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PG_CTL(1)		PostgreSQL 9.6.22 Documentation		     PG_CTL(1)

       pg_ctl -	initialize, start, stop, or control a PostgreSQL server

       pg_ctl init[db] [-s] [-D	datadir] [-o initdb-options]

       pg_ctl start [-w] [-t seconds] [-s] [-D datadir]	[-l filename]
	      [-o options] [-p path] [-c]

       pg_ctl stop [-W]	[-t seconds] [-s] [-D datadir]
	      [-m s[mart] | f[ast] | i[mmediate]]

       pg_ctl restart [-w] [-t seconds]	[-s] [-D datadir] [-c]
	      [-m s[mart] | f[ast] | i[mmediate]] [-o options]

       pg_ctl reload [-s] [-D datadir]

       pg_ctl status [-D datadir]

       pg_ctl promote [-s] [-D datadir]

       pg_ctl kill signal_name process_id

       pg_ctl register [-N servicename]	[-U username] [-P password]
	      [-D datadir] [-S a[uto] |	d[emand]] [-w] [-t seconds] [-s]
	      [-o options]

       pg_ctl unregister [-N servicename]

       pg_ctl is a utility for initializing a PostgreSQL database cluster,
       starting, stopping, or restarting the PostgreSQL	database server
       (postgres(1)), or displaying the	status of a running server. Although
       the server can be started manually, pg_ctl encapsulates tasks such as
       redirecting log output and properly detaching from the terminal and
       process group. It also provides convenient options for controlled

       The init	or initdb mode creates a new PostgreSQL	database cluster. A
       database	cluster	is a collection	of databases that are managed by a
       single server instance. This mode invokes the initdb command. See
       initdb(1) for details.

       In start	mode, a	new server is launched.	The server is started in the
       background, and its standard input is attached to /dev/null (or nul on
       Windows). On Unix-like systems, by default, the server's	standard
       output and standard error are sent to pg_ctl's standard output (not
       standard	error).	The standard output of pg_ctl should then be
       redirected to a file or piped to	another	process	such as	a log rotating
       program like rotatelogs;	otherwise postgres will	write its output to
       the controlling terminal	(from the background) and will not leave the
       shell's process group. On Windows, by default the server's standard
       output and standard error are sent to the terminal. These default
       behaviors can be	changed	by using -l to append the server's output to a
       log file. Use of	either -l or output redirection	is recommended.

       In stop mode, the server	that is	running	in the specified data
       directory is shut down. Three different shutdown	methods	can be
       selected	with the -m option.  "Smart" mode disallows new	connections,
       then waits for all existing clients to disconnect and any online	backup
       to finish. If the server	is in hot standby, recovery and	streaming
       replication will	be terminated once all clients have disconnected.
       "Fast" mode (the	default) does not wait for clients to disconnect and
       will terminate an online	backup in progress. All	active transactions
       are rolled back and clients are forcibly	disconnected, then the server
       is shut down.  "Immediate" mode will abort all server processes
       immediately, without a clean shutdown. This will	lead to	a
       crash-recovery run on the next restart.

       restart mode effectively	executes a stop	followed by a start. This
       allows changing the postgres command-line options.  restart might fail
       if relative paths specified were	specified on the command-line during
       server start.

       reload mode simply sends	the postgres process a SIGHUP signal, causing
       it to reread its	configuration files (postgresql.conf, pg_hba.conf,
       etc.). This allows changing of configuration-file options that do not
       require a complete restart to take effect.

       status mode checks whether a server is running in the specified data
       directory. If it	is, the	PID and	the command line options that were
       used to invoke it are displayed.	If the server is not running, the
       process returns an exit status of 3. If an accessible data directory is
       not specified, the process returns an exit status of 4.

       In promote mode,	the standby server that	is running in the specified
       data directory is commanded to exit recovery and	begin read-write

       kill mode allows	you to send a signal to	a specified process. This is
       particularly valuable for Microsoft Windows which does not have a kill
       command.	Use --help to see a list of supported signal names.

       register	mode allows you	to register a system service on	Microsoft
       Windows.	The -S option allows selection of service start	type, either
       "auto" (start service automatically on system startup) or "demand"
       (start service on demand).

       unregister mode allows you to unregister	a system service on Microsoft
       Windows.	This undoes the	effects	of the register	command.

	   Attempt to allow server crashes to produce core files, on platforms
	   where this is possible, by lifting any soft resource	limit placed
	   on core files. This is useful in debugging or diagnosing problems
	   by allowing a stack trace to	be obtained from a failed server

       -D datadir
       --pgdata	datadir
	   Specifies the file system location of the database configuration
	   files. If this is omitted, the environment variable PGDATA is used.

       -l filename
       --log filename
	   Append the server log output	to filename. If	the file does not
	   exist, it is	created. The umask is set to 077, so access to the log
	   file	is disallowed to other users by	default.

       -m mode
       --mode mode
	   Specifies the shutdown mode.	 mode can be smart, fast, or
	   immediate, or the first letter of one of these three. If this is
	   omitted, fast is used.

       -o options
	   Specifies options to	be passed directly to the postgres command;
	   multiple option invocations are appended.

	   The options should usually be surrounded by single or double	quotes
	   to ensure that they are passed through as a group.

       -o initdb-options
	   Specifies options to	be passed directly to the initdb command.

	   The options should usually be surrounded by single or double	quotes
	   to ensure that they are passed through as a group.

       -p path
	   Specifies the location of the postgres executable. By default the
	   postgres executable is taken	from the same directory	as pg_ctl, or
	   failing that, the hard-wired	installation directory.	It is not
	   necessary to	use this option	unless you are doing something unusual
	   and get errors that the postgres executable was not found.

	   In init mode, this option analogously specifies the location	of the
	   initdb executable.

	   Print only errors, no informational messages.

	   The maximum number of seconds to wait when waiting for startup or
	   shutdown to complete. Defaults to the value of the PGCTLTIMEOUT
	   environment variable	or, if not set,	to 60 seconds.

	   Print the pg_ctl version and	exit.

	   Wait	for the	startup	or shutdown to complete. Waiting is the
	   default option for shutdowns, but not startups. When	waiting	for
	   startup, pg_ctl repeatedly attempts to connect to the server. When
	   waiting for shutdown, pg_ctl	waits for the server to	remove its PID
	   file. This option allows the	entry of an SSL	passphrase on startup.
	   pg_ctl returns an exit code based on	the success of the startup or

	   Do not wait for startup or shutdown to complete. This is the
	   default for start and restart modes.

	   Show	help about pg_ctl command line arguments, and exit.

   Options for Windows
       -e source
	   Name	of the event source for	pg_ctl to use for logging to the event
	   log when running as a Windows service. The default is PostgreSQL.
	   Note	that this only controls	the logging from pg_ctl	itself;	once
	   started, the	server will use	the event source specified by
	   event_source. Should	the server fail	during early startup, it might
	   also	log using the default event source PostgreSQL.

       -N servicename
	   Name	of the system service to register. The name will be used as
	   both	the service name and the display name.

       -P password
	   Password for	the user to start the service.

       -S start-type
	   Start type of the system service to register. start-type can	be
	   auto, or demand, or the first letter	of one of these	two. If	this
	   is omitted, auto is used.

       -U username
	   User	name for the user to start the service.	For domain users, use
	   the format DOMAIN\username.

	   Default limit on the	number of seconds to wait when waiting for
	   startup or shutdown to complete. If not set,	the default is 60

	   Default data	directory location.

       pg_ctl, like most other PostgreSQL utilities, also uses the environment
       variables supported by libpq (see Section 32.14,	"Environment
       Variables", in the documentation). For additional server	variables, see

	   The existence of this file in the data directory is used to help
	   pg_ctl determine if the server is currently running.

	   If this file	exists in the data directory, pg_ctl (in restart mode)
	   will	pass the contents of the file as options to postgres, unless
	   overridden by the -o	option.	The contents of	this file are also
	   displayed in	status mode.

   Starting the	Server
       To start	the server:

	   $ pg_ctl start

       To start	the server, waiting until the server is	accepting connections:

	   $ pg_ctl -w start

       To start	the server using port 5433, and	running	without	fsync, use:

	   $ pg_ctl -o "-F -p 5433" start

   Stopping the	Server
       To stop the server, use:

	   $ pg_ctl stop

       The -m option allows control over how the server	shuts down:

	   $ pg_ctl stop -m fast

   Restarting the Server
       Restarting the server is	almost equivalent to stopping the server and
       starting	it again, except that pg_ctl saves and reuses the command line
       options that were passed	to the previously running instance. To restart
       the server in the simplest form,	use:

	   $ pg_ctl restart

       To restart the server, waiting for it to	shut down and restart:

	   $ pg_ctl -w restart

       To restart using	port 5433, disabling fsync upon	restart:

	   $ pg_ctl -o "-F -p 5433" restart

   Showing the Server Status
       Here is sample status output from pg_ctl:

	   $ pg_ctl status
	   pg_ctl: server is running (PID: 13718)
	   /usr/local/pgsql/bin/postgres "-D" "/usr/local/pgsql/data" "-p" "5433" "-B" "128"

       This is the command line	that would be invoked in restart mode.

       initdb(1), postgres(1)

PostgreSQL 9.6.22		     2021			     PG_CTL(1)


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