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PG_RESTORE(1)		PostgreSQL 9.6.19 Documentation		 PG_RESTORE(1)

       pg_restore - restore a PostgreSQL database from an archive file created
       by pg_dump

       pg_restore [connection-option...] [option...] [filename]

       pg_restore is a utility for restoring a PostgreSQL database from	an
       archive created by pg_dump(1) in	one of the non-plain-text formats. It
       will issue the commands necessary to reconstruct	the database to	the
       state it	was in at the time it was saved. The archive files also	allow
       pg_restore to be	selective about	what is	restored, or even to reorder
       the items prior to being	restored. The archive files are	designed to be
       portable	across architectures.

       pg_restore can operate in two modes. If a database name is specified,
       pg_restore connects to that database and	restores archive contents
       directly	into the database. Otherwise, a	script containing the SQL
       commands	necessary to rebuild the database is created and written to a
       file or standard	output.	This script output is equivalent to the	plain
       text output format of pg_dump. Some of the options controlling the
       output are therefore analogous to pg_dump options.

       Obviously, pg_restore cannot restore information	that is	not present in
       the archive file. For instance, if the archive was made using the "dump
       data as INSERT commands"	option,	pg_restore will	not be able to load
       the data	using COPY statements.

       pg_restore accepts the following	command	line arguments.

	   Specifies the location of the archive file (or directory, for a
	   directory-format archive) to	be restored. If	not specified, the
	   standard input is used.

	   Restore only	the data, not the schema (data definitions). Table
	   data, large objects,	and sequence values are	restored, if present
	   in the archive.

	   This	option is similar to, but for historical reasons not identical
	   to, specifying --section=data.

	   Clean (drop)	database objects before	recreating them. (Unless
	   --if-exists is used,	this might generate some harmless error
	   messages, if	any objects were not present in	the destination

	   Create the database before restoring	into it. If --clean is also
	   specified, drop and recreate	the target database before connecting
	   to it.

	   When	this option is used, the database named	with -d	is used	only
	   to issue the	initial	DROP DATABASE and CREATE DATABASE commands.
	   All data is restored	into the database name that appears in the

       -d dbname
	   Connect to database dbname and restore directly into	the database.

	   Exit	if an error is encountered while sending SQL commands to the
	   database. The default is to continue	and to display a count of
	   errors at the end of	the restoration.

       -f filename
	   Specify output file for generated script, or	for the	listing	when
	   used	with -l. Use - for the standard	output,	which is also the

       -F format
	   Specify format of the archive. It is	not necessary to specify the
	   format, since pg_restore will determine the format automatically.
	   If specified, it can	be one of the following:

	       The archive is in the custom format of pg_dump.

	       The archive is a	directory archive.

	       The archive is a	tar archive.

       -I index
	   Restore definition of named index only. Multiple indexes may	be
	   specified with multiple -I switches.

       -j number-of-jobs
	   Run the most	time-consuming parts of	pg_restore -- those which load
	   data, create	indexes, or create constraints -- using	multiple
	   concurrent jobs. This option	can dramatically reduce	the time to
	   restore a large database to a server	running	on a multiprocessor

	   Each	job is one process or one thread, depending on the operating
	   system, and uses a separate connection to the server.

	   The optimal value for this option depends on	the hardware setup of
	   the server, of the client, and of the network. Factors include the
	   number of CPU cores and the disk setup. A good place	to start is
	   the number of CPU cores on the server, but values larger than that
	   can also lead to faster restore times in many cases.	Of course,
	   values that are too high will lead to decreased performance because
	   of thrashing.

	   Only	the custom and directory archive formats are supported with
	   this	option.	The input must be a regular file or directory (not,
	   for example,	a pipe). This option is	ignored	when emitting a	script
	   rather than connecting directly to a	database server. Also,
	   multiple jobs cannot	be used	together with the option

	   List	the contents of	the archive. The output	of this	operation can
	   be used as input to the -L option. Note that	if filtering switches
	   such	as -n or -t are	used with -l, they will	restrict the items

       -L list-file
	   Restore only	those archive elements that are	listed in list-file,
	   and restore them in the order they appear in	the file. Note that if
	   filtering switches such as -n or -t are used	with -L, they will
	   further restrict the	items restored.

	   list-file is	normally created by editing the	output of a previous
	   -l operation. Lines can be moved or removed,	and can	also be
	   commented out by placing a semicolon	(;) at the start of the	line.
	   See below for examples.

       -n namespace
	   Restore only	objects	that are in the	named schema. Multiple schemas
	   may be specified with multiple -n switches. This can	be combined
	   with	the -t option to restore just a	specific table.

	   Do not output commands to set ownership of objects to match the
	   original database. By default, pg_restore issues ALTER OWNER	or SET
	   SESSION AUTHORIZATION statements to set ownership of	created	schema
	   elements. These statements will fail	unless the initial connection
	   to the database is made by a	superuser (or the same user that owns
	   all of the objects in the script). With -O, any user	name can be
	   used	for the	initial	connection, and	this user will own all the
	   created objects.

       -P function-name(argtype	[, ...])
       --function=function-name(argtype	[, ...])
	   Restore the named function only. Be careful to spell	the function
	   name	and arguments exactly as they appear in	the dump file's	table
	   of contents.	Multiple functions may be specified with multiple -P

	   This	option is obsolete but still accepted for backwards

	   Restore only	the schema (data definitions), not data, to the	extent
	   that	schema entries are present in the archive.

	   This	option is the inverse of --data-only. It is similar to,	but
	   for historical reasons not identical	to, specifying
	   --section=pre-data --section=post-data.

	   (Do not confuse this	with the --schema option, which	uses the word
	   "schema" in a different meaning.)

       -S username
	   Specify the superuser user name to use when disabling triggers.
	   This	is relevant only if --disable-triggers is used.

       -t table
	   Restore definition and/or data of only the named table. For this
	   purpose, "table" includes views, materialized views,	sequences, and
	   foreign tables. Multiple tables can be selected by writing multiple
	   -t switches.	This option can	be combined with the -n	option to
	   specify table(s) in a particular schema.

	       When -t is specified, pg_restore	makes no attempt to restore
	       any other database objects that the selected table(s) might
	       depend upon. Therefore, there is	no guarantee that a
	       specific-table restore into a clean database will succeed.

	       This flag does not behave identically to	the -t flag of
	       pg_dump.	There is not currently any provision for wild-card
	       matching	in pg_restore, nor can you include a schema name
	       within its -t.

	       In versions prior to PostgreSQL 9.6, this flag matched only
	       tables, not any other type of relation.

       -T trigger
	   Restore named trigger only. Multiple	triggers may be	specified with
	   multiple -T switches.

	   Specifies verbose mode.

	   Print the pg_restore	version	and exit.

	   Prevent restoration of access privileges (grant/revoke commands).

	   Execute the restore as a single transaction (that is, wrap the
	   emitted commands in BEGIN/COMMIT). This ensures that	either all the
	   commands complete successfully, or no changes are applied. This
	   option implies --exit-on-error.

	   This	option is relevant only	when performing	a data-only restore.
	   It instructs	pg_restore to execute commands to temporarily disable
	   triggers on the target tables while the data	is reloaded. Use this
	   if you have referential integrity checks or other triggers on the
	   tables that you do not want to invoke during	data reload.

	   Presently, the commands emitted for --disable-triggers must be done
	   as superuser. So you	should also specify a superuser	name with -S
	   or, preferably, run pg_restore as a PostgreSQL superuser.

	   This	option is relevant only	when restoring the contents of a table
	   which has row security. By default, pg_restore will set
	   row_security	to off,	to ensure that all data	is restored in to the
	   table. If the user does not have sufficient privileges to bypass
	   row security, then an error is thrown. This parameter instructs
	   pg_restore to set row_security to on	instead, allowing the user to
	   attempt to restore the contents of the table	with row security
	   enabled. This might still fail if the user does not have the	right
	   to insert the rows from the dump into the table.

	   Note	that this option currently also	requires the dump be in	INSERT
	   format, as COPY FROM	does not support row security.

	   Use conditional commands (i.e. add an IF EXISTS clause) when
	   cleaning database objects. This option is not valid unless --clean
	   is also specified.

	   By default, table data is restored even if the creation command for
	   the table failed (e.g., because it already exists). With this
	   option, data	for such a table is skipped. This behavior is useful
	   if the target database already contains the desired table contents.
	   For example,	auxiliary tables for PostgreSQL	extensions such	as
	   PostGIS might already be loaded in the target database; specifying
	   this	option prevents	duplicate or obsolete data from	being loaded
	   into	them.

	   This	option is effective only when restoring	directly into a
	   database, not when producing	SQL script output.

	   Do not output commands to restore security labels, even if the
	   archive contains them.

	   Do not output commands to select tablespaces. With this option, all
	   objects will	be created in whichever	tablespace is the default
	   during restore.

	   Only	restore	the named section. The section name can	be pre-data,
	   data, or post-data. This option can be specified more than once to
	   select multiple sections. The default is to restore all sections.

	   The data section contains actual table data as well as large-object
	   definitions.	Post-data items	consist	of definitions of indexes,
	   triggers, rules and constraints other than validated	check
	   constraints.	Pre-data items consist of all other data definition

	   Require that	each schema (-n/--schema) and table (-t/--table)
	   qualifier match at least one	schema/table in	the backup file.

	   Output SQL-standard SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION commands instead of
	   ALTER OWNER commands	to determine object ownership. This makes the
	   dump	more standards-compatible, but depending on the	history	of the
	   objects in the dump,	might not restore properly.

	   Show	help about pg_restore command line arguments, and exit.

       pg_restore also accepts the following command line arguments for
       connection parameters:

       -h host
	   Specifies the host name of the machine on which the server is
	   running. If the value begins	with a slash, it is used as the
	   directory for the Unix domain socket. The default is	taken from the
	   PGHOST environment variable,	if set,	else a Unix domain socket
	   connection is attempted.

       -p port
	   Specifies the TCP port or local Unix	domain socket file extension
	   on which the	server is listening for	connections. Defaults to the
	   PGPORT environment variable,	if set,	or a compiled-in default.

       -U username
	   User	name to	connect	as.

	   Never issue a password prompt. If the server	requires password
	   authentication and a	password is not	available by other means such
	   as a	.pgpass	file, the connection attempt will fail.	This option
	   can be useful in batch jobs and scripts where no user is present to
	   enter a password.

	   Force pg_restore to prompt for a password before connecting to a

	   This	option is never	essential, since pg_restore will automatically
	   prompt for a	password if the	server demands password
	   authentication. However, pg_restore will waste a connection attempt
	   finding out that the	server wants a password. In some cases it is
	   worth typing	-W to avoid the	extra connection attempt.

	   Specifies a role name to be used to perform the restore. This
	   option causes pg_restore to issue a SET ROLE	rolename command after
	   connecting to the database. It is useful when the authenticated
	   user	(specified by -U) lacks	privileges needed by pg_restore, but
	   can switch to a role	with the required rights. Some installations
	   have	a policy against logging in directly as	a superuser, and use
	   of this option allows restores to be	performed without violating
	   the policy.

	   Default connection parameters

       This utility, like most other PostgreSQL	utilities, also	uses the
       environment variables supported by libpq	(see Section 32.14,
       "Environment Variables",	in the documentation). However,	it does	not
       read PGDATABASE when a database name is not supplied.

       When a direct database connection is specified using the	-d option,
       pg_restore internally executes SQL statements. If you have problems
       running pg_restore, make	sure you are able to select information	from
       the database using, for example,	psql(1). Also, any default connection
       settings	and environment	variables used by the libpq front-end library
       will apply.

       If your installation has	any local additions to the template1 database,
       be careful to load the output of	pg_restore into	a truly	empty
       database; otherwise you are likely to get errors	due to duplicate
       definitions of the added	objects. To make an empty database without any
       local additions,	copy from template0 not	template1, for example:


       The limitations of pg_restore are detailed below.

       o   When	restoring data to a pre-existing table and the option
	   --disable-triggers is used, pg_restore emits	commands to disable
	   triggers on user tables before inserting the	data, then emits
	   commands to re-enable them after the	data has been inserted.	If the
	   restore is stopped in the middle, the system	catalogs might be left
	   in the wrong	state.

       o   pg_restore cannot restore large objects selectively;	for instance,
	   only	those for a specific table. If an archive contains large
	   objects, then all large objects will	be restored, or	none of	them
	   if they are excluded	via -L,	-t, or other options.

       See also	the pg_dump(1) documentation for details on limitations	of

       Once restored, it is wise to run	ANALYZE	on each	restored table so the
       optimizer has useful statistics;	see Section 24.1.3, "Updating Planner
       Statistics", in the documentation and Section 24.1.6, "The Autovacuum
       Daemon",	in the documentation for more information.

       Assume we have dumped a database	called mydb into a custom-format dump

	   $ pg_dump -Fc mydb >	db.dump

       To drop the database and	recreate it from the dump:

	   $ dropdb mydb
	   $ pg_restore	-C -d postgres db.dump

       The database named in the -d switch can be any database existing	in the
       cluster;	pg_restore only	uses it	to issue the CREATE DATABASE command
       for mydb. With -C, data is always restored into the database name that
       appears in the dump file.

       To reload the dump into a new database called newdb:

	   $ createdb -T template0 newdb
	   $ pg_restore	-d newdb db.dump

       Notice we don't use -C, and instead connect directly to the database to
       be restored into. Also note that	we clone the new database from
       template0 not template1,	to ensure it is	initially empty.

       To reorder database items, it is	first necessary	to dump	the table of
       contents	of the archive:

	   $ pg_restore	-l db.dump > db.list

       The listing file	consists of a header and one line for each item, e.g.:

	   ; Archive created at	Mon Sep	14 13:55:39 2009
	   ;	 dbname: DBDEMOS
	   ;	 TOC Entries: 81
	   ;	 Compression: 9
	   ;	 Dump Version: 1.10-0
	   ;	 Format: CUSTOM
	   ;	 Integer: 4 bytes
	   ;	 Offset: 8 bytes
	   ;	 Dumped	from database version: 8.3.5
	   ;	 Dumped	by pg_dump version: 8.3.8
	   ; Selected TOC Entries:
	   3; 2615 2200	SCHEMA - public	pasha
	   1861; 0 0 COMMENT - SCHEMA public pasha
	   1862; 0 0 ACL - public pasha
	   317;	1247 17715 TYPE	public composite pasha
	   319;	1247 25899 DOMAIN public domain0 pasha

       Semicolons start	a comment, and the numbers at the start	of lines refer
       to the internal archive ID assigned to each item.

       Lines in	the file can be	commented out, deleted,	and reordered. For

	   10; 145433 TABLE map_resolutions postgres
	   ;2; 145344 TABLE species postgres
	   ;4; 145359 TABLE nt_header postgres
	   6; 145402 TABLE species_records postgres
	   ;8; 145416 TABLE ss_old postgres

       could be	used as	input to pg_restore and	would only restore items 10
       and 6, in that order:

	   $ pg_restore	-L db.list db.dump

       pg_dump(1), pg_dumpall(1), psql(1)

PostgreSQL 9.6.19		     2020			 PG_RESTORE(1)


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