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PROJ(1)		General	Commands Manual		PROJ(1)

       proj - forward cartographic projection filter
       invproj - inverse cartographic projection filter

       proj  [ -bcCeEfiIlmorsStTvVwW [ args ] ]	[ +args
       ] file[s]
       invproj [ -bcCeEfiIlmorsStTwW [ args ] ]	[ +args
       ] file[s]

       Proj  and invproj perform respective forward and
       inverse transformation of cartographic  data  to
       or  from	cartesian data with a wide range of se-
       lectable	projection functions.

       The following control parameters	can  appear  in
       any order:

       -b     Special option for binary	coordinate data
	      input and	output through	standard  input
	      and  standard output.  Data is assumed to
	      be in system type	double	floating  point
	      words.   This  option  is	to be used when
	      proj is a	son process and	allows	bypass-
	      ing formatting operations.

       -i     Selects  binary  input  only  (see -b op-

       -C     Check. Invoke all	built in self tests and
	      report.	Get more verbose report	by pre-
	      ceding with the -V option).

       -I     alternate	method to specify inverse  pro-
	      jection.	 Redundant  when  used with in-

       -o     Selects binary output only  (see	-b  op-

       -ta    A	 specifies  a character	employed as the
	      first character to denote	a control  line
	      to  be passed through without processing.
	      This option  applicable  to  ascii  input
	      only.  (#	is the default value).

       -e string
	      String  is an arbitrary string to	be out-
	      put if an	error is detected  during  data
	      transformations.	 The  default value is:
	      *\t*.  Note that if the -b, -i or	-o  op-
	      tions  are employed, an error is returned
	      as HUGE_VAL value	for both return	values.

       -E     causes the input coordinates to be copied
	      to  the output line prior	to printing the
	      converted	values.

	      List projection identifiers with -l,  -lp
	      or  -lP  (expanded)  that	can be selected
	      with +proj.   -l=id  gives  expanded  de-
	      scription	 of projection id.  List ellip-
	      soid identifiers with -le,  that	can  be
	      selected	with +ellps, -lu list of carte-
	      sian to meter conversion factors that can
	      be  selected  with  +units or -ld	list of
	      datums that can be selected with +datum.

       -r     This options reverses the	 order	of  the
	      expected input from longitude-latitude or
	      x-y to latitude-longitude	or y-x.

       -s     This options reverses the	 order	of  the
	      output  from x-y or longitude-latitude to
	      y-x or latitude-longitude.

       -S     Causes estimation	of meridinal and paral-
	      lel  scale factors, area scale factor and
	      angular distortion, and maximum and mini-
	      mum scale	factors	to be listed between <>
	      for each input point.  For conformal pro-
	      jections	meridinal  and	parallel scales
	      factors will be equal and	angular	distor-
	      tion  zero.   Equal area projections will
	      have an area factor of 1.

       -m mult
	      The cartesian data may be	scaled	by  the
	      mult  parameter.	When processing	data in
	      a	forward	projection mode	 the  cartesian
	      output values are	multiplied by mult oth-
	      erwise the input cartesian values	are di-
	      vided  by	mult before inverse projection.
	      If the first two characters of  mult  are
	      1/  or  1:  then	the reciprocal value of
	      mult is employed.

       -f format
	      Format is	a printf format	string to  con-
	      trol  the	form of	the output values.  For
	      inverse projections, the output  will  be
	      in  degrees when this option is employed.
	      The default format is "%.2f" for	forward
	      projection and DMS for inverse.

	      N	is the number of significant fractional
	      digits to	employ for seconds output (when
	      the  option  is not specified, -w3 is as-
	      sumed).  When -W is employed  the	 fields
	      will  be	constant width and with	leading

       -v     causes a listing of cartographic	control
	      parameters  tested  for  and  used by the
	      program to  be  printed  prior  to  input
	      data.  Should not	be used	with the -T op-

       -V     This option causes an expanded  annotated
	      listing  of  the	characteristics	 of the
	      projected	point.	-v is implied with this

       -T ulow,uhi,vlow,vhi,res[,umax,vmax]
	      This  option  creates  a set of bivariate
	      Chebyshev	 polynomial  coefficients  that
	      approximate   the	 selected  cartographic
	      projection on stdout.  The values	low and
	      hi  denote  the  range of	the input where
	      the u or v prefixes apply	 to  respective
	      longitude-x  or latitude-y depending upon
	      whether a	forward	or  inverse  projection
	      is  selected.   Res  is an integer number
	      specifying the power of 10  precision  of
	      the approximation.  For example, a res of
	      -3 specifies an approximation with an ac-
	      curacy  better than .001.	 Umax, and vmax
	      specify maximum degree of	the polynomials
	      (default:	15).  See also:	fproj(1).

       The +args run-line arguments are	associated with
       cartographic parameters and  usage  varies  with
       projection  and	for  a complete	description see
       Cartographic Projection Procedures for the  UNIX
       Environment--A  User's  Manual and supplementary
       documentation for Release 4.

       Additional projection control parameters	may  be
       contained  in  two  auxiliary control files: the
       first  is   optionally	referenced   with   the
       +init=file:id and the second is always processed
       after the name of the projection	has been estab-
       lished  from either the run-line	or the contents
       of  +init  file.	  The	environment   parameter
       PROJ_LIB	establishes the	default	directory for a
       file reference without an absolute  path.   This
       is  also	 used  for  supporting files like datum
       shift files.

       One or more files (processed in	left  to  right
       order)  specify	the source of data to be trans-
       formed.	A - will specify the location  of  pro-
       cessing	standard input.	 If no files are speci-
       fied, the input is assumed  to  be  from	 stdin.
       For ASCII input data the	two data values	must be
       in the first two	white  space  separated	 fields
       and  when  both	input  and output are ASCII all
       trailing	portions of the	input line are appended
       to the output line.

       Input  geographic  data (longitude and latitude)
       must be in DMS format and input	cartesian  data
       must  be	 in units consistent with the ellipsoid
       major axis or sphere radius units.  Output  geo-
       graphic	coordinates  will  be in DMS (if the -w
       switch is not employed) and  precise  to	 0.001"
       with  trailing, zero-valued minute-second fields

       The following script
	     proj +proj=utm  +lon_0=112w  +ellps=clrk66
	    -r <<EOF
	     45d15'33.1"   111.5W
	     45d15.551666667N	-111d30
	     +45.25919444444	111d30'000w
       will perform UTM	forward	projection with	a stan-
       dard  UTM  central  meridian  nearest  longitude
       112<degree>W.  The geographic values of this ex-
       ample are equivalent and	meant  as  examples  of
       various forms of	DMS input.  The	x-y output data
       will appear as three lines of:
	     460769.27	   5011648.45

       The proj	program	is limited  to	converting  be-
       tween   geographic  and	projection  coordinates
       within one datum.

       The cs2cs program operates similarly, but allows
       translation  between any	pair of	definable coor-
       dinate  systems,	 including  support  for  datum

       The geod	program	provides the ability to	compute
       geodesic	(Great Circle) computations.

       cs2cs(1), geod(1), pj_init(3),
       Cartographic Projection Procedures for the  UNIX
       Environment--A  User's  Manual,	(Evenden, 1990,
       Open-file report	90-284).
       Map Projections Used by	the  U.	 S.  Geological
       Survey (Snyder, 1984, USGS Bulletin 1532).
       Map Projections--A Working Manual (Snyder, 1988,
       USGS Prof. Paper	1395).
       An Album	of Map Projections (Snyder  &  Voxland,
       1989, USGS Prof.	Paper 1453).

       A    list   of	known	bugs   can   found   at where new
       bug reports can be submitted too.


		  2000/03/21 Rel. 4.4		PROJ(1)


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