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PGSQL_TABLE(5)		      File Formats Manual		PGSQL_TABLE(5)

       pgsql_table - Postfix PostgreSQL	client configuration

       postmap -q "string" pgsql:$config_directory/filename

       postmap -q - pgsql:$config_directory/filename <inputfile

       The  Postfix  mail system uses optional tables for address rewriting or
       mail routing. These tables are usually in dbm or	db format.

       Alternatively, lookup tables can	be specified as	PostgreSQL  databases.
       In  order  to  use  PostgreSQL lookups, define a	PostgreSQL source as a
       lookup table in,	for example:
	   alias_maps =	pgsql:/etc/

       The file	/usr/local/etc/postfix/	has the	same format as
       the  Postfix file, and can specify the parameters described be-

       For compatibility with other Postfix lookup tables, PostgreSQL  parame-
       ters  can  also be defined in  In order	to do that, specify as
       PostgreSQL source a name	that doesn't begin with	a slash	or a dot.  The
       PostgreSQL  parameters will then	be accessible as the name you've given
       the source in its definition, an	underscore, and	the name of the	param-
       eter.   For  example, if	the map	is specified as	"pgsql:pgsqlname", the
       parameter  "hosts"  below  would	 be  defined  in  as  "pgsql-

       Note:  with  this  form,	 the  passwords	for the	PostgreSQL sources are
       written in, which is normally world-readable.  Support for this
       form will be removed in a future	Postfix	version.

       Normally,  the SQL query	is specified via a single query	parameter (de-
       scribed in more detail below).  When this parameter is not specified in
       the  map	 definition,  Postfix  reverts to an older interface, with the
       SQL  query constructed  from the	select_function, select_field,	table,
       where_field  and	 additional_conditions	parameters.  The old interface
       will be gradually phased	out. To	migrate	to the new interface set:

	   query = SELECT select_function('%s')

       or in the absence of select_function, the lower precedence:

	   query = SELECT select_field
	       FROM table
	       WHERE where_field = '%s'

       Use the value, not the name, of each legacy parameter.  Note  that  the
       additional_conditions  parameter	is optional and	if not empty, will al-
       ways start with AND.

       When using SQL to store lists such as $mynetworks, $mydestination, $re-
       lay_domains, $local_recipient_maps, etc., it is important to understand
       that the	table must store each list member as a separate	key. The table
       lookup  verifies	 the *existence* of the	key. See "Postfix lists	versus
       tables" in the DATABASE_README document for a discussion.

       Do NOT create tables that return	the full list of domains in  $mydesti-
       nation or $relay_domains	etc., or IP addresses in $mynetworks.

       DO create tables	with each matching item	as a key and with an arbitrary
       value. With SQL databases it is not uncommon to return the  key	itself
       or a constant value.

       hosts  The  hosts  that	Postfix	will try to connect to and query from.
	      Specify unix: for	UNIX-domain sockets, inet: for TCP connections
	      (default).  Example:
		  hosts	= host1.some.domain host2.some.domain:port
		  hosts	= unix:/file/name

	      The  hosts  are tried in random order, with all connections over
	      UNIX domain sockets being	tried before those over	TCP.  The con-
	      nections	are  automatically closed after	being idle for about 1
	      minute, and are re-opened	as necessary.

	      NOTE: the	unix: and inet:	prefixes are  accepted	for  backwards
	      compatibility reasons, but are actually ignored.	The PostgreSQL
	      client library will always try to	connect	to an UNIX  socket  if
	      the name starts with a slash, and	will try a TCP connection oth-

       user, password
	      The user name and	password to log	into the pgsql server.	 Exam-
		  user = someone
		  password = some_password

       dbname The database name	on the servers.	Example:
		  dbname = customer_database

       query  The  SQL query template used to search the database, where %s is
	      a	substitute for the address Postfix is trying to	resolve, e.g.
		  query	= SELECT replacement FROM aliases WHERE	mailbox	= '%s'

	      This parameter supports the following '%'	expansions:

	      %%     This is replaced by a literal '%' character. (Postfix 2.2
		     and later)

	      %s     This  is  replaced	by the input key.  SQL quoting is used
		     to	make sure that the input key does not  add  unexpected

	      %u     When the input key	is an address of the form user@domain,
		     %u	is replaced by the SQL quoted local part  of  the  ad-
		     dress.   Otherwise,  %u  is replaced by the entire	search
		     string.  If the localpart is empty,  the  query  is  sup-
		     pressed and returns no results.

	      %d     When the input key	is an address of the form user@domain,
		     %d	is replaced by the SQL quoted domain part of  the  ad-
		     dress.  Otherwise,	the query is suppressed	and returns no

	      %[SUD] The upper-case equivalents	of the above expansions	behave
		     in	 the  query  parameter identically to their lower-case
		     counter-parts.  With the result_format parameter (see be-
		     low),  they  expand  the input key	rather than the	result

		     The above %S, %U and %D  expansions  are  available  with
		     Postfix 2.2 and later

	      %[1-9] The  patterns  %1,	 %2, ... %9 are	replaced by the	corre-
		     sponding most significant component of  the  input	 key's
		     domain.  If  the input key	is, then
		     %1	is com,	%2 is example and %3 is	mail. If the input key
		     is	 unqualified or	does not have enough domain components
		     to	satisfy	all the	specified patterns, the	query is  sup-
		     pressed and returns no results.

		     The  above	%1, ...	%9 expansions are available with Post-
		     fix 2.2 and later

	      The domain parameter described below limits the  input  keys  to
	      addresses	in matching domains. When the domain parameter is non-
	      empty, SQL queries for unqualified  addresses  or	 addresses  in
	      non-matching domains are suppressed and return no	results.

	      The  precedence  of this parameter has changed with Postfix 2.2,
	      in prior releases	the precedence was, from  highest  to  lowest,
	      select_function, query, select_field, ...

	      With Postfix 2.2 the query parameter has highest precedence, see
	      COMPATIBILITY above.

	      NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the query parameter.

       result_format (default: %s)
	      Format template applied to result	attributes. Most commonly used
	      to  append  (or prepend) text to the result. This	parameter sup-
	      ports the	following '%' expansions:

	      %%     This is replaced by a literal '%' character.

	      %s     This is replaced by the value of  the  result  attribute.
		     When result is empty it is	skipped.

	      %u     When the result attribute value is	an address of the form
		     user@domain, %u is	replaced by the	local part of the  ad-
		     dress.  When  the	result	has  an	 empty localpart it is

	      %d     When a result attribute value is an address of  the  form
		     user@domain, %d is	replaced by the	domain part of the at-
		     tribute value. When  the  result  is  unqualified	it  is

		     The  upper-case  and decimal digit	expansions interpolate
		     the parts of the input key	rather than the	result.	 Their
		     behavior  is  identical to	that described with query, and
		     in	fact because  the  input  key  is  known  in  advance,
		     queries  whose  key  does not contain all the information
		     specified in the result template are suppressed  and  re-
		     turn no results.

	      For example, using "result_format	= smtp:[%s]" allows one	to use
	      a	mailHost attribute as the basis	of a transport(5) table. After
	      applying	the result format, multiple values are concatenated as
	      comma separated strings. The expansion_limit and	parameter  ex-
	      plained below allows one to restrict the number of values	in the
	      result, which is especially useful for maps that must return  at
	      most one value.

	      The  default value %s specifies that each	result value should be
	      used as is.

	      This parameter is	available with Postfix 2.2 and later.

	      NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the result	format!

       domain (default:	no domain list)
	      This is a	list of	domain names, paths to files, or dictionaries.
	      When  specified,	only  fully qualified search keys with a *non-
	      empty* localpart and a matching domain are eligible for  lookup:
	      'user'  lookups,	bare  domain lookups and "@domain" lookups are
	      not performed. This can significantly reduce the query  load  on
	      the PostgreSQL server.
		  domain =,	hash:$config_directory/searchdomains

	      It  is best not to use SQL to store the domains eligible for SQL

	      This parameter is	available with Postfix 2.2 and later.

	      NOTE: DO NOT define this parameter for local(8) aliases, because
	      the input	keys are always	unqualified.

       expansion_limit (default: 0)
	      A	 limit	on  the	total number of	result elements	returned (as a
	      comma separated list) by a lookup	against	the map.  A setting of
	      zero  disables the limit.	Lookups	fail with a temporary error if
	      the limit	is exceeded.  Setting the  limit  to  1	 ensures  that
	      lookups do not return multiple values.

       This section describes query interfaces that are	deprecated as of Post-
       fix 2.2.	 Please	migrate	to the new query interface as the  old	inter-
       faces are slated	to be phased out.

	      This parameter specifies a database function name. Example:
		  select_function = my_lookup_user_alias

	      This is equivalent to:
		  query	= SELECT my_lookup_user_alias('%s')

	      This  parameter  overrides  the legacy table-related fields (de-
	      scribed below). With Postfix versions  prior  to	2.2,  it  also
	      overrides	 the  query  parameter.	Starting with Postfix 2.2, the
	      query parameter has highest precedence, and the  select_function
	      parameter	is deprecated.

       The  following  parameters (with	lower precedence than the select_func-
       tion interface described	above) can be used to  build  the  SQL	select
       statement as follows:

	   SELECT [select_field]
	   FROM	[table]
	   WHERE [where_field] = '%s'

       The  specifier %s is replaced with each lookup by the lookup key	and is
       escaped so if it	contains single	quotes or  other  odd  characters,  it
       will not	cause a	parse error, or	worse, a security problem.

       Starting	with Postfix 2.2, this interface is obsoleted by the more gen-
       eral query interface described above. If	higher precedence the query or
       select_function	parameters described above are defined,	the parameters
       described here are ignored.

	      The SQL "select" parameter. Example:
		  select_field = forw_addr

       table  The SQL "select .. from" table name. Example:
		  table	= mxaliases

	      The SQL "select .. where"	parameter. Example:
		  where_field =	alias

	      Additional conditions to the SQL query. Example:
		  additional_conditions	= AND status = 'paid'

       postmap(1), Postfix lookup table	manager
       postconf(5), configuration parameters
       ldap_table(5), LDAP lookup tables
       mysql_table(5), MySQL lookup tables
       sqlite_table(5),	SQLite lookup tables

       Use "postconf readme_directory" or "postconf html_directory" to	locate
       this information.
       DATABASE_README,	Postfix	lookup table overview
       PGSQL_README, Postfix PostgreSQL	client guide

       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.

       PgSQL support was introduced with Postfix version 2.1.

       Based on	the MySQL client by:
       Scott Cotton, Joshua Marcus
       IC Group, Inc.

       Ported to PostgreSQL by:
       Aaron Sethman

       Further enhanced	by:
       Liviu Daia
       Institute of Mathematics	of the Romanian	Academy
       P.O. BOX	1-764
       RO-014700 Bucharest, ROMANIA



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