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POPT(3)			   Linux Programmer's Manual		       POPT(3)

       popt - Parse command line options

       #include	<popt.h>

       poptContext poptGetContext(const	char * name, int argc,
				  const	char **	argv,
				  const	struct poptOption * options,
				  int flags);

       void poptFreeContext(poptContext	con);

       void poptResetContext(poptContext con);

       int poptGetNextOpt(poptContext con);

       const char * poptGetOptArg(poptContext con);

       const char * poptGetArg(poptContext con);

       const char * poptPeekArg(poptContext con);

       const char ** poptGetArgs(poptContext con);

       const char * poptStrerror(const int error);

       const char * poptBadOption(poptContext con, int flags);

       int poptReadDefaultConfig(poptContext con, int flags);

       int poptReadConfigFile(poptContext con, char * fn);

       int poptAddAlias(poptContext con, struct	poptAlias alias,
			int flags);

       int poptParseArgvString(char * s, int *	argcPtr,
			       const char *** argvPtr);

       int poptDupArgv(int argc, const char ** argv, int * argcPtr,
			       const char *** argvPtr);

       int poptStuffArgs(poptContext con, const	char **	argv);

       The  popt  library exists essentially for parsing command-line options.
       It is found superior in many ways when compared to parsing the argv ar-
       ray  by	hand  or using the getopt functions getopt() and getopt_long()
       [see getopt(3)].	 Some specific advantages of popt  are:	 it  does  not
       utilize global variables, thus enabling multiple	passes in parsing argv
       ; it can	parse an arbitrary  array  of  argv-style  elements,  allowing
       parsing of command-line-strings from any	source;	it provides a standard
       method of option	aliasing (to be	discussed at length  below.);  it  can
       exec external option filters; and, finally, it can automatically	gener-
       ate help	and usage messages for the application.

       Like getopt_long(), the popt library supports short and long style  op-
       tions.	Recall	that a short option consists of	a - character followed
       by a single alphanumeric	character.  A long option, common in GNU util-
       ities,  consists	 of  two  - characters followed	by a string made up of
       letters,	numbers	and hyphens.  Long options are optionally  allowed  to
       begin  with  a  single -, primarily to allow command-line compatibility
       between popt applications and X toolkit applications.  Either  type  of
       option  may  be followed	by an argument.	 A space separates a short op-
       tion from its arguments;	either a space or an = separates a long	option
       from an argument.

       The  popt library is highly portable and	should work on any POSIX plat-
       form.  The latest version is distributed	with rpm and is	always	avail-
       able from:

       It  may	be  redistributed under	the X consortium license, see the file
       COPYING in the popt source distribution for details.

       Applications provide popt with information on  their  command-line  op-
       tions  by  means	of an "option table," i.e., an array of	struct poptOp-
       tion structures:

       #include	<popt.h>

       struct poptOption {
	   const char *	longName; /* may be NULL */
	   char	shortName;	  /* may be '\0' */
	   int argInfo;
	   void	* arg;		  /* depends on	argInfo	*/
	   int val;		  /* 0 means don't return, just	update flag */
	   char	* descrip;	  /* description for autohelp -- may be	NULL */
	   char	* argDescrip;	  /* argument description for autohelp */

       Each member of the table	defines	a single option	that may be passed  to
       the  program.   Long  and  short	options	are considered a single	option
       that may	occur in two different forms.  The first two members, longName
       and  shortName,	define	the  names  of the option; the first is	a long
       name, while the latter is a single character.

       The argInfo member tells	popt what type of argument is  expected	 after
       the  option.  If	no argument is expected, POPT_ARG_NONE should be used.
       The rest	of the valid values are	shown in the following table:

       Value		   Description			      arg Type
       POPT_ARG_NONE	   No argument expected		      int
       POPT_ARG_STRING	   No type checking to be performed   char *
       POPT_ARG_ARGV	   No type checking to be performed   char **
       POPT_ARG_SHORT	   An short argument is	expected      short
       POPT_ARG_INT	   An integer argument is expected    int
       POPT_ARG_LONG	   A long integer is expected	      long
       POPT_ARG_LONGLONG   A long long integer is expected    long long
       POPT_ARG_VAL	   Integer value taken from val	      int
       POPT_ARG_FLOAT	   An float argument is	expected      float
       POPT_ARG_DOUBLE	   A double argument is	expected      double

       For numeric values, if the argInfo value	is bitwise or'd	 with  one  of
       saved by	performing an OR, AND, or XOR.	If the argInfo value  is  bit-
       wise  or'd with POPT_ARGFLAG_NOT, the value will	be negated before sav-
       ing. For	 the  common  operations  of  setting  and/or  clearing	 bits,
       POPT_BIT_SET and	POPT_BIT_CLR have the appropriate flags	set to perform
       bit operations.

       If the argInfo value is bitwise	or'd  with  POPT_ARGFLAG_ONEDASH,  the
       long argument may be given with a single	- instead of two. For example,
       if --longopt is an  option  with	 POPT_ARGFLAG_ONEDASH,	is  specified,
       -longopt	is accepted as well.

       The  next  element,  arg,  allows  popt to automatically	update program
       variables when the option is used. If arg is NULL, it  is  ignored  and
       popt  takes no special action.  Otherwise it should point to a variable
       of the type indicated in	the right-most column of the  table  above.  A
       POPT_ARG_ARGV  arg  will	(re-)allocate an array of char * string	point-
       ers, append the string argument,	and add	a NULL sentinel	at the end  of
       the array as needed.  The target	char **	address	of a POPT_ARG_ARGV arg
       should be initialized to	NULL.

       If the option takes no argument (argInfo	is POPT_ARG_NONE),  the	 vari-
       able  pointed to	by arg is set to 1 when	the option is used.  (Inciden-
       tally, it will perhaps not escape the attention of  hunt-and-peck  typ-
       ists that the value of POPT_ARG_NONE is 0.)  If the option does take an
       argument, the variable that arg points to is  updated  to  reflect  the
       value  of  the  argument.  Any string is	acceptable for POPT_ARG_STRING
       and  POPT_ARG_ARGV   arguments,	 but   POPT_ARG_INT,   POPT_ARG_SHORT,
       are converted to	the appropriate	type, and an  error  returned  if  the
       conversion fails.

       POPT_ARG_VAL  causes  arg  to be	set to the (integer) value of val when
       the argument is found.  This is most often useful  for  mutually-exclu-
       sive arguments in cases where it	is not an error	for multiple arguments
       to occur	and where you want the last argument specified to win; for ex-
       ample, "rm -i -f".  POPT_ARG_VAL	causes the parsing function not	to re-
       turn a value, since the value of	val has	already	been used.

       If the argInfo value is bitwise or'd  with  POPT_ARGFLAG_OPTIONAL,  the
       argument	 to the	long option may	be omitted. If the long	option is used
       without an argument, a default value of zero or NULL will be saved  (if
       the  arg	pointer	is present), otherwise behavior	will be	identical to a
       long option with	argument.

       The next	option,	val, is	the value popt's parsing function  should  re-
       turn  when the option is	encountered.  If it is 0, the parsing function
       does not	return a value,	instead	parsing	the  next  command-line	 argu-

       The last	two options, descrip and argDescrip are	only required if auto-
       matic help messages are desired (automatic usage	messages can be	gener-
       ated  without  them). descrip is	a text description of the argument and
       argdescrip is a short summary of	the type of arguments the  option  ex-
       pects, or NULL if the option doesn't require any	arguments.

       If  popt	should automatically provide --usage and --help	(-?)  options,
       one line	in the table should be the macro  POPT_AUTOHELP.   This	 macro
       includes	 another option	table (via POPT_ARG_INCLUDE_TABLE ; see	below)
       in the main one which provides the table	entries	for  these  arguments.
       When  --usage  or  --help are passed to programs	which use popt's auto-
       matic help, popt	displays the appropriate message on stderr as soon  as
       it  finds the option, and exits the program with	a return code of 0. If
       you want	to use popt's automatic	help generation	in  a  different  way,
       you  need  to explicitly	add the	option entries to your programs	option
       table instead of	using POPT_AUTOHELP.

       If the argInfo value is bitwise or'd with POPT_ARGFLAG_DOC_HIDDEN,  the
       argument	will not be shown in help output.

       If  the	argInfo	 value is bitwise or'd with POPT_ARGFLAG_SHOW_DEFAULT,
       the initial value of the	arg will be shown in help output.

       The final structure in the table	should have all	the pointer values set
       to  NULL	and all	the arithmetic values set to 0,	marking	the end	of the
       table. The macro	POPT_TABLEEND is provided to do	that.

       There are two types of option table entries which do not	 specify  com-
       mand  line options. When	either of these	types of entries are used, the
       longName	element	must be	NULL and the shortName element must be '\0'.

       The first of these special entry	types allows the application  to  nest
       another	option table in	the current one; such nesting may extend quite
       deeply (the actual depth	is limited by the program's stack).  Including
       other  option tables allows a library to	provide	a standard set of com-
       mand-line options to every program which	uses it	(this is often done in
       graphical  programming  toolkits,  for  example).  To  do this, set the
       argInfo field to	POPT_ARG_INCLUDE_TABLE and the arg field to  point  to
       the  table which	is being included. If automatic	help generation	is be-
       ing used, the descrip field should contain a overall description	of the
       option table being included.

       The other special option	table entry type tells popt to call a function
       (a callback) when any option in that table is found. This is especially
       useful when included option tables are being used, as the program which
       provides	the top-level option table doesn't need	to  be	aware  of  the
       other options which are provided	by the included	table. When a callback
       is set for a table, the parsing function	never returns  information  on
       an  option  in the table. Instead, options information must be retained
       via the callback	or by having popt set a	variable through the  option's
       arg field.  Option callbacks should match the following prototype:

       void poptCallbackType(poptContext con,
			     const struct poptOption * opt,
			     const char	* arg, void * data);

       The  first parameter is the context which is being parsed (see the next
       section for information on contexts), opt points	to  the	 option	 which
       triggered  this callback, and arg is the	option's argument.  If the op-
       tion does not take an argument, arg is NULL.  The final parameter, data
       is taken	from the descrip field of the option table entry which defined
       the callback. As	descrip	is a pointer, this allows  callback  functions
       to  be  passed an arbitrary set of data (though a typecast will have to
       be used).

       The option table	entry which defines  a	callback  has  an  argInfo  of
       POPT_ARG_CALLBACK,  an arg which	points to the callback function, and a
       descrip field which specifies an	arbitrary pointer to be	passed to  the

       popt  can  interleave the parsing of multiple command-line sets.	It al-
       lows this by keeping all	the state information for a particular set  of
       command-line  arguments in a poptContext	data structure,	an opaque type
       that should not be modified outside the popt library.

       New popt	contexts are created by	poptGetContext():

       poptContext poptGetContext(const	char * name, int argc,
				  const	char **	argv,
				  const	struct poptOption * options,
				  int flags);

       The first parameter, name, is used only for alias  handling  (discussed
       later).	It should be the name of the application whose options are be-
       ing parsed, or should be	NULL if	no option  aliasing  is	 desired.  The
       next  two  arguments specify the	command-line arguments to parse. These
       are generally passed to poptGetContext()	exactly	as they	were passed to
       the  program's main() function. The options parameter points to the ta-
       ble of command-line options, which was described	in the	previous  sec-
       tion. The final parameter, flags, can take one of three values:

       Value			    Description
       POPT_CONTEXT_NO_EXEC	    Ignore exec	expansions
       POPT_CONTEXT_KEEP_FIRST	    Do not ignore argv[0]
       POPT_CONTEXT_POSIXMEHARDER   Options cannot follow arguments

       A poptContext keeps track of which options have already been parsed and
       which remain, among other things. If a program wishes to	restart	option
       processing of a set of arguments, it can	reset the poptContext by pass-
       ing the context as the sole argument to poptResetContext().

       When argument processing	is complete, the process should	free the popt-
       Context	as  it	contains  dynamically  allocated components. The popt-
       FreeContext() function takes a poptContext as  its  sole	 argument  and
       frees the resources the context is using.

       Here  are  the  prototypes  of both poptResetContext() and poptFreeCon-

       #include	<popt.h>
       void poptFreeContext(poptContext	con);
       void poptResetContext(poptContext con);

       After an	application has	created	a poptContext, it  may	begin  parsing
       arguments. poptGetNextOpt() performs the	actual argument	parsing.

       #include	<popt.h>
       int poptGetNextOpt(poptContext con);

       Taking  the context as its sole argument, this function parses the next
       command-line argument found. After finding the next argument in the op-
       tion  table,  the function fills	in the object pointed to by the	option
       table entry's arg pointer if it is not NULL. If the val entry  for  the
       option is non-0,	the function then returns that value. Otherwise, popt-
       GetNextOpt() continues on to the	next argument.

       poptGetNextOpt()	returns	-1 when	the final argument  has	 been  parsed,
       and  other negative values when errors occur. This makes	it a good idea
       to keep the val elements	in the options table greater than 0.

       If all of the command-line options are handled  through	arg  pointers,
       command-line parsing is reduced to the following	line of	code:

       rc = poptGetNextOpt(poptcon);

       Many  applications require more complex command-line parsing than this,
       however,	and use	the following structure:

       while ((rc = poptGetNextOpt(poptcon)) > 0) {
	    switch (rc)	{
		 /* specific arguments are handled here	*/

       When returned options are handled, the application needs	 to  know  the
       value  of any arguments that were specified after the option. There are
       two ways	to discover them. One is to ask	popt to	 fill  in  a  variable
       with  the  value	of the option through the option table's arg elements.
       The other is to use poptGetOptArg():

       #include	<popt.h>
       char * poptGetOptArg(poptContext	con);

       This function returns the argument given	for the	final option  returned
       by  poptGetNextOpt(),  or it returns NULL if no argument	was specified.
       The calling function is responsible for deallocating this string.

       Many applications take an arbitrary number of  command-line  arguments,
       such  as	 a  list  of file names. When popt encounters an argument that
       does not	begin with a -,	it assumes it is such an argument and adds  it
       to  a list of leftover arguments. Three functions allow applications to
       access such arguments:

       const char * poptGetArg(poptContext con);
	      This function returns the	next leftover argument and marks it as

       const char * poptPeekArg(poptContext con);
	      The  next	 leftover  argument is returned	but not	marked as pro-
	      cessed.  This allows an application to look ahead	into the argu-
	      ment list, without modifying the list.

       const char ** poptGetArgs(poptContext con);
	      All the leftover arguments are returned in a manner identical to
	      argv.  The final element in the returned array points  to	 NULL,
	      indicating the end of the	arguments.

       The  popt  library  can	automatically generate help messages which de-
       scribe the options a program accepts. There are two types of help  mes-
       sages which can be generated. Usage messages are	a short	messages which
       lists valid options, but	does not describe them.	Help messages describe
       each  option  on	 one  (or more)	lines, resulting in a longer, but more
       useful, message.	Whenever automatic help	messages are used, the descrip
       and argDescrip fields struct poptOption members should be filled	in for
       each option.

       The POPT_AUTOHELP macro makes it	easy to	add --usage  and  --help  mes-
       sages  to your program, and is described	in part	1 of this man page. If
       more control is needed over your	help messages, the following two func-
       tions are available:

       #include	<popt.h>
       void poptPrintHelp(poptContext con, FILE	* f, int flags);
       void poptPrintUsage(poptContext con, FILE * f, int flags);

       poptPrintHelp()	displays  the  standard	help message to	the stdio file
       descriptor f, while poptPrintUsage() displays the  shorter  usage  mes-
       sage.  Both  functions currently	ignore the flags argument; it is there
       to allow	future changes.

       All of the popt functions that can return errors	return integers.  When
       an error	occurs,	a negative error code is returned. The following table
       summarizes the error codes that occur:

	    Error		       Description
       POPT_ERROR_NOARG	      Argument missing for an option.
       POPT_ERROR_BADOPT      Option's argument	couldn't be parsed.
       POPT_ERROR_OPTSTOODEEP Option aliasing nested too deeply.
       POPT_ERROR_BADQUOTE    Quotations do not	match.
       POPT_ERROR_BADNUMBER   Option couldn't be converted to number.
       POPT_ERROR_OVERFLOW    A	given number was too big or small.

       Here is a more detailed discussion of each error:

	      An option	that requires an argument was specified	on the command
	      line,  but  no  argument was given. This can be returned only by

	      An option	was specified in argv but is not in the	option	table.
	      This error can be	returned only from poptGetNextOpt().

	      A	 set  of  option aliases is nested too deeply. Currently, popt
	      follows options only 10 levels to	 prevent  infinite  recursion.
	      Only poptGetNextOpt() can	return this error.

	      A	 parsed	string has a quotation mismatch	(such as a single quo-
	      tation mark).  poptParseArgvString(),  poptReadConfigFile(),  or
	      poptReadDefaultConfig() can return this error.

	      A	 conversion from a string to a number (int or long) failed due
	      to the string containing	non-numeric  characters.  This	occurs
	      when   poptGetNextOpt()	is  processing	an  argument  of  type

	      A	 string-to-number conversion failed because the	number was too
	      large or too small. Like POPT_ERROR_BADNUMBER,  this  error  can
	      occur  only  when	 poptGetNextOpt() is processing	an argument of

	      A	 system	 call returned with an error, and errno	still contains
	      the error	from the system	call.  Both  poptReadConfigFile()  and
	      poptReadDefaultConfig() can return this error.

       Two functions are available to make it easy for applications to provide
       good error messages.

	      const char * poptStrerror(const int error);
	      This function takes a popt error code and	returns	a  string  de-
	      scribing	the  error, just as with the standard strerror() func-

	      const char * poptBadOption(poptContext con, int flags);
	      If an error occurred during poptGetNextOpt(), this function  re-
	      turns the	option that caused the error. If the flags argument is
	      set to POPT_BADOPTION_NOALIAS, the outermost option is returned.
	      Otherwise,  flags	 should	 be 0, and the option that is returned
	      may have been specified through an alias.

       These two functions make	popt error handling trivial for	most  applica-
       tions.  When  an	error is detected from most of the functions, an error
       message is printed along	with the  error	 string	 from  poptStrerror().
       When  an	error occurs during argument parsing, code similar to the fol-
       lowing displays a useful	error message:

       fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s\n",
	       poptBadOption(optCon, POPT_BADOPTION_NOALIAS),

       One of the primary benefits of using popt over getopt() is the  ability
       to  use	option	aliasing. This lets the	user specify options that popt
       expands into other options when they are	 specified.  If	 the  standard
       grep program made use of	popt, users could add a	--text option that ex-
       panded to -i -n -E -2 to	let them more easily find information in  text

       Aliases	are  normally specified	in two places: /etc/popt and the .popt
       file in the user's home directory (found	through	the  HOME  environment
       variable).  Both	 files	have  the  same	format,	an arbitrary number of
       lines formatted like this:

       appname alias newoption expansion

       The appname is the name of the application, which must be the  same  as
       the name	parameter passed to poptGetContext(). This allows each file to
       specify aliases for multiple programs. The alias	keyword	specifies that
       an  alias  is being defined; currently popt configuration files support
       only aliases, but other abilities may be	added in the future. The  next
       option  is  the	option	that should be aliased,	and it may be either a
       short or	a long option. The rest	of the line  specifies	the  expansion
       for  the	alias. It is parsed similarly to a shell command, which	allows
       \, ", and ' to be used for quoting. If a	backslash is the final charac-
       ter  on	a  line,  the next line	in the file is assumed to be a logical
       continuation of the line	containing the backslash, just as in shell.

       The following entry would add a --text option to	the grep  command,  as
       suggested at the	beginning of this section.

       grep alias --text -i -n -E -2

       An  application	must  enable  alias expansion for a poptContext	before
       calling poptGetNextArg()	for the	first time. There are three  functions
       that define aliases for a context:

	      int poptReadDefaultConfig(poptContext con, int flags);
	      This function reads aliases from /etc/popt and the .popt file in
	      the user's home directory. Currently, flags should be  NULL,  as
	      it is provided only for future expansion.

	      int poptReadConfigFile(poptContext con, char * fn);
	      The file specified by fn is opened and parsed as a popt configu-
	      ration file. This	allows programs	to use	program-specific  con-
	      figuration files.

	      int poptAddAlias(poptContext con,	struct poptAlias alias,
			       int flags);
	      Occasionally,  processes	want to	specify	aliases	without	having
	      to read them from	a configuration	file. This function adds a new
	      alias  to	 a  context.  The flags	argument should	be 0, as it is
	      currently	reserved for future expansion. The new alias is	speci-
	      fied as a	struct poptAlias, which	is defined as:

	      struct poptAlias {
		   const char *	longName; /* may be NULL */
		   char	shortName; /* may be '\0' */
		   int argc;
		   const char ** argv; /* must be free()able */

	      The  first two elements, longName	and shortName, specify the op-
	      tion that	is aliased. The	final two, argc	and argv,  define  the
	      expansion	to use when the	aliases	option is encountered.

       Although	 popt  is  usually  used for parsing arguments already divided
       into an argv-style array, some programs need to parse strings that  are
       formatted  identically  to command lines. To facilitate this, popt pro-
       vides a function	that parses a string into an array of  strings,	 using
       rules similar to	normal shell parsing.

       #include	<popt.h>
       int poptParseArgvString(char * s, int * argcPtr,
			       char ***	argvPtr);
       int poptDupArgv(int argc, const char ** argv, int * argcPtr,
			       const char *** argvPtr);

       The string s is parsed into an argv-style array.	The integer pointed to
       by the argcPtr parameter	contains the number of	elements  parsed,  and
       the  final  argvPtr parameter contains the address of the newly created
       array.  The routine poptDupArgv() can be	used to	make a copy of an  ex-
       isting argument array.

       The  argvPtr created by poptParseArgvString() or	poptDupArgv() is suit-
       able to pass directly to	poptGetContext().  Both	routines return	a sin-
       gle  dynamically	 allocated  contiguous	block of storage and should be
       free()ed	when the application is	finished with the storage.

       Some applications implement the equivalent of option aliasing but  need
       to  do so through special logic.	The poptStuffArgs() function allows an
       application to insert new arguments into	the current poptContext.

       #include	<popt.h>
       int poptStuffArgs(poptContext con, const	char **	argv);

       The passed argv must have a NULL	pointer	as  its	 final	element.  When
       poptGetNextOpt()	 is next called, the "stuffed" arguments are the first
       to be parsed. popt returns to the normal	arguments once all the stuffed
       arguments have been exhausted.

       The  following  example	is a simplified	version	of the program "robin"
       which appears in	Chapter	15 of the text cited below.   Robin  has  been
       stripped	 of  everything	 but  its argument-parsing logic, slightly re-
       worked, and renamed "parse." It may prove  useful  in  illustrating  at
       least some of the features of the extremely rich	popt library.

       #include	<popt.h>
       #include	<stdio.h>

       void usage(poptContext optCon, int exitcode, char *error, char *addl) {
	   poptPrintUsage(optCon, stderr, 0);
	   if (error) fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s0,	error, addl);

       int main(int argc, char *argv[])	{
	  char	  c;		/* used	for argument parsing */
	  int	  i = 0;	/* used	for tracking options */
	  char	  *portname;
	  int	  speed	= 0;	/* used	in argument parsing to set speed */
	  int	  raw =	0;	/* raw mode? */
	  int	  j;
	  char	  buf[BUFSIZ+1];
	  poptContext optCon;	/* context for parsing command-line options */

	  struct poptOption optionsTable[] = {
	     { "bps", 'b', POPT_ARG_INT, &speed, 0,
				 "signaling rate in bits-per-second", "BPS" },
	     { "crnl", 'c', 0, 0, 'c',
				 "expand cr characters to cr/lf	sequences", NULL },
	     { "hwflow", 'h', 0, 0, 'h',
				 "use hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control",	NULL },
	     { "noflow", 'n', 0, 0, 'n',
				 "use no flow control",	NULL },
	     { "raw", 'r', 0, &raw, 0,
				 "don't	perform	any character conversions", NULL },
	     { "swflow", 's', 0, 0, 's',
				 "use software (XON/XOF) flow control",	NULL } ,
	     { NULL, 0,	0, NULL, 0 }

	  optCon = poptGetContext(NULL,	argc, argv, optionsTable, 0);
	  poptSetOtherOptionHelp(optCon, "[OPTIONS]* <port>");

	  if (argc < 2)	{
				 poptPrintUsage(optCon,	stderr,	0);

	  /* Now do options processing,	get portname */
	  while	((c = poptGetNextOpt(optCon)) >= 0) {
	     switch (c)	{
	      case 'c':
		 buf[i++] = 'c';
	      case 'h':
		 buf[i++] = 'h';
	      case 's':
		 buf[i++] = 's';
	      case 'n':
		 buf[i++] = 'n';
	  portname = poptGetArg(optCon);
	  if((portname == NULL)	|| !(poptPeekArg(optCon) == NULL))
	     usage(optCon, 1, "Specify a single	port", ".e.g., /dev/cua0");

	  if (c	< -1) {
	     /*	an error occurred during option	processing */
	     fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s\n",
		     poptBadOption(optCon, POPT_BADOPTION_NOALIAS),
	     return 1;

	  /* Print out options,	portname chosen	*/
	  printf("Options  chosen: ");
	  for(j	= 0; j < i ; j++)
	     printf("-%c ", buf[j]);
	  if(raw) printf("-r ");
	  if(speed) printf("-b %d ", speed);
	  printf("\nPortname chosen: %s\n", portname);


       RPM,  a	popular	 Linux	package	management program, makes heavy	use of
       popt's features.	Many of	its  command-line  arguments  are  implemented
       through	popt  aliases,	which makes RPM	an excellent example of	how to
       take advantage of the popt library. For more information	 on  RPM,  see  The	 popt  source  code distribution includes test
       program(s) which	use all	of the features	of the popt libraries in vari-
       ous ways. If a feature isn't working for	you, the popt test code	is the
       first place to look.

       None presently known.

       Erik W. Troan <>

       This man	page is	derived	in part	from Linux Application Development  by
       Michael	K.  Johnson  and  Erik W. Troan, Copyright (c) 1998 by Addison
       Wesley Longman, Inc., and included in the popt documentation  with  the
       permission of the Publisher and the appreciation	of the Authors.

       Thanks to Robert	Lynch for his extensive	work on	this man page.


       Linux  Application Development, by Michael K. Johnson and Erik W. Troan
       (Addison-Wesley,	1998; ISBN 0-201-30821-5), Chapter 24. is a Postscript version of the above cited book chapter.	It can
       be   found   in	 the   source	archive	  for	popt   available   at:

				 June 30, 1998			       POPT(3)


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