 prove --source	MyCustom \
	       --source	Perl --perl-option 'foo=bar baz' --perl-option avg=0.278 \
	       --source	File --file-option extensions=.txt --file-option extensions=.tmp t
	       --source	pgTAP --pgtap-option pset=format=html --pgtap-option pset=border=2

       Each "--$source-option" option must specify a key/value pair separated
       by an "=". If an	option can take	multiple values, just specify it
       multiple	times, as with the "extensions=" examples above. If the	option
       should be a hash	reference, specify the value as	a second pair
       separated by a "=", as in the "pset=" examples above (escape "="	with a

       All "--sources" are combined into a hash, and passed to "new" in
       TAP::Harness's "sources"	parameter.

       See TAP::Parser::IteratorFactory	for more details on how	configuration
       is passed to SourceHandlers.

       Plugins can be loaded using the "-Pplugin" syntax, eg:

	 prove -PMyPlugin

       This will search	for a module named "App::Prove::Plugin::MyPlugin", or
       failing that, "MyPlugin".  If the plugin	can't be found,	"prove"	will
       complain	& exit.

       You can pass arguments to your plugin by	appending "=arg1,arg2,etc" to
       the plugin name:

	 prove -PMyPlugin=fou,du,fafa

       Please check individual plugin documentation for	more details.

   Available Plugins
       For an up-to-date list of plugins available, please check CPAN:


   Writing Plugins
       Please see "PLUGINS" in App::Prove.

perl v5.32.0			  2020-08-08			      PROVE(1)


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