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PIEWM(1)		    General Commands Manual		      PIEWM(1)

NAME
       piewm - Tom's Virtual Tab Window	Manager	with Pie Menus

SYNTAX
       piewm [-display dpy] [-s] [-k] [-f initfile] [-v]

DESCRIPTION
       Piewm is	a window manager for the X Window System based tvtwm, which is
       based on	the X11R4 version of twm, with code segments  from  the	 X11R5
       twm  as well.  It includes pie menus, and a ``Virtual Desktop'' feature
       that effectively	makes the root window of the screen  larger  than  the
       physical	 limits	 of  the  display.  To change as little	as possible in
       this manual, from here on the window manager is referred	to as twm.

       Twm is a	window manager for the X Window	System.	  It  provides	title-
       bars,  shaped windows, pie and linear menus, several forms of icon man-
       agement,	user-defined macro functions, click-to-type and	pointer-driven
       keyboard	focus, and user-specified key and pointer button bindings.

       This  program  is  usually  started  by	the  user's session manager or
       startup script.	When used from xdm(1) or xinit(1)  without  a  session
       manager,	 twm  is  frequently  executed	in  the	foreground as the last
       client.	When run this way, exiting twm causes the session to be	termi-
       nated (i.e. logged out).

       By  default,  application  windows are surrounded by a ``frame''	with a
       titlebar	at the top and a special border	around the window.  The	title-
       bar contains the	window's name, a rectangle that	is lit when the	window
       is receiving keyboard input, and	function boxes	known  as  ``titlebut-
       tons'' at the left and right edges of the titlebar.

       Pressing	 pointer  Button1  (usually the	left-most button unless	it has
       been changed with xmodmap) on a titlebutton will	 invoke	 the  function
       associated  with	 the  button.	In  the	default	interface, windows are
       iconified by clicking (pressing and  then  immediately  releasing)  the
       left  titlebutton  (which looks like a small dot).  Conversely, windows
       are deiconified by clicking in the associated icon or entry in the icon
       manager	(see  description  of  the variable ShowIconManager and	of the
       function	f.showiconmgr).

       Windows are resized by pressing the right titlebutton (which  resembles
       group  of nested	squares), dragging the pointer over edge that is to be
       moved, and releasing the	pointer	when the outline of the	window is  the
       desired size.  Similarly, windows are moved by pressing in the title or
       highlight region, dragging a window outline to the  new	location,  and
       then  releasing	when  the  outline  is	in the desired position.  Just
       clicking	in the title or	highlight region  raises  the  window  without
       moving it.

       When  new windows are created, twm will honor any size and location in-
       formation requested by the user (usually	through	-geometry command line
       argument	 or resources for the individual applications).	 Otherwise, an
       outline of the window's default size, its titlebar, and lines  dividing
       the  window  into  a  3x3  grid	that  track the	pointer	are displayed.
       Clicking	pointer	Button1	will position the window at the	current	 posi-
       tion  and  give it the default size.  Pressing pointer Button2 (usually
       the middle pointer button) and dragging the outline will	give the  win-
       dow its current position	but allow the sides to be resized as described
       above.  Clicking	pointer	Button3	(usually  the  right  pointer  button)
       will  give  the window its current position but attempt to make it long
       enough to touch the bottom the screen.

OPTIONS
       Twm accepts the following command line options:

       -display	dpy
	       This option specifies the X server to use.

       -s      This option indicates that only the default screen  (as	speci-
	       fied by -display	or by the DISPLAY environment variable)	should
	       be managed.  By default,	twm will attempt to manage all screens
	       on the display.

       -k      This  option makes twm leave a file in /tmp containing the pre-
	       defines that are	generated and fed to  m4  before  your	.twmrc
	       file.   Twm  passes  this  file,	 followed  immediately by your
	       .twmrc file (which may not be called .twmrc.  See -f  option.),
	       to  m4(1) for preprocessing.  If	you give twm the -k option, it
	       will leave a copy of the	temporary file as /tmp/twmrc$$	(where
	       $$ is variable).	 This is often useful for knowing what you can
	       use when	adding m4 commands and conditions to your .twmrc file.

       -f filename
	       This option specifies the name of the startup file to use.   By
	       default,	 twm  will look	in the user's home directory for files
	       named .twmrc.num	(where num is a	screen number) or .twmrc.

       -v      This option indicates that  twm	should	print  error  messages
	       whenever	 an unexpected X Error event is	received.  This	can be
	       useful when debugging applications but can  be  distracting  in
	       regular use.

CUSTOMIZATION
       Much  of	twm's appearance and behavior can be controlled	by providing a
       startup file in one of the following locations (searched	in  order  for
       each screen being managed when twm begins):

       $HOME/.piewmrc.screennumber
	       The  screennumber  is a small positive number (e.g. 0, 1, etc.)
	       representing the	screen number (e.g. the	 last  number  in  the
	       DISPLAY	environment  variable  host:displaynum.screennum) that
	       would be	used to	contact	that screen of the display.   This  is
	       intended	for displays with multiple screens of differing	visual
	       types.

       $HOME/.piewmrc
	       This is the usual name for an individual	user's startup file.

       $HOME/.tvtwmrc.screennumber
	       Same as .piewmrc.screennumber.

       $HOME/.tvtwmrc
	       Same as .piewmrc.

       $HOME/.twmrc.screennumber
	       Same as .piewmrc.screennumber.

       $HOME/.twmrc
	       Same as .piewmrc.

       /usr/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc
	       If neither of the preceding files are found, twm	will  look  in
	       this  file for a	default	configuration.	This is	often tailored
	       by the site administrator to provide convenient menus or	famil-
	       iar bindings for	novice users.

       If  no  startup files are found,	twm will use the built-in defaults de-
       scribed above.  The only	resource used by twm is	bitmapFilePath	for  a
       colon-separated	list  of directories to	search when looking for	bitmap
       files  (for  more  information,	see  the  Athena  Widgets  manual  and
       xrdb(1)).

       Twm  startup files are logically	broken up into three types of specifi-
       cations:	 Variables, Bindings, Menus.  The Variables section must  come
       first  and  is  used  to	 describe  the	fonts, colors, cursors,	border
       widths, icon and	window placement, highlighting,	autoraising, layout of
       titles, warping,	use of the icon	manager.  The Bindings section usually
       comes second and	is used	to specify the functions that should be	to  be
       invoked	when  keyboard	and  pointer  buttons  are pressed in windows,
       icons, titles, and frames.  The Menus section  gives  any  user-defined
       menus (containing functions to be invoked or commands to	be executed).

       Variable	names and keywords are case-insensitive.  Strings must be sur-
       rounded by double quote characters (e.g.	"blue")	 and  are  case-sensi-
       tive.  A	pound sign (#) outside of a string causes the remainder	of the
       line in which the character appears to be treated as a comment.

M4 PREPROCESSING
       A new feature in	this release of	piewm is that it  will	use  m4(1)  to
       pre-process  it's setup files.  When twm	starts up, it will open	a file
       for input as described above.  But, it will process that	 file  through
       m4 before parsing it.  So, you can use m4 macro's to perform operations
       at runtime.  This makes it very easy to work when you use many  differ-
       ent  display's,	with  different	 characteristics.  For example,	If you
       want to set the lower right section of the screen to  be	 your  IconRe-
       gion, (see below	for details on the IconRegion variable)	you can	use m4
       directives and pre-defined symbols to calculate the  region  you	 want.
       For example:
       define(IRegion, translit(eval(WIDTH/3)*eval(HEIGHT/2)+eval(WIDTH-WIDTH/3)-0, *, x))
       IconRegion  "IRegion" SOUTH EAST	75 25
       will  define  the  lower	half, and right-hand third of the screen.  The
       above makes use of symbols that are predefined in m4 by twm.  The  sym-
       bols  WIDTH  and	HEIGHT are calculated by twm and written into a	tempo-
       rary file for m4	to use.	  The  following  symbols  are	predefined  by
       piewm:

       SERVERHOST	       This variable is	set to the name	of the machine
			       that is running the X server.

       CLIENTHOST	       The machine that	is running the clients.	  (ie,
			       twm)

       HOSTNAME		       The  canonical  hostname	 running  the clients.
			       (ie. a fully-qualified version of CLIENTHOST)

       USER		       The name	of the user running the	program.  Got-
			       ten from	the environment.

       HOME		       The user's home directory.  Gotten from the en-
			       vironment.

       VERSION		       The X major protocol version.  As seen by  Pro-
			       tocolVersion(3).

       REVISION		       The X minor protocol revision.  As seen by Pro-
			       tocolRevision(3).

       VENDOR		       The vendor of your X server.  For example:  MIT
			       X Consortium.

       RELEASE		       The  release  number of your X server.  For MIT
			       X11R5, this is 5.

       WIDTH		       The width of your display in pixels.

       HEIGHT		       The height of your display in pixels.

       X_RESOLUTION	       The X resolution	of your	display	in pixels  per
			       meter.

       Y_RESOLUTION	       The  Y resolution of your display in pixels per
			       meter.

       PLANES		       The number of bit planes	your display  supports
			       in the default root window.

       BITS_PER_RGB	       The number of significant bits in an RGB	color.
			       (log base 2 of the number  of  distinct	colors
			       that  can  be created.  This is often different
			       from the	number of colors that can be displayed
			       at once.)

       TWM_TYPE		       Tells  which  twm offshoot is running.  It will
			       always be set to	the  string  "piewm"  in  this
			       program.	  This	is useful for protecting parts
			       of your .twmrc file that	twm proper  won't  un-
			       derstand	 (like	VirtualDesktop)	 so that it is
			       still usable with other twm programs.

       CLASS		       Your visual class.  Will	return	one  of	 Stat-
			       icGray,	GrayScale,  StaticColor,  PseudoColor,
			       TrueColor, DirectColor, or, if it cannot	deter-
			       mine what you have, NonStandard.

       COLOR		       This  will  be  either  'Yes' or	'No'.  This is
			       just a wrapper  around  the  above  definition.
			       Returns 'Yes' on	*Color,	and 'No' on StaticGray
			       and GrayScale.

       NG_*		       There will be a large (about 16)	number of pre-
			       defines	that  look like	NG_EE or NG_AE.	 These
			       are for access control.	When they are  set  to
			       something  intelligent, you can protect certain
			       machines	or groups of machines in  login	 menus
			       by  which group of people should	be able	to ac-
			       cess them.  If you  place  an  ifelse(NG_STAFF,
			       yes, `')	in your	.twmrc file, and place the lo-
			       gin menu, or the	like, in between  the  quotes,
			       then  it	 will  only  be	seen by	members	of the
			       staff.  This is useful when you	have  a	 whole
			       system  that  include()s	 a  system-wide	 login
			       file.  This makes it easy to centrally adminis-
			       ter  things  such  as login menus, and have all
			       users notice changes  without  having  to  make
			       them  individually.   At	 the  moment, there is
			       little or no functionality in  these.   If  you
			       are  a  member  of  the group "staff", you have
			       them all	set to	'Yes',	else,  you  have  only
			       NG_STD  defined to 'Yes'.  I plan to make these
			       symbols meaningful in the near future.

       You may well find that if you research the m4(1)	manual well,  and  un-
       derstand	the power of m4, this will be a	very useful and	powerful tool.

VIRTUAL	DESKTOP
       The Virtual Desktop feature of tvtwm was	modeled	after the same feature
       in swm (Solbourne Window	Manager).   The	 Virtual  Desktop  effectively
       makes  the  ``root''  window  of	 the  display larger than the physical
       screen size.  The Virtual Desktop is panned in one of two ways,	either
       by executing one	of the f.scroll	commands or by using the panner.

       The  panner  is a special window	that shows a miniature view of windows
       on the desktop.	The small windows in the panner	 will  have  the  same
       colors  as  the titlebars and icons of their associated client windows.
       The panner is very simply to operate.  Mouse button one pressed	inside
       the panner moves	the view on the	desktop	to an integral number of desk-
       tops from the top-left.	Mouse button three pressed inside  the	panner
       allows  you  to	move  the  outline indicating your current view	on the
       desktop.	 Releasing the button will reposition the desktop to the point
       at  which the outline is	displayed.  Mouse button two pressed in	one of
       the small ``virtual'' windows allows you	to move	the  small  window  to
       another	portion	 of  the  desktop.   If	during the move	operation, you
       would like to place the window in your current  view  of	 the  desktop,
       simply  moving  the pointer out of the panner will result in the	window
       outline changing	from the small outline to a large outline showing  the
       dimensions  of the client window.  The converse is true of any move op-
       eration started outside of the panner: if the pointer is	moved into the
       panner  window, the outline will	change to a small outline allowing you
       to place	the window anywhere on the desktop.  Another  feature  of  the
       panner is that if you resize it,	the Virtual Desktop will resize	a cor-
       responding amount.  During the resize, the dimensions shown reflect the
       Virtual Desktop size.

       There  are two hints that client	windows	may use	when asking the	window
       manager to position top level windows:  User Specified Position	(USPo-
       sition) and Program Specified Position (PPosition).  tvtwm handles each
       of these	two hints in a different manner.  If USPosition	hints are set,
       the  window  will be placed at the pixel	location requested.  If	PPosi-
       tion hints are set, the window will be placed at	the requested location
       plus the	offsets	of the current Virtual Desktop position.  For example,
       if the desktop is positioned at +100+300	and  a	window	is  mapped  at
       +100+100	 with  PPosition  hints	 set,  the  window  would be placed at
       +200+400	on the Virtual Desktop.

       Along with the Virtual Desktop comes a concept called  ``sticky''  win-
       dows.   Sticky  windows	can be thought of as stuck to the glass	of the
       display.	 Sticky	windows	do not scroll out of view when the desktop  is
       scrolled.

PIE MENUS
       This  version  of twm supports pie menus.  The labels of	a pie menu are
       arranged	in a circle around the cursor, and the menu selection is based
       on  the	direction you move between clicking the	button.	 Pie menus are
       fast and	easy to	use because each of the	items corresponds to  a	 large
       wedge shaped area adjacent to the cursor.

       You  define  pie	 menus the same	way as regular linear menus, using the
       word piemenu instead of menu.  They have	an extra optional argument: an
       ``@''  sign followed by a number, specifying the	direction of the first
       menu item, defaulting to	0 (to  the  right,  increasing	counter-clock-
       wise).	You  can make pie menus	with graphical labels, by specifying a
       label beginning with an underscore followed by a	bitmap or pixmap  file
       name.

       To  pop up a pie	menu (in a binding or as a submenu), use the f.piemenu
       function	instead	of the f.menu function.	 Pie menus can be submenus  of
       linear menus, and linear	menus can be submenus of pie menus, too.

       Pie  menus  are	usually	 drawn	in a rectangular window.  To have them
       drawn "in midair" using shapes, specify the "NoMenuShadows" keyword  in
       your .piewmrc.

VARIABLES
       Many of the aspects of twm's user interface are controlled by variables
       that may	be set in the user's startup file.  Some of  the  options  are
       enabled	or  disabled  simply  by the presence of a particular keyword.
       Other options require keywords, numbers,	strings, or lists  of  all  of
       these.

       Lists  are surrounded by	braces and are usually separated by whitespace
       or a newline.  For example:
       AutoRaise { "emacs" "XTerm" "Xmh" }
       or
       AutoRaise
       {
	    "emacs"
	    "XTerm"
	    "Xmh"
       }
       When a variable containing a list of strings  representing  windows  is
       searched	(e.g. to determine whether or not to enable autoraise as shown
       above), a string	is considered to match a window	if it is a case-sensi-
       tive  prefix  for  the  window's	name name (given by the	WM_NAME	window
       property), resource name	or class name (both given by the WM_CLASS win-
       dow property).  The preceding example would enable autoraise on windows
       named ``emacs''	as  well  as  any  xterm  (since  they	are  of	 class
       ``XTerm'') or xmh windows (which	are of class ``Xmh'').

       String  arguments  that	are interpreted	as filenames (see the Pixmaps,
       Cursors,	and IconDirectory below) will  prepend	the  user's  directory
       (specified  by the HOME environment variable) if	the first character is
       a tilde (~).  If, instead, the first character is a colon (:), the name
       is  assumed  to	refer  to one of the internal bitmaps that are used to
       create the default titlebars symbols:  :xlogo or	:iconify  (both	 refer
       to the X	used for the iconify button), :resize (the nested squares used
       by the resize button), and :question (the question mark used  for  non-
       existent	bitmap files).

       The  following  variables  may be specified at the top of a twm startup
       file.  Lists of Window name prefix strings are indicated	 by  win-list.
       Optional	arguments are shown in square brackets:

       AutoRaise { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows that should automati-
	       cally be	raised whenever	the pointer enters the	window.	  This
	       action  can  be interactively enabled or	disabled on individual
	       windows using the function f.autoraise.

       AutoRelativeResize
	       This variable indicates that dragging out a window size (either
	       when  initially	sizing the window with pointer Button2 or when
	       resizing	it) should not wait until the pointer has crossed  the
	       window edges.  Instead, moving the pointer automatically	causes
	       the nearest edge	or edges to move by the	same amount.  This al-
	       lows  allows  the  resizing windows that	extend off the edge of
	       the screen.  If the pointer is in the center of the window,  or
	       if  the	resize	is  begun  by pressing a titlebutton, twm will
	       still wait for the pointer to cross a window edge  (to  prevent
	       accidents).   This option is particularly useful	for people who
	       like the	 press-drag-release  method  of	 sweeping  out	window
	       sizes.

       BorderColor string [{ wincolorlist }]
	       This  variable  specifies the default color of the border to be
	       placed around all non-iconified windows,	and may	only be	 given
	       within  a  Color	or Monochrome list.  The optional wincolorlist
	       specifies a list	of window and color name pairs for  specifying
	       particular  border  colors for different	types of windows.  For
	       example:
	       BorderColor "gray50"
	       {
		    "XTerm"   "red"
		    "xmh"     "green"
	       }
	       The default is "black".

       BorderTileBackground string [{ wincolorlist }]
	       This variable specifies the default  background	color  in  the
	       gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only	if NoHighlight
	       hasn't been set), and may only be given within a	Color or Mono-
	       chrome  list.  The optional wincolorlist	allows per-window col-
	       ors to be specified.  The default  is "black".

       BorderTileForeground string [{ wincolorlist }]
	       This variable specifies the default  foreground	color  in  the
	       gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only	if NoHighlight
	       hasn't been set), and may only be given within a	Color or Mono-
	       chrome  list.  The optional wincolorlist	allows per-window col-
	       ors to be specified.  The default is "white".

       BorderWidth pixels
	       This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border  sur-
	       rounding	 all client window frames if ClientBorderWidth has not
	       been specified.	This value is also used	to set the border size
	       of  windows created by twm (such	as the icon manager).  The de-
	       fault is	2.

       ButtonIndent pixels
	       This variable specifies the amount by which titlebuttons	should
	       be indented on all sides.  Positive values cause	the buttons to
	       be smaller than the window text and highlight area so that they
	       stand  out.   Setting this and the TitleButtonBorderWidth vari-
	       ables to	0 makes	titlebuttons be	as tall	and wide as  possible.
	       The default is 1.

       ClientBorderWidth
	       This  variable  indicates that border width of a	window's frame
	       should be set to	the initial border width of the	window,	rather
	       than to the value of BorderWidth.

       Color { colors-list }
	       This  variable specifies	a list of color	assignments to be made
	       if the default display is capable of displaying more than  sim-
	       ple black and white.  The colors-list is	made up	of the follow-
	       ing color variables and their  values:  DefaultBackground,  De-
	       faultForeground,	MenuBackground,	MenuForeground,	MenuTitleBack-
	       ground, MenuTitleForeground, and	MenuShadowColor.  VirtualDesk-
	       topBackground.	 VirtualDesktopForeground.   PannerBackground.
	       PannerForeground.  The following	color variables	 may  also  be
	       given a list of window and color	name pairs to allow per-window
	       colors to be specified (see BorderColor for  details):  Border-
	       Color,  IconManagerHighlight,  BorderTitleBackground, BorderTi-
	       tleForeground,  TitleBackground,	  TitleForeground,   IconBack-
	       ground, IconForeground, IconBorderColor,	IconManagerBackground,
	       and IconManagerForeground.  VirtualBackground, and VirtualFore-
	       ground.	For example:
	       Color
	       {
		    MenuBackground	"gray50"
		    MenuForeground	"blue"
		    BorderColor		     "red" { "XTerm" "yellow" }
		    TitleForeground	     "yellow"
		    TitleBackground	     "blue"
	       }
	       All  of	these  color  variables	 may also be specified for the
	       Monochrome variable, allowing the same initialization  file  to
	       be used on both color and monochrome displays.

       ConstrainedMoveTime milliseconds
	       This  variable  specifies  the  length  of  time	between	button
	       clicks needed to	begin a	constrained  move  operation.	Double
	       clicking	 within	 this amount of	time when invoking f.move will
	       cause the window	only be	moved in a horizontal or vertical  di-
	       rection.	  Setting  this	 value	to  0 will disable constrained
	       moves.  The default is 400 milliseconds.

       Cursors { cursor-list }
	       This variable specifies the glyphs that twm should use for var-
	       ious  pointer  cursors.	Each cursor may	be defined either from
	       the cursor font or from two bitmap files.  Shapes from the cur-
	       sor font	may be specified directly as:
		    cursorname	   "string"
	       where  cursorname  is one of the	cursor names listed below, and
	       string is the name of a glyph as	found  in  the	file  /usr/in-
	       clude/X11/cursorfont.h  (without	 the  ``XC_'' prefix).	If the
	       cursor is to be defined from bitmap files, the following	syntax
	       is used instead:
		    cursorname	   "image"   "mask"
	       The  image and mask strings specify the names of	files contain-
	       ing the glyph image and mask in	bitmap(1)  form.   The	bitmap
	       files are located in the	same manner as icon bitmap files.  The
	       following example shows the default cursor definitions:
	       Cursors
	       {
		    Frame	   "top_left_arrow"
		    Title	   "top_left_arrow"
		    Icon      "top_left_arrow"
		    IconMgr   "top_left_arrow"
		    Move      "fleur"
		    Resize	   "fleur"
		    Menu      "sb_left_arrow"
		    Button	   "hand2"
		    Wait      "watch"
		    Select	   "dot"
		    Destroy   "pirate"
	       }

       DecorateTransients
	       This variable indicates that transient windows (those  contain-
	       ing a WM_TRANSIENT_FOR property)	should have titlebars.	By de-
	       fault, transients are not reparented.

       DefaultBackground string
	       This variable specifies the background color  to	 be  used  for
	       sizing and information windows.	The default is "white".

       DefaultForeground string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  foreground color	to be used for
	       sizing and information windows.	The default is "black".

       DontIconifyByUnmapping {	win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows that  should  not  be
	       iconified  by simply unmapping the window (as would be the case
	       if IconifyByUnmapping had been set).  This is  frequently  used
	       to  force  some windows to be treated as	icons while other win-
	       dows are	handled	by the icon manager.

       DontMoveOff
	       This variable indicates that windows should not be  allowed  to
	       be  moved off the screen.  It can be overridden by the f.force-
	       move function.

       DontSqueezeTitle	[{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that titlebars should not  be  squeezed
	       to  their  minimum  size	as described under SqueezeTitle	below.
	       If the optional window list is  supplied,  only	those  windows
	       will be prevented from being squeezed.

       ForceIcons
	       This  variable  indicates  that	icon  pixmaps specified	in the
	       Icons variable should override any client-supplied pixmaps.

       FramePadding pixels
	       This variable specifies the distance between the	titlebar deco-
	       rations	(the  button  and text)	and the	window frame.  The de-
	       fault is	2 pixels.

       IconBackground string [{	win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the background color of	bitmap	icons,
	       and may only be specified inside	of a Color or Monochrome list.
	       This value is ignored when the icon is an Xpm format pixmap, as
	       they have their own colors.  The	optional win-list is a list of
	       window names and	colors so that per-window colors may be	speci-
	       fied.   See the BorderColor variable for	a complete description
	       of the win-list.	 The default is	"white".

       IconBorderColor string [{ win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the color of the	border used  for  icon
	       windows,	 and  may only be specified inside of a	Color or Mono-
	       chrome list.  This option only has an effect  on	 icon  windows
	       that  don't  have their own shape mask (ie, only	on rectangular
	       icons).	The optional win-list is a list	of  window  names  and
	       colors  so  that	 per-window  colors may	be specified.  See the
	       BorderColor variable for	a complete  description	 of  the  win-
	       list.  The default is "black".

       IconBorderWidth pixels
	       This  variable specifies	the width in pixels of the border sur-
	       rounding	icon windows.  The default is 2.

       IconDirectory string
	       This variable specifies the directory that should  be  searched
	       if  if  a bitmap	file cannot be found in	any of the directories
	       in the bitmapFilePath resource.	This is	generally a  poor  way
	       to do things.  It is much better	to set your bitmapFilePath re-
	       source to what you want it to be	in your	resources file.

       IconFont	string
	       This variable specifies the font	to be  used  to	 display  icon
	       names within icons.  The	default	is "8x13".

       IconForeground string [{	win-list }]
	       This  variable  specifies  the foreground color to be used when
	       displaying bitmap icons,	and may	only be	specified inside of  a
	       Color  or Monochrome list.  This	value is ignored when the icon
	       is an Xpm format	pixmap,	as they	have their  own	 colors.   The
	       optional	 win-list is a list of window names and	colors so that
	       per-window colors may be	specified.  See	the BorderColor	 vari-
	       able  for  a complete description of the	win-list.  The default
	       is "black".

       IconifyByUnmapping [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that windows should be iconified	by be-
	       ing  unmapped  without  trying  to map any icons.  This assumes
	       that the	user is	will remap the window through  the  icon  man-
	       ager,  the  f.warpto  function, or the TwmWindows menu.	If the
	       optional	win-list is  provided,	only  those  windows  will  be
	       iconified by simply unmapping.  Windows that have both this and
	       the IconManagerDontShow options set may not be accessible if no
	       binding	to  the	 TwmWindows  menu is set in the	user's startup
	       file.

       IconManagerBackground string [{ win-list	}]
	       This variable specifies the background color to	use  for  icon
	       manager entries,	and may	only be	specified inside of a Color or
	       Monochrome list.	 The optional win-list is  a  list  of	window
	       names  and  colors  so that per-window colors may be specified.
	       See the BorderColor variable for	a complete description of  the
	       win-list.  The default is "white".

       IconManagerDontShow [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  indicates that the icon manager should not dis-
	       play any	windows.  If the  optional  win-list  is  given,  only
	       those  windows will not be displayed.  This variable is used to
	       prevent windows that are	rarely iconified (such	as  xclock  or
	       xload) from taking up space in the icon manager.

       IconManagerFont string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  font to be used when displaying
	       icon manager entries.  The default is "8x13".

       IconManagerForeground string [{ win-list	}]
	       This variable specifies the foreground color to	be  used  when
	       displaying  icon	manager	entries, and may only be specified in-
	       side of a Color or Monochrome list.  The	optional win-list is a
	       list  of	 window	names and colors so that per-window colors may
	       be specified.  See the BorderColor variable for a complete  de-
	       scription of the	win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconManagerGeometry string [ columns ]
	       This  variable  specifies the geometry of the icon manager win-
	       dow.  The string	argument is  standard  geometry	 specification
	       that  indicates the initial full	size of	the icon manager.  The
	       icon manager window is then  broken  into  columns  pieces  and
	       scaled  according to the	number of entries in the icon manager.
	       Extra entries are wrapped to form additional rows.  The default
	       number of columns is 1.

       IconManagerHighlight string [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable specifies	the border color to be used when high-
	       lighting	the icon manager entry that currently has  the	focus,
	       and can only be specified inside	of a Color or Monochrome list.
	       The optional win-list is	a list of window names and  colors  so
	       that  per-window	 colors	may be specified.  See the BorderColor
	       variable	for a complete description of the win-list.   The  de-
	       fault is	"black".

       IconManagers { iconmgr-list }
	       This  variable  specifies  a  list  of icon managers to create.
	       Each item in the	iconmgr-list has the following format:
		    "winname" ["iconname"]   "geometry"	columns
	       where winname is	the name of the	windows	 that  should  be  put
	       into  this icon manager,	iconname is the	name of	that icon man-
	       ager window's icon, geometry is a standard geometry  specifica-
	       tion, and columns is the	number of columns in this icon manager
	       as described in IconManagerGeometry.  For example:
	       IconManagers
	       {
		    "XTerm"   "=300x5+800+5" 5
		    "myhost"  "=400x5+100+5" 2
	       }
	       Clients whose name or class is ``XTerm''	 will  have  an	 entry
	       created	in the ``XTerm'' icon manager.	Clients	whose name was
	       ``myhost'' would	be put into the	``myhost'' icon	manager.

       IconManagerShow { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows that should appear in
	       the  icon  manager.  When used in conjunction with the IconMan-
	       agerDontShow variable, only the windows in this	list  will  be
	       shown in	the icon manager.

       IconRegion geomstring vgrav hgrav gridwidth gridheight
	       This  variable  specifies  an  area on the root window in which
	       icons are placed	if no specific icon location  is  provided  by
	       the  client.   The  geomstring  is a quoted string containing a
	       standard	geometry specification.	 If more than  one  IconRegion
	       lines are given,	icons will be put into the succeeding icon re-
	       gions when the first is full.  The vgrav	argument should	be ei-
	       ther  North or South and	control	and is used to control whether
	       icons are first filled in from the top or bottom	 of  the  icon
	       region.	Similarly, the hgrav argument should be	either East or
	       West and	is used	to control whether icons should	be  filled  in
	       from left from the right.  Icons	are laid out within the	region
	       in a grid with cells gridwidth pixels wide and gridheight  pix-
	       els high.

       Icons { win-list	}
	       This  variable  specifies  a  list  of  window  names  and  the
	       pixmap/bitmap filenames that should be  used  as	 their	icons.
	       For example:
	       Icons
	       {
		    "XTerm"	   "xterm.icon"
		    "xfd"	   "xfd_icon"
		    "xeyes"	   "xeyes.xpm"
	       }
	       Windows	that match ``XTerm'' and would not be iconified	by un-
	       mapping,	and would try to use the  icon	pixmap/bitmap  in  the
	       file  ``xterm.icon''.   If ForceIcons is	specified, this	bitmap
	       will be used even if the	client	has  requested	its  own  icon
	       pixmap.

       IconTitle { win-list }
	       This  variable  specifies  a list of clients that will have the
	       icon name displayed below the icon and is used to request  icon
	       titles on specific windows when NoIconTitle has been set.

       InterpolateMenuColors
	       This variable indicates that menu entry colors should be	inter-
	       polated between entry specified colors.	In the example below:
	       Menu "mymenu"
	       {
		    "Title"	   ("black":"red")	    f.title
		    "entry1"		     f.nop
		    "entry2"		     f.nop
		    "entry3"  ("white":"green")	  f.nop
		    "entry4"		     f.nop
		    "entry5"  ("red":"white")	       f.nop
	       }
	       the foreground colors for ``entry1'' and	``entry2'' will	be in-
	       terpolated  between  black and white, and the background	colors
	       between red and green.  Similarly,  the	foreground  for	 ``en-
	       try4''  will  be	 half-way between white	and red, and the back-
	       ground will be half-way between green and white.

       MakeTitle { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows on which  a  titlebar
	       should be placed	and is used to request titles on specific win-
	       dows when NoTitle has been set.

       MaxWindowSize string
	       This variable specifies a  geometry  in	which  the  width  and
	       height give the maximum size for	a given	window.	 This is typi-
	       cally used to restrict windows to the size of the screen.   The
	       default is "30000x30000".

       MenuBackground string
	       This  variable  specifies  the background color used for	menus,
	       and can only be specified inside	of a Color or Monochrome list.
	       The default is "white".

       MenuFont	string
	       This  variable specifies	the font to use	when displaying	menus.
	       The default is "8x13".

       MenuForeground string
	       This variable specifies the foreground color  used  for	menus,
	       and can only be specified inside	of a Color or Monochrome list.
	       The default is "black".

       MenuShadowColor string
	       This variable specifies the color of the	 shadow	 behind	 pull-
	       down menus and can only be specified inside of a	Color or Mono-
	       chrome list.  The default is "black".

       MenuTitleBackground string
	       This variable specifies the background color  for  f.title  en-
	       tries  in menus,	and can	only be	specified inside of a Color or
	       Monochrome list.	 The default is	"white".

       MenuTitleFont string
	       This variable specifies the font	to be used in menu titles.

       MenuTitleForeground string
	       This variable specifies the foreground color  for  f.title  en-
	       tries  in  menus	and can	only be	specified inside of a Color or
	       Monochrome list.	 The default is	"black".

       Monochrome { colors }
	       This variable specifies a list of color assignments that	should
	       be made if the screen has a depth of 1.	See the	description of
	       Colors.

       MoveDelta pixels
	       This variable specifies the number of pixels the	 pointer  must
	       move  before  the f.move	function starts	working.  Also see the
	       f.deltastop function.  The default is zero pixels.

       NoBackingStore
	       This variable indicates that twm's  menus  should  not  request
	       backing	store  to minimize repainting of menus.	 This is typi-
	       cally used with servers that can	repaint	faster than  they  can
	       handle backing store.

       NoCaseSensitive
	       This  variable indicates	that case should be ignored when sort-
	       ing icon	names in an icon manager.  This	 option	 is  typically
	       used  with  applications	 that  capitalize  the first letter of
	       their icon name.

       NoDefaults
	       This variable indicates that twm	should not supply the  default
	       titlebuttons  and bindings.  This option	should only be used if
	       the startup file	contains a completely new set of bindings  and
	       definitions.

       NoGrabServer
	       This  variable  indicates  that	twm should not grab the	server
	       when popping up menus and moving	opaque windows.

       NoHighlight [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that borders should not be  highlighted
	       to track	the location of	the pointer.  If the optional win-list
	       is given, highlighting will only	be disabled for	those windows.
	       When the	border is highlighted, it will be drawn	in the current
	       BorderColor.  When the border is	not highlighted,  it  will  be
	       stippled	with an	gray pattern using the current BorderTileFore-
	       ground and BorderTileBackground colors.

       NoIconManagers
	       This variable indicates that no icon manager should be created.

       NoIconTitle [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that icons should not display the  icon
	       name  of	 the  client.  If the optional win-list	is given, only
	       those clients will not have icon	titles.	 IconTitle may be used
	       with  this option to force icon titles to be put	on on specific
	       clients

       NoMenuShadows
	       This variable indicates that linear menus should	not have  drop
	       shadows	drawn  behind  them.  For pie menus, it	means that pie
	       menus should be shaped, not drawn on a background.

       NoRaiseOnDeiconify
	       This variable  indicates	 that  windows	that  are  deiconified
	       should not be raised.

       NoRaiseOnMove
	       This  variable indicates	that windows should not	be raised when
	       moved.  This is typically used to allow windows to slide	under-
	       neath each other.

       NoRaiseOnResize
	       This  variable indicates	that windows should not	be raised when
	       resized.	 This is typically used	to allow windows to be resized
	       underneath each other.

       NoRaiseOnWarp
	       This  variable indicates	that windows should not	be raised when
	       the pointer is warped into them with the	f.warpto function.  If
	       this option is set, warping to an occluded window may result in
	       the pointer ending up in	the occluding window instead  the  de-
	       sired   window	(which	 causes	  unexpected   behavior	  with
	       f.warpring).

       NoSaveUnders
	       This variable indicates that menus should not request  save-un-
	       ders  to	 minimize  window repainting following menu selection.
	       It is typically used with displays that can repaint faster than
	       they can	handle save-unders.

       NoStackMode [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  indicates that client window requests to	change
	       stacking	order should be	ignored.  If the optional win-list  is
	       given, only requests on those windows will be ignored.  This is
	       typically used to prevent applications from  relentlessly  pop-
	       ping themselves to the front of the window stack.

       NoTitle [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that windows should not have titlebars.
	       If the optional win-list	is given, only those windows will  not
	       have  titlebars.	  MakeTitle  may  be  used with	this option to
	       force titlebars to be put on specific windows.

       NoTitleFocus
	       This variable indicates that twm	should not set keyboard	 input
	       focus  to each window as	it is entered.	Normally, twm sets the
	       focus so	that focus and key events from the titlebar  and  icon
	       managers	 are  delivered	to the application.  If	the pointer is
	       moved quickly and twm is	slow to	respond, input can be directed
	       to the old window instead of the	new.  This option is typically
	       used to prevent this ``input lag'' and to work around  bugs  in
	       older applications that have problems with focus	events.

       NoTitleHighlight	[{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  indicates that the highlight area of the	title-
	       bar, which is used to indicate the window  that	currently  has
	       the input focus,	should not be displayed.  If the optional win-
	       list is given, only those windows will not have	highlight  ar-
	       eas.   This and the SqueezeTitle	options	can be set to substan-
	       tially reduce the amount	of screen space	required by titlebars.

       OpaqueMove
	       This variable indicates that the	f.move function	 should	 actu-
	       ally  move  the	window	instead	of just	an outline so that the
	       user can	immediately see	what the window	will look like in  the
	       new  position.	This option is typically used on fast displays
	       (particularly if	NoGrabServer is	set).

       PannerBackgroundPixmap string
	       This variable specifies the filename of a pixmap	or bitmap file
	       to be used as the background image of the panner.  If this file
	       is a bitmap, the	PannerBackground and  PannerForeground	colors
	       are used	when constructing the background.

       PannerGeometry string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  position	of the Virtual Desktop
	       panner.	The default geometry is	"-0-0".

       PannerOpaqueScroll
	       This variable causes the	panner to scroll the  Virtual  Desktop
	       opaquely.   This	 variable only takes effect if the StickyAbove
	       variable	is also	set.

       PannerScale scale
	       This variable specifies that scale of the Virtual Desktop  Pan-
	       ner in relation to the actual screen.  The default scale	is 20.

       PannerState string
	       This  variable specifies	the initial state of the Virtual Desk-
	       top panner window.  Possible initial state values include "nor-
	       mal",  "iconic",	 or "withdrawn".  The default initial state is
	       "normal".

       PieMenuWait milliseconds
	       Wait this number	of milliseconds	before popping up a pie	menu.

       Pixmaps { pixmaps }
	       This variable specifies a list of pixmaps that define  the  ap-
	       pearance	of various images.  Each entry is a keyword indicating
	       the pixmap to set, followed by a	string giving the name of  the
	       bitmap file.  The following pixmaps may be specified:
	       Pixmaps
	       {
		    VirtualDesktopBackgroundPixmap     "/homes/davis/pictures/background.gif"
		    PannerBackgroundPixmap	  "panner.xpm"
		    TitleHighlight	     "gray1"
	       }
	       The  default  for TitleHighlight	is to use an even stipple pat-
	       tern.  The VirtualDesktopBackgroundPixmap and PannerBackground-
	       Pixmap pixmaps can be set as detailed in	each of	their own sec-
	       tions.

       RandomPlacement
	       This variable indicates that windows with no specified geometry
	       should  should be placed	in a pseudo-random location instead of
	       having the user drag out	an outline.

       ResizeFont string
	       This variable specifies the font	to be used for in  the	dimen-
	       sions window when resizing windows.  The	default	is "fixed".

       RestartPreviousState
	       This  variable  indicates  that	twm  should attempt to use the
	       WM_STATE	property on  client  windows  to  tell	which  windows
	       should  be iconified and	which should be	left visible.  This is
	       typically used to make try to regenerate	 the  state  that  the
	       screen was in before the	previous window	manager	was shutdown.

       ScrollDistanceX percentage
	       This  variable  specifies  the  amount  (as a percentage	of the
	       screen width) to	move when one of the scroll functions f.scrol-
	       lleft or	f.scrollright is called.

       ScrollDistanceY percentage
	       This  variable  specifies  the  amount  (as a percentage	of the
	       screen height)  to  move	 when  one  of	the  scroll  functions
	       f.scrollup or f.scrolldown is called.

       ShowIconManager
	       This  variable indicates	that the icon manager window should be
	       displayed when twm is started.  It can always be	brought	up us-
	       ing the f.showiconmgr function.

       ShowVirtualNames
	       This variable causes client window names	to be displayed	in the
	       small virtual windows inside the	Virtual	Desktop	 panner.   The
	       names will be displayed using the current VirtualFont.

       SortIconManager
	       This variable indicates that entries in the icon	manager	should
	       be sorted alphabetically	rather than by	simply	appending  new
	       windows to the end.

       SqueezeTitle [{ squeeze-list }]
	       This  variable  indicates  that	twm  should attempt to use the
	       SHAPE extension to make titlebars occupy	only  as  much	screen
	       space  as  they	need, rather than extending all	the way	across
	       the top of the window.  The optional squeeze-list may  be  used
	       to  control the location	of the squeezed	titlebar along the top
	       of the window.  It contains entries of the form:
		    "name"	   justification  num  denom
	       where name is a window name, justification is either left, cen-
	       ter, or right, and num and denom	are numbers specifying a ratio
	       giving the relative position about which	the titlebar is	justi-
	       fied.   The ratio is measured from left to right	if the numera-
	       tor is positive,	and right to left if negative.	A  denominator
	       of 0 indicates that the numerator should	be measured in pixels.
	       For convenience,	the ratio 0/0 is the same as  1/2  for	center
	       and -1/1	for right.  For	example:
	       SqueezeTitle
	       {
		    "XTerm"   left	0    0
		    "xterm1"  left	1    3
		    "xterm2"  left	2    3
		    "oclock"  center	     0	  0
		    "emacs"   right	     0	  0
	       }
	       The  DontSqueezeTitle list can be used to turn off squeezing on
	       certain titles.

       StartIconified [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that client windows should initially be
	       left as icons until explicitly deiconified by the user.	If the
	       optional	win-list is given, only	those windows will be  started
	       iconic.	 This  is  useful  for programs	that do	not support an
	       -iconic command line option or resource.

       StayUpMenus
	       This variable alters menu interaction.  By default, a menu item
	       is  selected  when  a  mouse  button is released	over it.  This
	       variable	causes menu items to be	selected on  the  next	button
	       press event.

       Sticky [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  is a list of client windows that	will be	sticky
	       by default.  See	the VIRTUAL DESKTOP section  for  a  full  de-
	       scription of sticky windows.

       StickyAbove
	       This variable causes sticky windows to be physically above non-
	       sticky windows.

       TitleBackground string [{ win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the background color used in titlebars,
	       and may only be specified inside	of a Color or Monochrome list.
	       The optional win-list is	a list of window names and  colors  so
	       that  per-window	 colors	 may  be  specified.   The  default is
	       "white".

       TitleButtonBorderWidth pixels
	       This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border  sur-
	       rounding	titlebuttons.  This is typically set to	0 to allow ti-
	       tlebuttons to take up as	much space as possible and to not have
	       a border.  The default is 1.

       TitleFont string
	       This  variable specifies	the font to used for displaying	window
	       names in	titlebars.  The	default	is "8x13".

       TitleFontPadding	pixels
	       This variable specifies the number of pixels of padding	to  be
	       placed  above window titles.  This allows for using small fonts
	       with larger buttons.

       TitleForeground string [{ win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the foreground color used in titlebars,
	       and may only be specified inside	of a Color or Monochrome list.
	       The optional win-list is	a list of window names and  colors  so
	       that  per-window	 colors	 may  be  specified.   The  default is
	       "black".

       TitlePadding pixels
	       This variable specifies the distance between the	 various  but-
	       tons,  text,  and highlight areas in the	titlebar.  The default
	       is 8 pixels.

       UnknownIcon string
	       This variable specifies the filename of a  bitmap  file	to  be
	       used as the default icon.  This bitmap will be used as the icon
	       of all clients which do not provide an icon bitmap and are  not
	       listed in the Icons list.

       UsePPosition string
	       This  variable  specifies  whether or not twm should honor pro-
	       gram-requested locations	(given by the PPosition	 flag  in  the
	       WM_NORMAL_HINTS	property)  in  the absence of a	user-specified
	       position.  The argument string may have one  of	three  values:
	       "off"  (the default) indicating that twm	should ignore the pro-
	       gram-supplied  position,	 "on"  indicating  that	 the  position
	       should  be  used,  and  "non-zero" indicating that the position
	       should used if it is other than (0,0).  The  latter  option  is
	       for working around a bug	in older toolkits.

       VirtualDesktop string
	       This variable enables the Virtual Desktop feature and specifies
	       the initial size	of the desktop,	either in pixels or  in	 inte-
	       gral  multiples of the screen size.  The	size is	specified as a
	       standard	geometry string.   If  a  width	 or  height  value  is
	       smaller than the	width or height	of the physical	display, it is
	       assumed to mean a multiple of the screen	size, otherwise	it  is
	       assumed to be in	pixels.	 So to get a 2x2 sized Virtual Desktop
	       across all platforms, one could use the string "2x2" to	enable
	       the desktop.

       VirtualDesktopBackgroundPixmap string
	       This  variable  specifies the filename of a image to be used as
	       the background image of the Virtual Desktop.  If	you have  con-
	       figured twm to use xloadimage(1)	to load	this image, the	string
	       must be a full pathname,	 or  be	 in  the  image-path  in  your
	       ~/.xloadimagerc	file.	If  you	have not configured twm	to use
	       xloadimage(1), then it will load	a bitmap or pixmap in the tra-
	       ditional	 fashion.   If	the  pixmap  you load is a bitmap (one
	       plane deep), VirtualDesktopBackground  and  VirtualDesktopFore-
	       ground colors are used when constructing	the background.

       WarpCursor [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable indicates	that the pointer should	be warped into
	       windows when they are deiconified.  If the optional win-list is
	       given,  the  pointer will only be warped	when those windows are
	       deiconified.  This will also change the position	of the virtual
	       desktop	if  the	unmapped window	wasn't visible from the	actual
	       position.

       VirtualFont font
	       This is the font	used to	display	window names in	the small win-
	       dows  inside  the  panner  if  the ShowVirtualNames variable is
	       specified.  The default font is "5x8".

       WindowRing { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a  list	of  windows  along  which  the
	       f.warpring function cycles.

       WarpUnmapped
	       This  variable indicates	that that the f.warpto function	should
	       deiconify any iconified windows it encounters.  This  is	 typi-
	       cally  used  to	make  a	key binding that will pop a particular
	       window (such as xmh), no	matter where it	is.   The  default  is
	       for f.warpto to ignore iconified	windows.

       XorValue	number
	       This  variable  specifies  the value to use when	drawing	window
	       outlines	for moving and resizing.  This	should	be  set	 to  a
	       value  that will	result in a variety of of distinguishable col-
	       ors when	exclusive-or'ed	with the contents of the user's	 typi-
	       cal  screen.   Setting  this variable to	1 often	gives nice re-
	       sults if	adjacent colors	in the default colormap	are  distinct.
	       By default, twm will attempt to cause temporary lines to	appear
	       at the opposite end of the colormap from	the graphics.

       Zoom [ count ]
	       This variable indicates that outlines suggesting	movement of  a
	       window  to  and	from  its  iconified state should be displayed
	       whenever	a window is iconified or  deiconified.	 The  optional
	       count  argument	specifies  the number of outlines to be	drawn.
	       The default count is 8.

       The following variables must be set after the fonts have	been assigned,
       so it is	usually	best to	put them at the	end of the variables or	begin-
       ning of the bindings sections:

       DefaultFunction function
	       This variable specifies the function to be executed when	a  key
	       or  button  event is received for which no binding is provided.
	       This is typically bound to f.nop, f.beep, or a menu  containing
	       window operations.

       WindowFunction function
	       This  variable  specifies the function to execute when a	window
	       is selected from	the TwmWindows menu.  If this variable is  not
	       set, the	window will be deiconified and raised.

BINDINGS
       After  the  desired  variables have been	set, functions may be attached
       titlebuttons and	key and	pointer	buttons.  Titlebuttons	may  be	 added
       from  the  left	or right side and appear in the	titlebar from left-to-
       right according to the order in which  they  are	 specified.   Key  and
       pointer button bindings may be given in any order.

       Titlebuttons  specifications must include the name of the pixmap	to use
       in the button box and the function to be	invoked	when a pointer	button
       is pressed within them:
       LeftTitleButton "bitmapname"  = function
       or
       RightTitleButton	"bitmapname" = function
       The  bitmapname	may  refer  to one of the  built-in bitmaps (which are
       scaled to match TitleFont) by using the appropriate colon-prefixed name
       described above.

       Key and pointer button specifications must give the modifiers that must
       be pressed, over	which parts of the screen the  pointer	must  be,  and
       what  function  is to be	invoked.  Keys are given as strings containing
       the appropriate keysym name; buttons are	given  as  the	keywords  But-
       ton1-Button5:
       "FP1"	      =	modlist	: context : function
       Button1	 = modlist : context : function
       The  modlist  is	 any combination of the	modifier names shift, control,
       lock, meta, mod1, mod2, mod3, mod4, or mod5 (which may  be  abbreviated
       as  s, c, l, m, m1, m2, m3, m4, m5, respectively) separated by a	verti-
       cal bar (|).  Similarly,	the context is any combination of window,  ti-
       tle, icon, root,	frame, iconmgr,	their first letters (iconmgr abbrevia-
       tion is m), or all, separated by	a vertical bar.	 The function  is  any
       of  the f.  keywords described below.  For example, the default startup
       file contains the following bindings:
       Button1	 =    :	root	     : f.menu "TwmWindows"
       Button1	 = m  :	window | icon	  : f.function "move-or-lower"
       Button2	 = m  :	window | icon	  : f.iconify
       Button3	 = m  :	window | icon	  : f.function "move-or-raise"
       Button1	 =    :	title	     : f.function "move-or-raise"
       Button2	 =    :	title	     : f.raiselower
       Button1	 =    :	icon	     : f.function "move-or-iconify"
       Button2	 =    :	icon	     : f.iconify
       Button1	 =    :	iconmgr	: f.iconify
       Button2	 =    :	iconmgr	: f.iconify
       A user who wanted to be able to manipulate windows  from	 the  keyboard
       could use the following bindings:
       "F1"	 =    :	all	     : f.iconify
       "F2"	 =    :	all	     : f.raiselower
       "F3"	 =    :	all	     : f.warpring "next"
       "F4"	 =    :	all	     : f.warpto	"xmh"
       "F5"	 =    :	all	     : f.warpto	"emacs"
       "F6"	 =    :	all	     : f.colormap "next"
       "F7"	 =    :	all	     : f.colormap "default"
       "F20"	      =	   : all	  : f.warptoscreen "next"
       "Left"	      =	m  : all	  : f.backiconmgr
       "Right"	 = m | s   : all	  : f.forwiconmgr
       "Up"	 = m  :	all	     : f.upiconmgr
       "Down"	 = m | s   : all	  : f.downiconmgr
       Twm  provides many more window manipulation primitives than can be con-
       veniently stored	in a titlebar, menu, or	set of key bindings.  Although
       a  small	 set of	defaults are supplied (unless the NoDefaults is	speci-
       fied), most users will want to have their most common operations	 bound
       to  key and button strokes.  To do this,	twm associates names with each
       of the primitives and  provides	user-defined  functions	 for  building
       higher  level  primitives  and  menus for interactively selecting among
       groups of functions.

       User-defined functions contain the name by which	they are referenced in
       calls  to f.function and	a list of other	functions to execute.  For ex-
       ample:
       Function	"move-or-lower"	{ f.move f.deltastop f.lower }
       Function	"move-or-raise"	{ f.move f.deltastop f.raise }
       Function	"move-or-iconify"    { f.move f.deltastop f.iconify }
       Function	"restore-colormap"   { f.colormap "default" f.lower }
       The function name must be used in f.function exactly as it  appears  in
       the function specification.

       In  the	descriptions  below, if	the function is	said to	operate	on the
       selected	window,	but is invoked from a root menu, the  cursor  will  be
       changed	to  the	 Select	cursor and the next window to receive a	button
       press will be chosen:

       ! string
	       This is an abbreviation for f.exec string.

       f.autoraise
	       This function toggles whether or	not  the  selected  window  is
	       raised whenever entered by the pointer.	See the	description of
	       the variable AutoRaise.

       f.backiconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the previous column  in  the
	       current icon manager, wrapping back to the previous row if nec-
	       essary.

       f.beep  This function sounds the	keyboard bell.

       f.bottomzoom
	       This function is	similar	to the f.fullzoom  function,  but  re-
	       sizes the window	to fill	only the bottom	half of	the screen.

       f.circledown
	       This  function lowers the top-most window that occludes another
	       window.

       f.circleup
	       This function raises the	bottom-most window that	is occluded by
	       another window.

       f.colormap string
	       This  function rotates the colormaps (obtained from the WM_COL-
	       ORMAP_WINDOWS property on the window)  that  twm	 will  display
	       when  the  pointer  is in this window.  The argument string may
	       have one	of the following  values:  "next",  "prev",  and  "de-
	       fault".

       f.constrainedmove
	       This function will have approximately the same behavior,	except
	       that the	move will  be  constrained  without  need  for	double
	       clicking.

       f.deiconify
	       This  function  deiconifies the selected	window.	 If the	window
	       is not an icon, this function does nothing.

       f.delete
	       This function sends the WM_DELETE_WINDOW	 message  to  the  se-
	       lected  window  if  the	client	application  has  requested it
	       through the WM_PROTOCOLS	window property.  The  application  is
	       supposed	 to  respond  to the message by	removing the indicated
	       window.	If the window has not requested	WM_DELETE_WINDOW  mes-
	       sages,  the keyboard bell will be rung indicating that the user
	       should choose an	alternative method.

       f.deltastop
	       This function allows a user-defined function to be  aborted  if
	       the pointer has been moved more than MoveDelta pixels.  See the
	       example definition given	for Function  "move-or-raise"  at  the
	       beginning of the	section.

       f.destroy
	       This  function instructs	the X server to	close the display con-
	       nection of the client that created the selected	window.	  This
	       should  only be used as a last resort for shutting down runaway
	       clients.

       f.downiconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the next row in the  current
	       icon  manger,  wrapping	to the beginning of the	next column if
	       necessary.

       f.exec string
	       This function passes the	argument string	to /bin/sh for	execu-
	       tion.   In  multiscreen	mode,  if string starts	a new X	client
	       without giving a	display	argument, the client  will  appear  on
	       the screen from which this function was invoked.

       f.focus This  function  toggles the keyboard focus of the server	to the
	       selected	window,	changing the focus rule	from pointer-driven if
	       necessary.   If	the  selected window already was focused, this
	       function	executes an f.unfocus.

       f.forcemove
	       This function is	like f.move except that	it ignores  the	 Dont-
	       MoveOff variable.

       f.forwiconmgr
	       This  function warps the	pointer	to the next column in the cur-
	       rent icon manager, wrapping to the beginning of the next	row if
	       necessary.

       f.fullzoom
	       This  function  resizes the selected window to the full size of
	       the display or else restores the	original size  if  the	window
	       was already zoomed.

       f.function string
	       This  function executes the user-defined	function whose name is
	       specified by the	argument string.

       f.hbzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.bottomzoom.

       f.hideiconmgr
	       This function unmaps the	current	icon manager.

       f.horizoom
	       This variable is	similar	to the f.zoom function except that the
	       selected	window is resized to the full width of the display.

       f.htzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.topzoom.

       f.hzoom This function is	a synonym for f.horizoom.

       f.iconify
	       This  function  iconifies or deiconifies	the selected window or
	       icon, respectively.

       f.identify
	       This function displays a	summary	of the name  and  geometry  of
	       the selected window.  Clicking the pointer or pressing a	key in
	       the window will dismiss it.

       f.lefticonmgr
	       This function similar to	 f.backiconmgr	except	that  wrapping
	       does not	change rows.

       f.leftzoom
	       This  variable  is  similar  to	the  f.bottomzoom function but
	       causes the selected window is only resized to the left half  of
	       the display.

       f.lower This function lowers the	selected window.

       f.menu string
	       This  function  invokes	the  menu  specified  by  the argument
	       string.	Cascaded menus may be built by nesting calls to	f.menu
	       and f.piemenu.

       f.move  This  function  drags an	outline	of the selected	window (or the
	       window itself if	the OpaqueMove variable	is set)	until the  in-
	       voking  pointer button is released.  Double clicking within the
	       number of milliseconds given by ConstrainedMoveTime  warps  the
	       pointer	to the center of the window and	constrains the move to
	       be either horizontal or vertical	depending on which  grid  line
	       is  crossed.   To abort a move, press another button before re-
	       leasing the first button.

       f.nexticonmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the next icon	 manager  con-
	       taining any windows on the current or any succeeding screen.

       f.nop   This  function  does nothing and	is typically used with the De-
	       faultFunction or	WindowFunction variables or to introduce blank
	       lines in	menus.

       f.opaquemove
	       This  function  will  exact  as	does f.move, but it will do an
	       opaque move regardless of whether OpaqueMove is set or not.

       f.panner
	       This function toggles the display of the	panner window.

       f.piemenu string
	       This function invokes the pie menu specified  by	 the  argument
	       string.	 Cascaded  menus  may  be  built  by  nesting calls to
	       f.piemenu and f.menu.

       f.previconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the  previous	 icon  manager
	       containing any windows on the current or	preceding screens.

       f.quit  This  function  causes  twm to restore the window's borders and
	       exit.  If twm is	the first client invoked from xdm,  this  will
	       result in a server reset.

       f.raise This function raises the	selected window.

       f.raiselower
	       This  function  raises  the  selected  window to	the top	of the
	       stacking	order if it is occluded	by any windows,	otherwise  the
	       window will be lowered.

       f.refresh
	       This function causes all	windows	to be refreshed.

       f.relativeresize
	       This function will do a resize and behave as if AutoRelativeRe-
	       size were set, whether it is or not

       f.resize
	       This function displays  an  outline  of	the  selected  window.
	       Crossing	 a  border  (or	setting	AutoRelativeResize) will cause
	       the outline to begin to rubber band until the  invoking	button
	       is  released.   To  abort a resize, press another button	before
	       releasing the first button.

       f.restart
	       This function kills and restarts	twm.

       f.righticonmgr
	       This function is	similar	to f.nexticonmgr except	that  wrapping
	       does not	change rows.

       f.rightzoom
	       This  variable  is  similar to the f.bottomzoom function	except
	       that the	selected window	is only	resized	to the right  half  of
	       the display.

       f.saveyourself
	       This  function  sends a WM_SAVEYOURSELF message to the selected
	       window if it has	requested the message in its WM_PROTOCOLS win-
	       dow property.  Clients that accept this message are supposed to
	       checkpoint all state associated with the	window and update  the
	       WM_COMMAND property as specified	in the ICCCM.  If the selected
	       window has not selected for this	 message,  the	keyboard  bell
	       will be rung.

       f.scroll	string
	       This function scrolls the Virtual Desktop to a specific logical
	       screen quadrant.	 The string parameter is a geometry specifica-
	       tion indicating how to scroll the desktop.  For example,	"+0+0"
	       would scroll the	desktop	to the home location and "+2+1"	 would
	       scroll  the desktop to the quadrant in the third	logical	column
	       and the second row.

       f.scrollback
	       This function scrolls the Virtual Desktop back to its  previous
	       location.

       f.scrolldown
	       This  function  scrolls	the Virtual Desktop down a fraction of
	       the height of the screen	specified in ScrollDistanceY.

       f.scrollhome
	       This function scrolls the Virtual Desktop to the	home location.

       f.scrollleft
	       This function scrolls the Virtual Desktop left  a  fraction  of
	       the width of the	screen specified in ScrollDistanceX.

       f.scrollright
	       This  function  scrolls the Virtual Desktop right a fraction of
	       the width of the	screen specified in ScrollDistanceX.

       f.scrollup
	       This function scrolls the Virtual Desktop up one	a fraction  of
	       the height of the screen	specified in ScrollDistanceY.

       f.showiconmgr
	       This function maps the current icon manager.

       f.sorticonmgr
	       This function sorts the entries in the current icon manager al-
	       phabetically.  See the variable SortIconManager.

       f.stick This funtion toggles making a window sticky.

       f.title This function provides a	centered, unselectable item in a  menu
	       definition.  It should not be used in any other context.

       f.topzoom
	       This  variable  is  similar to the f.bottomzoom function	except
	       that the	selected window	is only	resized	to the top half	of the
	       display.

       f.unfocus
	       This  function  resets  the focus back to pointer-driven.  This
	       should be used when a focused window is no longer desired.

       f.upiconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the previous row in the cur-
	       rent  icon manager, wrapping to the last	row in the same	column
	       if necessary.

       f.vlzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.leftzoom.

       f.vrzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.rightzoom.

       f.warpring string
	       This function warps the pointer to the next or previous	window
	       (as  indicated  by  the argument	string,	which may be "next" or
	       "prev") specified in the	WindowRing variable.

       f.warpto	string
	       This function warps the pointer to the window which has a  name
	       or  class  that matches string.	If the window is iconified, it
	       will be deiconified if the variable WarpUnmapped	is set or else
	       ignored.	  In addition to warping the pointer to	the window the
	       Virtual Desktop will be scrolled	to the logical	quadrant  that
	       contains	the window.

       f.warptoiconmgr string
	       This function warps the pointer to the icon manager entry asso-
	       ciated with the window containing the pointer in	the icon  man-
	       ager  specified	by  the	 argument  string.  If string is empty
	       (i.e. ""), the current icon manager is chosen.

       f.warptoscreen string
	       This function warps the pointer to the screen specified by  the
	       argument	string.	 String	may be a number	(e.g. "0" or "1"), the
	       word "next" (indicating the current  screen  plus  1,  skipping
	       over  any  unmanaged  screens), the word	"back" (indicating the
	       current screen minus 1, skipping	over any  unmanaged  screens),
	       or the word "prev" (indicating the last screen visited.

       f.winrefresh
	       This  function is similar to the	f.refresh function except that
	       only the	selected window	is refreshed.

       f.zoom  This function is	similar	to  the	 f.fullzoom  function,	except
	       that the	only the height	of the selected	window is changed.

MENUS
       Functions  may be grouped and interactively selected using pop-up (when
       bound to	a pointer button) or pull-down (when associated	with a	title-
       button)	linear	menus or pie menus.  Normal menus have a vertical lay-
       out, and	pie menus have a circular  layout.   Each  menu	 specification
       contains	 the  name  of the menu	as it will be referred to by f.menu or
       f.piemenu, optional initial direction (for pie menus), optional default
       foreground  and background colors, the list of item names and the func-
       tions they should invoke, and optional foreground and background	colors
       for individual items:
       Menu "menuname" [ ("deffore":"defback") ]
       {
	    string1   [	("fore1":"backn")]     function1
	    string2   [	("fore2":"backn")]     function2
		 .
		 .
		 .
	    stringN   [	("foreN":"backN")]     functionN
       }

       The menuname is case-sensitive.	The optional deffore and defback argu-
       ments specify the foreground and	background colors used on a color dis-
       play  to	highlight menu entries.	 The string portion of each menu entry
       will be the text	which will appear in the menu.	The optional fore  and
       back arguments specify the foreground and background colors of the menu
       entry when the pointer is not in	the entry.  These colors will only  be
       used on a color display.	 The default is	to use the colors specified by
       the MenuForeground and MenuBackground variables.	 The function  portion
       of  the	menu entry is one of the functions, including any user-defined
       functions, or additional	menus.

       There is	a special menu named TwmWindows	which contains	the  names  of
       all  of	the  client and	twm-supplied windows.  Selecting an entry will
       cause the WindowFunction	to be executed on that window.	If WindowFunc-
       tion  hasn't  been  set,	the window will	be deiconified and raised.  If
       the Virtual Desktop is enabled, the desktop will	also  be  scrolled  to
       the logical quadrant that contains the windows.

       Pie  menus  are	defined	 in  the  same	way as linear menus, using the
       PieMenu command instead of the Menu command.  They have	an  extra  op-
       tional  argument	 specifying  the  direction of the first label,	in de-
       grees.  Subsequent labels are evenly spaced in a	circle around the cen-
       ter  of the menu, in a counter-clockwise	direction.  The	default	direc-
       tion if not specified is	0, which is to the right.
       PieMenu "piemenuname" [ ("deffore":"defback") ] [ @ degrees ]
       {
	    string1   [	("fore1":"backn")]     function1
	    string2   [	("fore2":"backn")]     function2
		 .
		 .
		 .
	    stringN   [	("foreN":"backN")]     functionN
       }

ICONS
       Twm supports several different ways of manipulating iconified  windows.
       The  common  pixmap-and-text style may be laid out by hand or automati-
       cally arranged as described by the IconRegion variable.	In addition, a
       terse grid of icon names, called	an icon	manager, provides a more effi-
       cient use of screen space as well as the	ability	to navigate among win-
       dows from the keyboard.

       An icon manager is a window that	contains names of selected or all win-
       dows currently on the display.  In addition to the window name, a small
       button  using  the default iconify symbol will be displayed to the left
       of the name when	the window is iconified.  By default, clicking	on  an
       entry  in  the  icon manager performs f.iconify.	 To change the actions
       taken in	the icon manager, use the the iconmgr context when  specifying
       button and keyboard bindings.

       Moving the pointer into the icon	manager	also directs keyboard focus to
       the indicated window (setting the focus explicitly or else sending syn-
       thetic events NoTitleFocus is set).  Using the f.upiconmgr, f.downicon-
       mgr f.lefticonmgr, and f.righticonmgr functions,	the input focus	can be
       changed between windows directly	from the keyboard.

BUGS
       The resource manager should have	been used instead of all of the	window
       lists.

       The IconRegion variable should take a list.

       Double clicking very fast to get	the  constrained  move	function  will
       sometimes  cause	 the  window  to  move,	even though the	pointer	is not
       moved.

       If IconifyByUnmapping is	on and	windows	 are  listed  in  IconManager-
       DontShow	 but  not  in DontIconifyByUnmapping, they may be lost if they
       are iconified and no bindings to	f.menu "TwmWindows"  or	 f.warpto  are
       setup.

FILES
	$HOME/.piewmrc.<screen number>
	$HOME/.piewmrc
	$HOME/.twmrc.<screen number>
	$HOME/.twmrc
	/usr/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       DISPLAY This  variable  is used to determine which X server to use.  It
	       is also set during f.exec so  that  programs  come  up  on  the
	       proper screen.

       HOME    This variable is	used as	the prefix for files that begin	with a
	       tilde and for locating the twm startup file.

SEE ALSO
       X(1), Xserver(1), xdm(1), xrdb(1), m4(1)

COPYRIGHT
       Portions	copyright 1988 Evans & Sutherland Computer  Corporation;  por-
       tions  copyright	1989 Hewlett-Packard Company and the Massachusetts In-
       stitute of Technology,  See X(1)	for a full  statement  of  rights  and
       permissions.

AUTHORS
       Tom  LaStrange, Solbourne Computer; Chris Ross, University of Maryland;
       Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium;	  Steve	Pitschke,  Stardent  Computer;
       Keith Packard, MIT X Consortium;	  Dave Payne, Apple Computer; Don Hop-
       kins, CMU.

       Virtual Desktop added by	Tom LaStrange, Solbourne Computer.

       Pie menus designed and implemented by Don Hopkins, CMU.

X Version 11			   Release 5			      PIEWM(1)

NAME | SYNTAX | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | CUSTOMIZATION | M4 PREPROCESSING | VIRTUAL DESKTOP | PIE MENUS | VARIABLES | BINDINGS | MENUS | ICONS | BUGS | FILES | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | SEE ALSO | COPYRIGHT | AUTHORS

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