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PKCS12(1)			    OpenSSL			     PKCS12(1)

       pkcs12 -	PKCS#12	file utility

       openssl pkcs12 [-export]	[-chain] [-inkey filename] [-certfile file-
       name] [-name name] [-caname name] [-in filename]	[-out filename]
       [-noout]	[-nomacver] [-nocerts] [-clcerts] [-cacerts] [-nokeys] [-info]
       [-des] [-des3] [-idea] [-nodes] [-noiter] [-maciter] [-twopass] [-de-
       scert] [-certpbe] [-keypbe] [-keyex] [-keysig] [-password arg] [-passin
       arg] [-passout arg] [-rand file(s)]

       The pkcs12 command allows PKCS#12 files (sometimes referred to as PFX
       files) to be created and	parsed.	PKCS#12	files are used by several pro-
       grams including Netscape, MSIE and MS Outlook.

       There are a lot of options the meaning of some depends of whether a
       PKCS#12 file is being created or	parsed.	By default a PKCS#12 file is
       parsed a	PKCS#12	file can be created by using the -export option	(see

       -in filename
	   This	specifies filename of the PKCS#12 file to be parsed. Standard
	   input is used by default.

       -out filename
	   The filename	to write certificates and private keys to, standard
	   output by default.  They are	all written in PEM format.

       -pass arg, -passin arg
	   the PKCS#12 file (i.e. input	file) password source. For more	infor-
	   mation about	the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS	sec-
	   tion	in openssl(1).

       -passout	arg
	   pass	phrase source to encrypt any outputed private keys with. For
	   more	information about the format of	arg see	the PASS PHRASE	ARGU-
	   MENTS section in openssl(1).

	   this	option inhibits	output of the keys and certificates to the
	   output file version of the PKCS#12 file.

	   only	output client certificates (not	CA certificates).

	   only	output CA certificates (not client certificates).

	   no certificates at all will be output.

	   no private keys will	be output.

	   output additional information about the PKCS#12 file	structure, al-
	   gorithms used and iteration counts.

	   use DES to encrypt private keys before outputting.

	   use triple DES to encrypt private keys before outputting, this is
	   the default.

	   use IDEA to encrypt private keys before outputting.

	   don't encrypt the private keys at all.

	   don't attempt to verify the integrity MAC before reading the	file.

	   prompt for separate integrity and encryption	passwords: most	soft-
	   ware	always assumes these are the same so this option will render
	   such	PKCS#12	files unreadable.

	   This	option specifies that a	PKCS#12	file will be created rather
	   than	parsed.

       -out filename
	   This	specifies filename to write the	PKCS#12	file to. Standard out-
	   put is used by default.

       -in filename
	   The filename	to read	certificates and private keys from, standard
	   input by default.  They must	all be in PEM format. The order
	   doesn't matter but one private key and its corresponding certifi-
	   cate	should be present. If additional certificates are present they
	   will	also be	included in the	PKCS#12	file.

       -inkey filename
	   file	to read	private	key from. If not present then a	private	key
	   must	be present in the input	file.

       -name friendlyname
	   This	specifies the "friendly	name" for the certificate and private
	   key.	This name is typically displayed in list boxes by software im-
	   porting the file.

       -certfile filename
	   A filename to read additional certificates from.

       -caname friendlyname
	   This	specifies the "friendly	name" for other	certificates. This op-
	   tion	may be used multiple times to specify names for	all certifi-
	   cates in the	order they appear. Netscape ignores friendly names on
	   other certificates whereas MSIE displays them.

       -pass arg, -passout arg
	   the PKCS#12 file (i.e. output file) password	source.	For more in-
	   formation about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS
	   section in openssl(1).

       -passin password
	   pass	phrase source to decrypt any input private keys	with. For more
	   information about the format	of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS
	   section in openssl(1).

	   if this option is present then an attempt is	made to	include	the
	   entire certificate chain of the user	certificate. The standard CA
	   store is used for this search. If the search	fails it is considered
	   a fatal error.

	   encrypt the certificate using triple	DES, this may render the
	   PKCS#12 file	unreadable by some "export grade" software. By default
	   the private key is encrypted	using triple DES and the certificate
	   using 40 bit	RC2.

       -keypbe alg, -certpbe alg
	   these options allow the algorithm used to encrypt the private key
	   and certificates to be selected. Although any PKCS#5	v1.5 or
	   PKCS#12 algorithms can be selected it is advisable only to use
	   PKCS#12 algorithms. See the list in the NOTES section for more in-

	   specifies that the private key is to	be used	for key	exchange or
	   just	signing.  This option is only interpreted by MSIE and similar
	   MS software.	Normally "export grade"	software will only allow 512
	   bit RSA keys	to be used for encryption purposes but arbitrary
	   length keys for signing. The	-keysig	option marks the key for sign-
	   ing only. Signing only keys can be used for S/MIME signing, authen-
	   ticode (ActiveX control signing)  and SSL client authentication,
	   however due to a bug	only MSIE 5.0 and later	support	the use	of
	   signing only	keys for SSL client authentication.

       -nomaciter, -noiter
	   these options affect	the iteration counts on	the MAC	and key	algo-
	   rithms.  Unless you wish to produce files compatible	with MSIE 4.0
	   you should leave these options alone.

	   To discourage attacks by using large	dictionaries of	common pass-
	   words the algorithm that derives keys from passwords	can have an
	   iteration count applied to it: this causes a	certain	part of	the
	   algorithm to	be repeated and	slows it down. The MAC is used to
	   check the file integrity but	since it will normally have the	same
	   password as the keys	and certificates it could also be attacked.
	   By default both MAC and encryption iteration	counts are set to
	   2048, using these options the MAC and encryption iteration counts
	   can be set to 1, since this reduces the file	security you should
	   not use these options unless	you really have	to. Most software sup-
	   ports both MAC and key iteration counts.  MSIE 4.0 doesn't support
	   MAC iteration counts	so it needs the	-nomaciter option.

	   This	option is included for compatibility with previous versions,
	   it used to be needed	to use MAC iterations counts but they are now
	   used	by default.

       -rand file(s)
	   a file or files containing random data used to seed the random num-
	   ber generator, or an	EGD socket (see	RAND_egd(3)).  Multiple	files
	   can be specified separated by a OS-dependent	character.  The	sepa-
	   rator is ; for MS-Windows, ,	for OpenVMS, and : for all others.

       Although	there are a large number of options most of them are very
       rarely used. For	PKCS#12	file parsing only -in and -out need to be used
       for PKCS#12 file	creation -export and -name are also used.

       If none of the -clcerts,	-cacerts or -nocerts options are present then
       all certificates	will be	output in the order they appear	in the input
       PKCS#12 files. There is no guarantee that the first certificate present
       is the one corresponding	to the private key. Certain software which re-
       quires a	private	key and	certificate and	assumes	the first certificate
       in the file is the one corresponding to the private key:	this may not
       always be the case. Using the -clcerts option will solve	this problem
       by only outputting the certificate corresponding	to the private key. If
       the CA certificates are required	then they can be output	to a separate
       file using the -nokeys -cacerts options to just output CA certificates.

       The -keypbe and -certpbe	algorithms allow the precise encryption	algo-
       rithms for private keys and certificates	to be specified. Normally the
       defaults	are fine but occasionally software can't handle	triple DES en-
       crypted private keys, then the option -keypbe PBE-SHA1-RC2-40 can be
       used to reduce the private key encryption to 40 bit RC2.	A complete de-
       scription of all	algorithms is contained	in the pkcs8 manual page.

       Parse a PKCS#12 file and	output it to a file:

	openssl	pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem

       Output only client certificates to a file:

	openssl	pkcs12 -in file.p12 -clcerts -out file.pem

       Don't encrypt the private key:

	openssl	pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem -nodes

       Print some info about a PKCS#12 file:

	openssl	pkcs12 -in file.p12 -info -noout

       Create a	PKCS#12	file:

	openssl	pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name	"My Certificate"

       Include some extra certificates:

	openssl	pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name	"My Certificate" \
	 -certfile othercerts.pem

       Some would argue	that the PKCS#12 standard is one big bug :-)

       Versions	of OpenSSL before 0.9.6a had a bug in the PKCS#12 key genera-
       tion routines. Under rare circumstances this could produce a PKCS#12
       file encrypted with an invalid key. As a	result some PKCS#12 files
       which triggered this bug	from other implementations (MSIE or Netscape)
       could not be decrypted by OpenSSL and similarly OpenSSL could produce
       PKCS#12 files which could not be	decrypted by other implementations.
       The chances of producing	such a file are	relatively small: less than 1
       in 256.

       A side effect of	fixing this bug	is that	any old	invalidly encrypted
       PKCS#12 files cannot no longer be parsed	by the fixed version. Under
       such circumstances the pkcs12 utility will report that the MAC is OK
       but fail	with a decryption error	when extracting	private	keys.

       This problem can	be resolved by extracting the private keys and cer-
       tificates from the PKCS#12 file using an	older version of OpenSSL and
       recreating the PKCS#12 file from	the keys and certificates using	a
       newer version of	OpenSSL. For example:

	old-openssl -in	bad.p12	-out keycerts.pem
	openssl	-in keycerts.pem -export -name "My PKCS#12 file" -out fixed.p12


0.9.7d				  2005-02-25			     PKCS12(1)


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