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PKG_ADD(1)              FreeBSD General Commands Manual             PKG_ADD(1)

NAME
     pkg_add - a utility for installing software package distributions

SYNOPSIS
     pkg_add [-viInfFrRMSK] [-t template] [-p prefix] [-P prefix]
             [-C chrootdir] pkg-name [pkg-name ...]

DESCRIPTION
     The pkg_add command is used to extract packages that have been previously
     created with the pkg_create(1) command.

WARNING
     Since the pkg_add command may execute scripts or programs contained
     within a package file, your system may be susceptible to ``trojan
     horses'' or other subtle attacks from miscreants who create dangerous
     package files.

     You are advised to verify the competence and identity of those who
     provide installable package files.  For extra protection, use the -M flag
     to extract the package file, and inspect its contents and scripts to
     ensure it poses no danger to your system's integrity.  Pay particular
     attention to any +INSTALL, +POST-INSTALL, +DEINSTALL, +POST-DEINSTALL,
     +REQUIRE or +MTREE_DIRS files, and inspect the +CONTENTS file for @cwd,
     @mode (check for setuid), @dirrm, @exec, and @unexec directives, and/or
     use the pkg_info(1) command to examine the package file.

OPTIONS
     The following command line arguments are supported:

     pkg-name [pkg-name ...]
             The named packages are installed.  A package name of - will cause
             pkg_add to read from stdin.  If the packages are not found in the
             current working directory, pkg_add will search them in each
             directory named by PKG_PATH.

     -v, --verbose
             Turn on verbose output.

     -K, --keep
             Keep any downloaded package in PKGDIR if it is defined or in
             current directory by default.

     -i, --no-deps
             Install the package without fetching and installing dependencies.

     -I, --no-script
             If any installation scripts (pre-install or post-install) exist
             for a given package, do not execute them.

     -n, --dry-run
             Do not actually install a package, just report the steps that
             would be taken if it was.

     -R, --no-record
             Do not record the installation of a package.  This means that you
             cannot deinstall it later, so only use this option if you know
             what you are doing!

     -r, --remote
             Use the remote fetching feature.  This will determine the
             appropriate objformat and release and then fetch and install the
             package.

     -f, --force
             Force installation to proceed even if prerequisite packages are
             not installed or the requirements script fails.  Although pkg_add
             will still try to find and auto-install missing prerequisite
             packages, a failure to find one will not be fatal.

     -F      Already installed packages are not an error.

     -p, --prefix prefix
             Set prefix as the directory in which to extract files from a
             package.  If a package has set its default directory, it will be
             overridden by this flag.  Note that only the first @cwd directive
             will be replaced, since pkg_add has no way of knowing which
             directory settings are relative and which are absolute.  It is
             rare in any case to see more than one directory transition made,
             but when such does happen and you wish to have control over *all*
             directory transitions, then you may then wish to look into the
             use of MASTER and SLAVE modes (see the -M and -S options).  If
             the -p flag appears after any -P flag on the command line, it
             overrides its effect, causing pkg_add not to use the given prefix
             recursively.

     -P prefix
             Does the same as the -p option, except that the given prefix is
             also used recursively for the dependency packages, if any.  If
             the -P flag appears after any -p flag on the command line, it
             overrides its effect, causing pkg_add to use the given prefix
             recursively.

     -t, --template template
             Use template as the input to mktemp(3) when creating a ``staging
             area''.  By default, this is the string /var/tmp/instmp.XXXXXX,
             but it may be necessary to override it in the situation where
             space in your /var/tmp directory is limited.  Be sure to leave
             some number of `X' characters for mktemp(3) to fill in with a
             unique ID.

             You can get a performance boost by setting the staging area
             template to reside on the same disk partition as target
             directories for package file installation; often this is /usr.

     -M, --master
             Run in MASTER mode.  This is a very specialized mode for running
             pkg_add and is meant to be run in conjunction with SLAVE mode.
             When run in this mode, pkg_add does no work beyond extracting the
             package into a temporary staging area (see the -t option),
             reading in the packing list, and then dumping it (prefaced by the
             current staging area) to stdout where it may be filtered by a
             program such as sed(1).  When used in conjunction with SLAVE
             mode, it allows you to make radical changes to the package
             structure before acting on its contents.

     -S, --slave
             Run in SLAVE mode.  This is a very specialized mode for running
             pkg_add and is meant to be run in conjunction with MASTER mode.
             When run in this mode, pkg_add expects the release contents to be
             already extracted and waiting in the staging area, the location
             of which is read as a string from stdin.  The complete packing
             list is also read from stdin, and the contents then acted on as
             normal.

     -C, --chroot chrootdir
             Before doing any operations, chroot(2) to the chrootdir directory
             so that all package files, and the package database, are
             installed to chrootdir.  Note that chrootdir needs to be a fairly
             complete file system, including everything normally needed by
             pkg_add to run.  This flag was added to help support operations
             done by sysinstall(8) and is not expected to be useful for much
             else.  Be careful that chrootdir is properly configured and
             cannot be modified by normal users, versions of commands like
             fetch(1) may be run inside chrootdir as a side effect.

     One or more pkg-name arguments may be specified, each being either a file
     containing the package (these usually end with a ``.tbz'' suffix) or a
     URL pointing at a file available on an ftp site.  Thus you may extract
     files directly from their anonymous ftp locations (e.g. pkg_add
     ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/packages/shells/bash-1.14.7.tbz).
     Note: If you wish to use passive mode ftp in such transfers, set the
     variable FTP_PASSIVE_MODE to some value in your environment.  Otherwise,
     the more standard ACTIVE mode may be used.  If pkg_add consistently fails
     to fetch a package from a site known to work, it may be because you have
     a firewall that demands the usage of passive mode ftp.

TECHNICAL DETAILS
     The pkg_add utility extracts each package's ``packing list'' into a
     special staging directory (see ENVIRONMENT), parses it, and then runs
     through the following sequence to fully extract the contents of the
     package:

     1.   A check is made to determine if the package is already recorded as
          installed.  If it is, installation is terminated.

     2.   A check is made to determine if the package conflicts (from
          @conflicts directives, see pkg_create(1)) with an already installed
          package.  If it is, installation is terminated.

     3.   Scan all the package dependencies (from @pkgdep directives, see
          pkg_create(1)) are read from the packing list.  If any of these
          required packages is not currently installed, an attempt is made to
          find and install it; if the missing package cannot be found or
          installed, the installation is terminated.

     4.   Search for any @option directives which control how the package is
          added to the system.  At the time of this writing, the only
          currently implemented option is @option extract-in-place which will
          cause the package to be extracted directly into its prefix directory
          without moving through a staging area.

     5.   If @option extract-in-place is enabled, the package is now extracted
          directly into its final location, otherwise it is extracted into the
          staging area.

     6.   If a requirements script +REQUIRE exists for the package (see the -r
          flag of pkg_create(1)), then execute it with the following
          arguments:

                pkg-name INSTALL

          where pkg-name is the name of the package in question and the
          ``INSTALL'' keyword denotes this as an installation requirements
          check (useful if you want to have one script serving multiple
          functions).

     7.   If a pre-install script +INSTALL exists for the package, it is then
          executed with the following arguments:

                pkg-name PRE-INSTALL

          where pkg-name is the name of the package in question and
          ``PRE-INSTALL'' is a keyword denoting this as the preinstallation
          phase.

          Note: The ``PRE-INSTALL'' keyword will not appear if separate
          scripts for pre-install and post-install are given during package
          creation time (using the -i and -I flags to pkg_create(1)).

     8.   If @option extract-in-place is not used, then the packing list (this
          is the +CONTENTS file) is now used as a guide for moving (or
          copying, as necessary) files from the staging area into their final
          locations.

     9.   If an mtree file +MTREE_DIRS exists for the package (see the -m flag
          of pkg_create(1)), then mtree(8) is invoked as:

                mtree -U -f +MTREE_DIRS -d -e -p prefix

          where prefix is either the prefix specified with the -p or -P flag
          or, if neither flag was specified, the name of the first directory
          named by a @cwd directive within this package.

     10.  If a post-install script +POST-INSTALL exists for the package, it is
          then executed with the following arguments:

                pkg-name POST-INSTALL

          where pkg-name is the name of the package in question and
          ``POST-INSTALL'' is a keyword denoting this as the post-installation
          phase.

          Note: The ``POST-INSTALL'' keyword will not appear if separate
          scripts for pre-install and post-install are given during package
          creation time (using the -i and -I flags to pkg_create(1)).

          Reasoning behind passing keywords such as ``POST-INSTALL'' and
          ``PRE-INSTALL'' is that this allows you to write a single install
          script that does both ``before'' and ``after'' actions.  But,
          separating the functionality is more advantageous and easier from a
          maintenance viewpoint.

     11.  After installation is complete, a copy of the description (+DESC),
          comment (+COMMENT), pre-install script (+INSTALL), post-install
          script (+POST-INSTALL), deinstall script (+DEINSTALL), post-
          deinstall script (+POST-DEINSTALL), requirements script (+REQUIRE),
          display (+DISPLAY), mtree (+MTREE_DIRS), and packing list
          (+CONTENTS) files are copied into /var/db/pkg/<pkg-name> for
          subsequent possible use by pkg_delete(1).  Any package dependencies
          are recorded in the other packages'
          /var/db/pkg/<other-pkg>/+REQUIRED_BY file (if the environment
          variable PKG_DBDIR is set, this overrides the /var/db/pkg/ path
          shown above).

     12.  Finally, the staging area is deleted and the program terminates.

     All the scripts are called with the environment variable PKG_PREFIX set
     to the installation prefix (see the -p and -P options above).  This
     allows a package author to write a script that reliably performs some
     action on the directory where the package is installed, even if the user
     might change it with the -p or -P flags to pkg_add.

ENVIRONMENT
     The value of the PKG_PATH is used if a given package cannot be found.
     The environment variable should be a series of entries separated by
     colons.  Each entry consists of a directory name.  The current directory
     may be indicated implicitly by an empty directory name, or explicitly by
     a single period.

     The environment variable PKG_DBDIR specifies an alternative location for
     the installed package database, default location is /var/db/pkg.

     The environment variables PKG_TMPDIR and TMPDIR, in that order, are taken
     to name temporary directories where pkg_add will attempt to create its
     staging area in.  If these variables are not present or if the
     directories named lack sufficient space, then pkg_add will use the first
     of /var/tmp, /tmp or /usr/tmp with sufficient space.

     The environment variable PACKAGEROOT specifies an alternate location for
     pkg_add to fetch from.  The fetch URL is built using this environment
     variable and the automatic directory logic that pkg_add uses when the -r
     option is invoked.  An example setting would be "ftp://ftp3.FreeBSD.org".

     The environment variable PACKAGESITE specifies an alternate location for
     pkg_add to fetch from.  This variable subverts the automatic directory
     logic that pkg_add uses when the -r option is invoked.  Thus it should be
     a complete URL to the remote package file(s).

     The environment variable PKGDIR specifies an alternative location to save
     downloaded packages to when -K option is used.

FILES
     /var/tmp     Temporary directory for creating the staging area, if
                  environmental variables PKG_TMPDIR or TMPDIR do not point to
                  a suitable directory.
     /tmp         Next choice if /var/tmp does not exist or has insufficient
                  space.
     /usr/tmp     Last choice if /var/tmp and /tmp are not suitable for
                  creating the staging area.
     /var/db/pkg  Default location of the installed package database.

SEE ALSO
     pkg_create(1), pkg_delete(1), pkg_info(1), pkg_version(1), mktemp(3),
     sysconf(3), mtree(8)

AUTHORS
     Jordan Hubbard

CONTRIBUTORS
     John Kohl <jtk@rational.com>

BUGS
     Hard links between files in a distribution are only preserved if either
     (1) the staging area is on the same file system as the target directory
     of all the links to the file, or (2) all the links to the file are
     bracketed by @cwd directives in the contents file, and the link names are
     extracted with a single tar command (not split between invocations due to
     exec argument-space limitations--this depends on the value returned by
     sysconf(_SC_ARG_MAX)).

     Sure to be others.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE         January 4, 2009        FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | WARNING | OPTIONS | TECHNICAL DETAILS | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | SEE ALSO | AUTHORS | CONTRIBUTORS | BUGS

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