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pkg_add(8)		FreeBSD	System Manager's Manual		    pkg_add(8)

     pkg_add --	a utility for installing software package distributions.

     pkg_add [-vInfRMS]	[-t template] [-p prefix] pkg-name [pkg-name ...]

     The pkg_add command is used to extract packages that have been previously
     created with the pkg_create(8) command.

     Since the pkg_add command may execute scripts or programs contained
     within a package file, your system	may be susceptible to ``trojan
     horses'' or other subtle attacks from miscreants who create dangerous
     package files.

     You are advised to	verify the competence and identity of those who	pro-
     vide installable package files.  For extra	protection, use	the -M flag to
     extract the package file, and inspect its contents	and scripts to insure
     it	poses no danger	to your	system's integrity.  Pay particular attention
     to	any +INSTALL, +DEINSTALL, +REQUIRE or +MTREE_DIRS files, and inspect
     the +CONTENTS file	for @cwd, @mode	(check for setuid), @dirrm, @exec, and
     @unexec directives, and/or	use the	pkg_info(1) command to examine the
     package file.

     The following command line	arguments are supported.

     pkg-name ...
	     Packages in the named files are installed.

     -v	     Turns on verbose output.  Optional.

     -I	     If	an installation	script exists for a given package, do not exe-
	     cute it.  Optional.

     -n	     Don't actually install a package, just report the steps that
	     would be taken if it was.	Optional.

     -R	     Do	not record the installation of a package.  This	means that you
	     cannot deinstall it later,	so only	use this option	if you know
	     what you are doing!  Optional.

     -f	     Forces installation to proceed even if prerequisite packages are
	     not installed or the requirements script fails.  Optional.

     -p	prefix
	     Sets prefix as the	directory in which to extract files from a
	     package.  If a package has	set its	default	directory, it will be
	     overridden	by this	flag.  Note that only the first	@cwd directive
	     will be replaced, since pkg_add has no way	of knowing which
	     directory settings	are relative and which are absolute.  It is
	     rare, in any case,	to see more than one directory transition
	     made, but when such is the	case you may then wish to look into
	     the use of	the MASTER and SLAVE modes (see	the -M and -S
	     options).	Optional.

     -t	template
	     Use template as the input to mktemp(3) when creating a ``staging
	     area.''  By default, this is the string /tmp/instmp.XXXXXX, but
	     it	may be necessary to override it	in the situation where space
	     in	your /tmp directory is limited.	 Be sure to leave some number
	     of	`X' characters for mktemp(3) to	fill in	with a unique ID.

	     You can get a performance boost by	setting	the staging area
	     template to reside	on the same disk partition as target directo-
	     ries for package file installation; often this is /usr.

     -M	     Run in MASTER mode.  This is a very specialized mode for running
	     pkg_add and is meant to be	run in conjunction with	SLAVE mode.
	     When run in this mode, pkg_add does no work beyond	extracting the
	     package into a temporary staging area (see	the -t option),	read-
	     ing in the	packing	list, and then dumping it (prefaced by the
	     current staging area) to stdout where it may be filtered by a
	     program such as sed(1).  When used	in conjunction with SLAVE
	     mode, it allows you to make radical changes to the	package	struc-
	     ture before acting	on its contents.

     -S	     Run in SLAVE mode.	 This is a very	specialized mode for running
	     pkg_add and is meant to be	run in conjunction with	MASTER mode.
	     When run in this mode, pkg_add expects the	release	contents to be
	     already extracted and waiting in the staging area,	the location
	     of	which is read as a string from stdin.  The complete packing
	     list is also read from stdin, and the contents then acted on as
     On	or more	pkg-name arguments may be specified, each being	either a file
     containing	the package (these usually ending with the ``.tgz'' suffix) or
     a URL pointing at a file available	on an ftp site.	 Thus you may extract
     files directly from their anonymous ftp locations (e.g.  pkg_add

     pkg_add is	fairly simple.	It extracts each packages' "packing list" into
     a special staging directory in /tmp (or $PKG_TMPDIR), parses it, then
     runs through the following	sequence to fully extract the contents:

     1.	  Check	if the package is already recorded as installed.  If so, ter-
	  minate installation.

     2.	  Scan all the package dependencies (from @pkgdep directives, see
	  pkg_create(8)) and make sure each one	is met.	If not,	print the
	  missing dependencies and terminate the installation.

     3.	  Search for any @option directives which control how the package is
	  added	to the system.	At the time of this writing, the only cur-
	  rently implemented option is @option extract-in-place	which will
	  cause	the package to be extracted direcly into its prefix directory
	  without moving through a staging area	in /tmp.

     4.	  If @option extract-in-place is enabled, the package is now extracted
	  directly into	its final location, otherwise it is extracted into the
	  staging area.

     5.	  If the package contains a require file (see pkg_create(8) ), then
	  execute it with the following	arguments:
		_pkg-name_ INSTALL
	  where	_pkg-name_ is the name of the package in question and INSTALL
	  is simply a keyword denoting that this is an installation require-
	  ments	check.

     6.	  If an	install	script exists for the package, it is then executed
	  with the following arguments:
		_pkg-name_ PRE-INSTALL
	  where	_pkg-name_ is the name of the package in question and
	  PRE-INSTALL is a keyword denoting that this is the preinstallation

     7.	  If @option extract-in-place is not used, then	the packing list (this
	  is the +CONTENTS file) is now	used as	a guide	for moving (or copy-
	  ing, as necessary) files from	the staging area into their final

     8.	  If the package contains an mtreefile file (see the -m	option to
	  pkg_create(8)	), then	mtree is invoked as
		mtree -u -f mtreefile -d -e -p prefix
	  where	prefix is either the prefix specified with the -p flag or, if
	  no -p	flag was specified, the	name of	the first directory named by a
	  @cwd directive within	this package.

     9.	  If an	install	script exists for the package, it is then executed as
		<script> _pkg-name_ POST-INSTALL
	  This all allows you to write a single	install	script that does both
	  ``before and after'' actions.

     10.  After	installation is	complete, a copy of the	packing	list,
	  deinstall script, description, and display files are copied into
	  /var/db/pkg/_pkg-name_ for subsequent	possible use by	pkg_delete(8).
	  Any package dependencies are recorded	in the other packages'
	  /var/db/pkg/_other-pkg_/+REQUIRED_BY file (if	the environment	vari-
	  able PKG_DBDIR is set, this overrides	the /var/db/pkg/ path shown

     11.  Finally, the staging area is deleted and the program terminates.

     All the scripts are called	with the environment variable PKG_PREFIX set
     to	the installation prefix	(see the -p option above).  This allows	a
     package author to write a script that reliably performs some action on
     the directory where the package is	installed, even	if the user might
     change it with the	-p flag	to pkg_add.

     pkg_info(1), mktemp(3), sysconf(3), mtree(8), pkg_create(8),

     Jordan Hubbard
	     most of the work
     John Kohl
	     refined it	for NetBSD

     Hard links	between	files in a distribution	are only preserved if either
     (1) the staging area is on	the same file system as	the target directory
     of	all the	links to the file, or (2) all the links	to the file are	brack-
     eted by @cwd directives in	the contents file, and and the link names are
     extracted with a single tar command (not split between invocations	due to
     exec argument-space limitations--this depends on the value	returned by
     sysconf(_SC_ARG_MAX) ).

     Sure to be	others.

FreeBSD	2.0		       November	25, 1994		   FreeBSD 2.0


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