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PF.CONF(5)		  FreeBSD File Formats Manual		    PF.CONF(5)

     pf.conf --	packet filter configuration file

     The pf(4) packet filter modifies, drops, or passes	packets	according to
     rules or definitions specified in pf.conf.

     This is an	overview of the	sections in this manual	page:

     PACKET FILTERING including	network	address	translation (NAT).

     OPTIONS globally tune the behaviour of the	packet filtering engine.

     QUEUEING provides rule-based bandwidth and	traffic	control.

     TABLES provide a method for dealing with large numbers of addresses.

     ANCHORS are containers for	rules and tables.

     STATEFUL FILTERING	tracks packets by state.

     TRAFFIC NORMALISATION includes scrub, fragment handling, and blocking
     spoofed traffic.

     OPERATING SYSTEM FINGERPRINTING is	a method for detecting a host's	oper-
     ating system.

     EXAMPLES provides some example rulesets.

     GRAMMAR provides a	complete BNF grammar reference.

     The current line can be extended over multiple lines using	a backslash
     (`\').  Comments can be put anywhere in the file using a hash mark	(`#'),
     and extend	to the end of the current line.	 Care should be	taken when
     commenting	out multi-line text: the comment is effective until the	end of
     the entire	block.

     Argument names not	beginning with a letter, digit,	or underscore must be

     Additional	configuration files can	be included with the include keyword,
     for example:

	   include "/etc/pf/sub.filter.conf"

     Macros can	be defined that	will later be expanded in context.  Macro
     names must	start with a letter, digit, or underscore, and may contain any
     of	those characters.  Macro names may not be reserved words (for example
     pass, in, out).  Macros are not expanded inside quotes.

     For example:

	   ext_if = "kue0"
	   all_ifs = "{" $ext_if lo0 "}"
	   pass	out on $ext_if from any	to any
	   pass	in  on $ext_if proto tcp from any to any port 25

     pf(4) has the ability to block, pass, and match packets based on at-
     tributes of their layer 3 and layer 4 headers.  Filter rules determine
     which of these actions are	taken; filter parameters specify the packets
     to	which a	rule applies.

     Each time a packet	processed by the packet	filter comes in	on or goes out
     through an	interface, the filter rules are	evaluated in sequential	order,
     from first	to last.  For block and	pass, the last matching	rule decides
     what action is taken; if no rule matches the packet, the default action
     is	to pass	the packet without creating a state.  For match, rules are
     evaluated every time they match; the pass/block state of a	packet remains

     Most parameters are optional.  If a parameter is specified, the rule only
     applies to	packets	with matching attributes.  The matching	for some pa-
     rameters can be inverted with the ! operator.  Certain parameters can be
     expressed as lists, in which case pfctl(8)	generates all needed rule com-

     By	default	pf(4) filters packets statefully: the first time a packet
     matches a pass rule, a state entry	is created.  The packet	filter exam-
     ines each packet to see if	it matches an existing state.  If it does, the
     packet is passed without evaluation of any	rules.	After the connection
     is	closed or times	out, the state entry is	automatically removed.

     The following actions can be used in the filter:

     block   The packet	is blocked.  There are a number	of ways	in which a
	     block rule	can behave when	blocking a packet.  The	default	behav-
	     iour is to	drop packets silently, however this can	be overridden
	     or	made explicit either globally, by setting the block-policy op-
	     tion, or on a per-rule basis with one of the following options:

	     drop	   The packet is silently dropped.
	     return	   This	causes a TCP RST to be returned	for TCP	pack-
			   ets and an ICMP UNREACHABLE for other types of
	     return-icmp6  This	causes ICMP messages to	be returned for	pack-
			   ets which match the rule.  By default this is an
			   ICMP	UNREACHABLE message, however this can be over-
			   ridden by specifying	a message as a code or number.
	     return-rst	   This	applies	only to	TCP packets, and issues	a TCP
			   RST which closes the	connection.  An	optional pa-
			   rameter, ttl, may be	given with a TTL value.

	     Options returning ICMP packets currently have no effect if	pf(4)
	     operates on a bridge(4), as the code to support this feature has
	     not yet been implemented.

	     The simplest mechanism to block everything	by default and only
	     pass packets that match explicit rules is specify a first filter
	     rule of:

		   block all

     match   The packet	is matched.  This mechanism is used to provide fine
	     grained filtering without altering	the block/pass state of	a
	     packet.  match rules differ from block and	pass rules in that pa-
	     rameters are set every time a packet matches the rule, not	only
	     on	the last matching rule.	 For the following parameters, this
	     means that	the parameter effectively becomes "sticky" until ex-
	     plicitly overridden: nat-to, binat-to, rdr-to, queue, rtable, and

	     log is different still, in	that the action	happens	every time a
	     rule matches i.e. a single	packet can get logged more than	once.

     pass    The packet	is passed; state is created unless the no state	option
	     is	specified.

     The following parameters can be used in the filter:

     in	or out
	     A packet always comes in on, or goes out through, one interface.
	     in	and out	apply to incoming and outgoing packets;	if neither are
	     specified,	the rule will match packets in both directions.

     log (all |	matches	| to interface | user)
	     In	addition to any	action specified, log the packet.  Only	the
	     packet that establishes the state is logged, unless the no	state
	     option is specified.  The logged packets are sent to a pflog(4)
	     interface,	by default pflog0; pflog0 is monitored by the
	     pflogd(8) logging daemon which logs to the	file /var/log/pflog in
	     pcap binary format.

	     The keywords all, matches,	to, and	user are optional and can be
	     combined using commas, but	must be	enclosed in parentheses	if

	     Use all to	force logging of all packets for a connection.	This
	     is	not necessary when no state is explicitly specified.

	     If	matches	is specified, it logs the packet on all	subsequent
	     matching rules.  It is often combined with	to interface to	avoid
	     adding noise to the default log file.

	     The keyword user logs the UID and PID of the socket on the	local
	     host used to send or receive a packet, in addition	to the normal

	     To	specify	a logging interface other than pflog0, use the syntax
	     to	interface.

     quick   If	a packet matches a rule	which has the quick option set,	this
	     rule is considered	the last matching rule,	and evaluation of sub-
	     sequent rules is skipped.

     on	interface | any
	     This rule applies only to packets coming in on, or	going out
	     through, this particular interface	or interface group.  For more
	     information on interface groups, see the group keyword in
	     ifconfig(8).  any will match any existing interface except	loop-
	     back ones.

     on	rdomain	number
	     This rule applies only to packets coming in on, or	going out
	     through, this particular routing domain.

     inet | inet6
	     This rule applies only to packets of this address family.

     proto protocol
	     This rule applies only to packets of this protocol.  Common pro-
	     tocols are	ICMP, ICMP6, TCP, and UDP.  For	a list of all the pro-
	     tocol name	to number mappings used	by pfctl(8), see the file

     from source port source os	source to dest port dest
	     This rule applies only to packets with the	specified source and
	     destination addresses and ports.

	     Addresses can be specified	in CIDR	notation (matching netblocks),
	     as	symbolic host names, interface names or	interface group	names,
	     or	as any of the following	keywords:

	     any	  Any address.
	     no-route	  Any address which is not currently routable.
	     route label  Any address matching the given route(8) label.
	     self	  Expands to all addresses assigned to all interfaces.
	     <table>	  Any address matching the given table.
	     urpf-failed  Any source address that fails	a unicast reverse path
			  forwarding (URPF) check, i.e.	packets	coming in on
			  an interface other than that which holds the route
			  back to the packet's source address.

	     Ranges of addresses are specified using the `-' operator.	For
	     instance: " -" means all addresses from to, hence addresses,, and

	     Interface names, interface	group names, and self can have modi-
	     fiers appended:

	     :0		 Do not	include	interface aliases.
	     :broadcast	 Translates to the interface's broadcast address(es).
	     :network	 Translates to the network(s) attached to the inter-
	     :peer	 Translates to the point-to-point interface's peer ad-

	     Host names	may also have the :0 modifier appended to restrict the
	     name resolution to	the first of each v4 and v6 address found.

	     Host name resolution and interface	to address translation are
	     done at ruleset load-time.	 When the address of an	interface (or
	     host name)	changes	(under DHCP or PPP, for	instance), the ruleset
	     must be reloaded for the change to	be reflected in	the kernel.
	     Surrounding the interface name (and optional modifiers) in	paren-
	     theses changes this behaviour.  When the interface	name is	sur-
	     rounded by	parentheses, the rule is automatically updated when-
	     ever the interface	changes	its address.  The ruleset does not
	     need to be	reloaded.  This	is especially useful with NAT.

	     Ports can be specified either by number or	by name.  For example,
	     port 80 can be specified as www.  For a list of all port name to
	     number mappings used by pfctl(8), see the file /etc/services.

	     Ports and ranges of ports are specified using these operators:

		   =	   (equal)
		   !=	   (unequal)
		   <	   (less than)
		   <=	   (less than or equal)
		   >	   (greater than)
		   >=	   (greater than or equal)
		   :	   (range including boundaries)
		   ><	   (range excluding boundaries)
		   <>	   (except range)

	     `><', `<>'	and `:'	are binary operators (they take	two argu-
	     ments).  For instance:

	     port 2000:2004
		     means `all	ports >= 2000 and <= 2004', hence ports	2000,
		     2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004.

	     port 2000 >< 2004
		     means `all	ports >	2000 and < 2004', hence	ports 2001,
		     2002, and 2003.

	     port 2000 <> 2004
		     means `all	ports <	2000 or	> 2004', hence ports 1-1999
		     and 2005-65535.

	     The operating system of the source	host can be specified in the
	     case of TCP rules with the	os modifier.  See the OPERATING	SYSTEM
	     FINGERPRINTING section for	more information.

	     The host, port, and os specifications are optional, as in the
	     following examples:

		   pass	in all
		   pass	in from	any to any
		   pass	in proto tcp from any port < 1024 to any
		   pass	in proto tcp from any to any port 25
		   pass	in proto tcp from port >= 1024 \
			 to ! port != ssh
		   pass	in proto tcp from any os "OpenBSD"
		   pass	in proto tcp from route	"DTAG"

     The following additional parameters can be	used in	the filter:

     all     This is equivalent	to `from any to	any'.

	     By	default, packets with IPv4 options or IPv6 hop-by-hop or des-
	     tination options header are blocked.  When	allow-opts is speci-
	     fied for a	pass rule, packets that	pass the filter	based on that
	     rule (last	matching) do so	even if	they contain options.  For
	     packets that match	state, the rule	that initially created the
	     state is used.  The implicit pass rule, that is used when a
	     packet does not match any rules, does not allow IP	options	or op-
	     tion headers.  Note that IPv6 packets with	type 0 routing headers
	     are always	dropped.

     divert-packet port	port
	     Used to send matching packets to divert(4)	sockets	bound to port
	     port.  If the default option of fragment reassembly is enabled,
	     scrubbing with reassemble tcp is also enabled for divert-packet

	     Used to receive replies for sockets that are bound	to addresses
	     which are not local to the	machine.  See setsockopt(2) for	infor-
	     mation on how to bind these sockets.

     divert-to host port port
	     Used to redirect packets to a local socket	bound to host and
	     port.  The	packets	will not be modified, so getsockname(2)	on the
	     socket will return	the original destination address of the

     flags a/b | any
	     This rule only applies to TCP packets that	have the flags a set
	     out of set	b.  Flags not specified	in b are ignored.  For state-
	     ful connections, the default is flags S/SA.  To indicate that
	     flags should not be checked at all, specify flags any.  The flags
	     are: (F)IN, (S)YN,	(R)ST, (P)USH, (A)CK, (U)RG, (E)CE, and	C(W)R.

	     flags S/S	  Flag SYN is set.  The	other flags are	ignored.

	     flags S/SA	  This is the default setting for stateful connec-
			  tions.  Out of SYN and ACK, exactly SYN may be set.
			  SYN, SYN+PSH,	and SYN+RST match, but SYN+ACK,	ACK,
			  and ACK+RST do not.  This is more restrictive	than
			  the previous example.

	     flags /SFRA  If the first set is not specified, it	defaults to
			  none.	 All of	SYN, FIN, RST, and ACK must be unset.

	     Because flags S/SA	is applied by default (unless no state is
	     specified), only the initial SYN packet of	a TCP handshake	will
	     create a state for	a TCP connection.  It is possible to be	less
	     restrictive, and allow state creation from	intermediate (non-SYN)
	     packets, by specifying flags any.	This will cause	pf(4) to syn-
	     chronize to existing connections, for instance if one flushes the
	     state table.  However, states created from	such intermediate
	     packets may be missing connection details such as the TCP window
	     scaling factor.  States which modify the packet flow, such	as
	     those affected by af-to, modulate state, nat-to, rdr-to, or
	     synproxy state options, or	scrubbed with reassemble tcp, will
	     also not be recoverable from intermediate packets.	 Such connec-
	     tions will	stall and time out.

     group group
	     Similar to	user, this rule	only applies to	packets	of sockets
	     owned by the specified group.

     icmp-type type code code
     icmp6-type	type code code
	     This rule only applies to ICMP or ICMP6 packets with the speci-
	     fied type and code.  Text names for ICMP types and	codes are
	     listed in icmp(4) and icmp6(4).  The protocol and the ICMP	type
	     indicator (icmp-type or icmp6-type) must match.

     label string
	     Adds a label to the rule, which can be used to identify the rule.
	     For instance, `pfctl -s labels' shows per-rule statistics for
	     rules that	have labels.

	     The following macros can be used in labels:

		   $dstaddr	The destination	IP address.
		   $dstport	The destination	port specification.
		   $if		The interface.
		   $nr		The rule number.
		   $proto	The protocol name.
		   $srcaddr	The source IP address.
		   $srcport	The source port	specification.

	     For example:
		   ips = "{, }"
		   pass	in proto tcp from any to $ips \
			 port >	1023 label "$dstaddr:$dstport"

	     Expands to:
		   pass	in inet	proto tcp from any to \
			 port >	1023 label ">1023"
		   pass	in inet	proto tcp from any to \
			 port >	1023 label ">1023"

	     The macro expansion for the label directive occurs	only at	con-
	     figuration	file parse time, not during runtime.

     max-pkt-rate number/seconds
	     Measure the rate of packets matching the rule and states created
	     by	it.  When the specified	rate is	exceeded, the rule stops
	     matching.	Only packets in	the direction in which the state was
	     created are considered, so	that typically requests	are counted
	     and replies are not.  For example,	to pass	up to 100 ICMP packets
	     per 10 seconds:

		   block in proto icmp
		   pass	in proto icmp max-pkt-rate 100/10

	     When the rate is exceeded,	all ICMP is blocked until the rate
	     falls below 100 per 10 seconds again.

     once    Creates a one shot	rule that will remove itself from an active
	     ruleset after the first match.  In	case this is the only rule in
	     the anchor, the anchor will be destroyed automatically after the
	     rule is matched.

     probability number%
	     A probability attribute can be attached to	a rule,	with a value
	     set between 0 and 100%, in	which case the rule is honoured	using
	     the given probability value.  For example,	the following rule
	     will drop 20% of incoming ICMP packets:

		   block in proto icmp probability 20%

     prio number
	     Only match	packets	which have the given queueing priority as-

     [!]received-on interface
	     Only match	packets	which were received on the specified interface
	     (or interface group).  any	will match any existing	interface ex-
	     cept loopback ones.

     rtable number
	     Used to select an alternate routing table for the routing lookup.
	     Only effective before the route lookup happened, i.e. when	fil-
	     tering inbound.

     set delay milliseconds
	     Packets matching this rule	will be	delayed	at the outbound	inter-
	     face by the given number of milliseconds.

     set prio priority | (priority, priority)
	     Packets matching this rule	will be	assigned a specific queueing
	     priority.	Priorities are assigned	as integers 0 through 7, with
	     a default priority	of 3.  If the packet is	transmitted on a
	     vlan(4) interface,	the queueing priority will also	be written as
	     the priority code point in	the 802.1Q VLAN	header.	 If two	prior-
	     ities are given, TCP ACKs with no data payload and	packets	which
	     have a TOS	of lowdelay will be assigned to	the second one.	 Pack-
	     ets with a	higher priority	number are processed first, and	pack-
	     ets with the same priority	are processed in the order in which
	     they are received.

	     For example:

		   pass	in proto tcp to	port 25	set prio 2
		   pass	in proto tcp to	port 22	set prio (2, 5)

	     The interface priority queues accessed by the set prio keyword
	     are always	enabled	and do not require any additional configura-
	     tion, unlike the queues described below and in the	QUEUEING sec-

     set queue queue | (queue, queue)
	     Packets matching this rule	will be	assigned to the	specified
	     queue.  If	two queues are given, packets which have a TOS of
	     lowdelay and TCP ACKs with	no data	payload	will be	assigned to
	     the second	one.  See QUEUEING for setup details.

	     For example:

		   pass	in proto tcp to	port 25	set queue mail
		   pass	in proto tcp to	port 22	set queue(ssh_bulk, ssh_prio)

     set tos string | number
	     Enforces a	TOS for	matching packets.  string may be one of
	     critical, inetcontrol, lowdelay, netcontrol, throughput,
	     reliability, or one of the	DiffServ Code Points: ef, af11 ...
	     af43, cs0 ... cs7;	number may be either a hex or decimal number.

     tag string
	     Packets matching this rule	will be	tagged with the	specified
	     string.  The tag acts as an internal marker that can be used to
	     identify these packets later on.  This can	be used, for example,
	     to	provide	trust between interfaces and to	determine if packets
	     have been processed by translation	rules.	Tags are "sticky",
	     meaning that the packet will be tagged even if the	rule is	not
	     the last matching rule.  Further matching rules can replace the
	     tag with a	new one	but will not remove a previously applied tag.
	     A packet is only ever assigned one	tag at a time.	Tags take the
	     same macros as labels (see	above).

     [!]tagged string
	     Used with filter or translation rules to specify that packets
	     must already be tagged with the given string in order to match
	     the rule.

     tos string	| number
	     This rule applies to packets with the specified TOS bits set.
	     string may	be one of critical, inetcontrol, lowdelay, netcontrol,
	     throughput, reliability, or one of	the DiffServ Code Points: ef,
	     af11 ... af43, cs0	... cs7; number	may be either a	hex or decimal

	     For example, the following	rules are identical:

		   pass	all tos	lowdelay
		   pass	all tos	0x10
		   pass	all tos	16

     user user
	     This rule only applies to packets of sockets owned	by the speci-
	     fied user.	 For outgoing connections initiated from the firewall,
	     this is the user that opened the connection.  For incoming	con-
	     nections to the firewall itself, this is the user that listens on
	     the destination port.

	     When listening sockets are	bound to the wildcard address, pf(4)
	     cannot determine if a connection is destined for the firewall it-
	     self.  To avoid false matches on just the destination port, com-
	     bine a user rule with source or destination address self.

	     All packets, both outgoing	and incoming, of one connection	are
	     associated	with the same user and group.  Only TCP	and UDP	pack-
	     ets can be	associated with	users.

	     The user and group	arguments refer	to the effective (as opposed
	     to	the real) IDs, in case the socket is created by	a setuid/set-
	     gid process.  User	and group IDs are stored when a	socket is cre-
	     ated; when	a process creates a listening socket as	root (for in-
	     stance, by	binding	to a privileged	port) and subsequently changes
	     to	another	user ID	(to drop privileges), the credentials will re-
	     main root.

	     User and group IDs	can be specified as either numbers or names.
	     The syntax	is similar to the one for ports.  The following	exam-
	     ple allows	only selected users to open outgoing connections:

		   block out proto tcp all
		   pass	 out proto tcp from self user {	< 1000,	dhartmei }

	     The example below permits users with uid between 1000 and 1500 to
	     open connections:

		   block out proto tcp all
		   pass	 out proto tcp from self user {	999 >< 1501 }

	     The `:' operator, which works for port number matching, does not
	     work for user and group match.

     Translation options modify	either the source or destination address and
     port of the packets associated with a stateful connection.	 pf(4) modi-
     fies the specified	address	and/or port in the packet and recalculates IP,
     TCP, and UDP checksums as necessary.

     If	specified on a match rule, subsequent rules will see packets as	they
     look after	any addresses and ports	have been translated.  These rules
     will therefore have to filter based on the	translated address and port

     The state entry created permits pf(4) to keep track of the	original ad-
     dress for traffic associated with that state and correctly	direct return
     traffic for that connection.

     Different types of	translation are	possible with pf:

     af-to     Translation between different address families (NAT64) is han-
	       dled using af-to	rules.	Because	address	family translation
	       overrides the routing table, it's only possible to use af-to on
	       inbound rules, and a source address for the resulting transla-
	       tion must always	be specified.

	       The optional second argument is the host	or subnet the original
	       addresses are translated	into for the destination.  The lowest
	       bits of the original destination	address	form the host part of
	       the new destination address according to	the specified subnet.
	       It is possible to embed a complete IPv4 address into an IPv6
	       address using a network prefix of /96 or	smaller.

	       When a destination address is not specified it is assumed that
	       the host	part is	32-bit long.  For IPv6 to IPv4 translation
	       this would mean using only the lower 32 bits of the original
	       IPv6 destination	address.  For IPv4 to IPv6 translation the
	       destination subnet defaults to the subnet of the	new IPv6
	       source address with a prefix length of /96.  See	RFC 6052 Sec-
	       tion 2.2	for details on how the prefix determines the destina-
	       tion address encoding.

	       For example, the	following rules	are identical:

		     pass in inet af-to	inet6 from 2001:db8::1 to 2001:db8::/96
		     pass in inet af-to	inet6 from 2001:db8::1

	       In the above example the	matching IPv4 packets will be modified
	       to have a source	address	of 2001:db8::1 and a destination ad-
	       dress will get prefixed with 2001:db8::/96, e.g.
	       will be translated to 2001:db8::c633:6464.

	       In the reverse case the following rules are identical:

		     pass in inet6 from	any to 64:ff9b::/96 af-to inet \
			     from to
		     pass in inet6 from	any to 64:ff9b::/96 af-to inet \

	       The destination IPv4 address is assumed to be embedded inside
	       the original IPv6 destination address, e.g. 64:ff9b::c633:6464
	       will be translated to

	       The current implementation will only extract IPv4 addresses
	       from the	IPv6 addresses with a prefix length of /96 and

     binat-to  A binat-to rule specifies a bidirectional mapping between an
	       external	IP netblock and	an internal IP netblock.  It expands
	       to an outbound nat-to rule and an inbound rdr-to	rule.

     nat-to    A nat-to	option specifies that IP addresses are to be changed
	       as the packet traverses the given interface.  This technique
	       allows one or more IP addresses on the translating host to sup-
	       port network traffic for	a larger range of machines on an
	       "inside"	network.  Although in theory any IP address can	be
	       used on the inside, it is strongly recommended that one of the
	       address ranges defined by RFC 1918 be used.  Those netblocks
	       are: - (all of net 10, i.e. 10/8)	- (i.e. 172.16/12) - (i.e. 192.168/16)

	       nat-to is usually applied outbound.  If applied inbound,	nat-to
	       to a local IP address is	not supported.

     rdr-to    The packet is redirected	to another destination and possibly a
	       different port.	rdr-to can optionally specify port ranges in-
	       stead of	single ports.  For instance:

	       match in	... port 2000:2999 rdr-to ... port 4000
		       redirects ports 2000 to 2999 (inclusive)	to port	4000.

	       match in	... port 2000:2999 rdr-to ... port 4000:*
		       redirects port 2000 to 4000, port 2001 to 4001, ...,
		       port 2999 to 4999.

	       rdr-to is usually applied inbound.  If applied outbound,	rdr-to
	       to a local IP address is	not supported.

     In	addition to modifying the address, some	translation rules may modify
     source or destination ports for TCP or UDP	connections; implicitly	in the
     case of nat-to options and	explicitly in the case of rdr-to ones.	Port
     numbers are never translated with a binat-to rule.

     Translation options apply only to packets that pass through the specified
     interface,	and if no interface is specified, translation is applied to
     packets on	all interfaces.	 For instance, redirecting port	80 on an ex-
     ternal interface to an internal web server	will only work for connections
     originating from the outside.  Connections	to the address of the external
     interface from local hosts	will not be redirected,	since such packets do
     not actually pass through the external interface.	Redirections cannot
     reflect packets back through the interface	they arrive on,	they can only
     be	redirected to hosts connected to different interfaces or to the	fire-
     wall itself.

     However packets may be redirected to hosts	connected to the interface the
     packet arrived on by using	redirection with NAT.  For example:

	   pass	in on $int_if proto tcp	from $int_net to $ext_if port 80 \
		   rdr-to $server
	   pass	out on $int_if proto tcp to $server port 80 \
		   received-on $int_if nat-to $int_if

     Note that redirecting external incoming connections to the	loopback ad-
     dress will	effectively allow an external host to connect to daemons bound
     solely to the loopback address, circumventing the traditional blocking of
     such connections on a real	interface.  For	example:

	   pass	in on egress proto tcp from any	to any port smtp \
		   rdr-to port spamd

     Unless this effect	is desired, any	of the local non-loopback addresses
     should be used instead as the redirection target, which allows external
     connections only to daemons bound to this address or not bound to any ad-

     For af-to,	nat-to and rdr-to options for which there is a single redi-
     rection address which has a subnet	mask smaller than 32 for IPv4 or 128
     for IPv6 (more than one IP	address), a variety of different methods for
     assigning this address can	be used:

	   The bitmask option applies the network portion of the redirection
	   address to the address to be	modified (source with nat-to, destina-
	   tion	with rdr-to).

     least-states [sticky-address]
	   The least-states option selects the address with the	least active
	   states from a given address pool and	considers given	weights	asso-
	   ciated with address(es).  Weights can be specified between 1	and
	   65535.  Addresses with higher weights are selected more often.

	   sticky-address can be specified to ensure that multiple connections
	   from	the same source	are mapped to the same redirection address.
	   Associations	are destroyed as soon as there are no longer states
	   which refer to them;	in order to make the mappings last beyond the
	   lifetime of the states, increase the	global options with set
	   timeout src.track.

     random [sticky-address]
	   The random option selects an	address	at random within the defined
	   block of addresses.	sticky-address is as described above.

     round-robin [sticky-address]
	   The round-robin option loops	through	the redirection	address(es)
	   and considers given weights associated with address(es).  Weights
	   can be specified between 1 and 65535.  Addresses with higher
	   weights are selected	more often.  sticky-address is as described

     source-hash [key] [sticky-address]
	   The source-hash option uses a hash of the source address to deter-
	   mine	the redirection	address, ensuring that the redirection address
	   is always the same for a given source.  An optional key can be
	   specified after this	keyword	either in hex or as a string; by de-
	   fault pfctl(8) randomly generates a key for source-hash every time
	   the ruleset is reloaded.  sticky-address is as described above.

	   With	nat-to rules, the static-port option prevents pf(4) from modi-
	   fying the source port on TCP	and UDP	packets.

     When more than one	redirection address or a table is specified, bitmask
     is	not permitted as a pool	type.

     If	a packet matches a rule	with one of the	following route	options	set,
     the packet	filter will route the packet according to the type of route
     option.  When such	a rule creates state, the route	option is also applied
     to	all packets matching the same connection.

     dup-to    The dup-to option creates a duplicate of	the packet and routes
	       it like route-to.  The original packet gets routed as it	nor-
	       mally would.

     reply-to  The reply-to option is similar to route-to, but routes packets
	       that pass in the	opposite direction (replies) to	the specified
	       interface.  Opposite direction is only defined in the context
	       of a state entry, and reply-to is useful	only in	rules that
	       create state.  It can be	used on	systems	with multiple external
	       connections to route all	outgoing packets of a connection
	       through the interface the incoming connection arrived through
	       (symmetric routing enforcement).

     route-to  The route-to option routes the packet to	the specified destina-
	       tion address instead of the destination address in the packet
	       header.	When a route-to	rule creates state, only packets that
	       pass in the same	direction as the filter	rule specifies will be
	       routed in this way.  Packets passing in the opposite direction
	       (replies) are not affected and are routed normally.

     For the dup-to, reply-to, and route-to route options for which there is a
     single redirection	address	which has a subnet mask	smaller	than 32	for
     IPv4 or 128 for IPv6 (more	than one IP address), the methods
     least-states, random, round-robin,	and source-hash, as described above,
     can be used.

     pf(4) may be tuned	for various situations using the set command.

     set block-policy drop | return
	     The block-policy option sets the default behaviour	for the	packet
	     block action:

	     drop    Packet is silently	dropped.
	     return  A TCP RST is returned for blocked TCP packets, an ICMP
		     UNREACHABLE is returned for blocked UDP packets, and all
		     other packets are silently	dropped.

	     The default value is drop.

     set debug level
	     Set the debug level, which	limits the severity of log messages
	     printed by	pf(4).	This should be a keyword from the following
	     ordered list (highest to lowest): emerg, alert, crit, err,
	     warning, notice, info, and	debug.	These keywords correspond to
	     the similar (LOG_)	values specified to the	syslog(3) library rou-
	     tine.  The	default	value is err.

     set fingerprints filename
	     Load fingerprints of known	operating systems from the given
	     filename.	By default fingerprints	of known operating systems are
	     automatically loaded from pf.os(5), but can be overridden via
	     this option.  Setting this	option may leave a small period	of
	     time where	the fingerprints referenced by the currently active
	     ruleset are inconsistent until the	new ruleset finishes loading.
	     The default location for fingerprints is /etc/pf.os.

     set hostid	number
	     The 32-bit	hostid number identifies this firewall's state table
	     entries to	other firewalls	in a pfsync(4) failover	cluster.  By
	     default the hostid	is set to a pseudo-random value, however it
	     may be desirable to manually configure it,	for example to more
	     easily identify the source	of state table entries.	 The hostid
	     may be specified in either	decimal	or hexadecimal.

     set limit limit-item number
	     Sets hard limits on the memory pools used by the packet filter.
	     See pool(9) for an	explanation of memory pools.

	     For example, to set the maximum number of entries in the memory
	     pool used by state	table entries (generated by pass rules which
	     do	not specify no state) to 20000:

		   set limit states 20000

	     To	set the	maximum	number of entries in the memory	pool used for
	     fragment reassembly to 2000:

		   set limit frags 2000

	     This maximum may not exceed, and should be	well below, the	maxi-
	     mum number	of mbuf	clusters (sysctl kern.maxclusters) in the sys-

	     To	set the	maximum	number of entries in the memory	pool used for
	     tracking source IP	addresses (generated by	the sticky-address and
	     src.track options)	to 2000:

		   set limit src-nodes 2000

	     To	set limits on the memory pools used by tables:

		   set limit tables 1000
		   set limit table-entries 100000

	     The first limits the number of tables that	can exist to 1000.
	     The second	limits the overall number of addresses that can	be
	     stored in tables to 100000.

	     Various limits can	be combined on a single	line:

		   set limit { states 20000, frags 2000, src-nodes 2000	}

	     pf(4) has the following defaults:

	     states	      PFSTATE_HIWAT		(100000)
	     tables	      PFR_KTABLE_HIWAT		(1000)
	     table-entries    PFR_KENTRY_HIWAT		(200000)
	     table-entries    PFR_KENTRY_HIWAT_SMALL	(100000)
	     frags	      NMBCLUSTERS/32		(platform dependent)

	     NMBCLUSTERS defines the total number of packets which can exist
	     in-system at any one time.	 Refer to <machine/param.h> for	the
	     platform-specific value.

     set loginterface interface	| none
	     Enable collection of packet and byte count	statistics for the
	     given interface or	interface group.  These	statistics can be
	     viewed using:

		   # pfctl -s info

	     In	this example pf(4) collects statistics on the interface	named

		   set loginterface dc0

	     One can disable the loginterface using:

		   set loginterface none

	     The default value is none.

     set optimization environment
	     Optimize state timeouts for one of	the following network environ-

		     Aggressively expire connections.  This can	greatly	reduce
		     the memory	usage of the firewall at the cost of dropping
		     idle connections early.
		     Extremely conservative settings.  Avoid dropping legiti-
		     mate connections at the expense of	greater	memory uti-
		     lization (possibly	much greater on	a busy network)	and
		     slightly increased	processor utilization.
		     A high-latency environment	(such as a satellite connec-
	     normal  A normal network environment.  Suitable for almost	all
		     Alias for high-latency.

	     The default value is normal.

     set reassemble yes	| no [no-df]
	     The reassemble option is used to enable or	disable	the reassembly
	     of	fragmented packets, and	can be set to yes (the default)	or no.
	     If	no-df is also specified, fragments with	the "dont-fragment"
	     bit set are reassembled too, instead of being dropped; the	re-
	     assembled packet will have	the "dont-fragment" bit	cleared.  The
	     default value is yes.

     set ruleset-optimization level
	     basic    Enable basic ruleset optimization.  This is the default
		      behaviour.  Basic	ruleset	optimization does four things
		      to improve the performance of ruleset evaluations:

		      1.   remove duplicate rules
		      2.   remove rules	that are a subset of another rule
		      3.   combine multiple rules into a table when advanta-
		      4.   reorder the rules to	improve	evaluation performance

	     none     Disable the ruleset optimizer.
	     profile  Uses the currently loaded	ruleset	as a feedback profile
		      to tailor	the ordering of	quick rules to actual network

	     It	is important to	note that the ruleset optimizer	will modify
	     the ruleset to improve performance.  A side effect	of the ruleset
	     modification is that per-rule accounting statistics will have
	     different meanings	than before.  If per-rule accounting is	impor-
	     tant for billing purposes or whatnot, either the ruleset opti-
	     mizer should not be used or a label field should be added to all
	     of	the accounting rules to	act as optimization barriers.

	     Optimization can also be set as a command-line argument to
	     pfctl(8), overriding the settings in pf.conf.

     set skip on ifspec
	     List interfaces for which packets should not be filtered.	Pack-
	     ets passing in or out on such interfaces are passed as if pf was
	     disabled, i.e. pf does not	process	them in	any way.  This can be
	     useful on loopback	and other virtual interfaces, when packet fil-
	     tering is not desired and can have	unexpected effects.  ifspec is
	     only evaluated when the ruleset is	loaded;	interfaces created
	     later will	not be skipped.	 PF filters traffic on all interfaces
	     by	default.

     set state-defaults	state-option, ...
	     The state-defaults	option sets the	state options for states cre-
	     ated from rules without an	explicit keep state.  For example:

		   set state-defaults pflow, no-sync

     set state-policy if-bound | floating
	     The state-policy option sets the default behaviour	for states:

	     if-bound  States are bound	to an interface.
	     floating  States can match	packets	on any interfaces (the de-

     set syncookies never | always | adaptive
	     When syncookies are active, pf will answer	each and every incom-
	     ing TCP SYN with a	syncookie SYNACK, without allocating any re-
	     sources.  Upon reception of the client's ACK in response to the
	     syncookie SYNACK, pf will evaluate	the ruleset and	create state
	     if	the ruleset permits it,	complete the three way handshake with
	     the target	host, and continue the connection with synproxy	in
	     place.  This allows pf to be resilient against large synflood at-
	     tacks, which could	otherwise exhaust the state table.  Due	to the
	     blind answers to each and every SYN, syncookies share the caveats
	     of	synproxy: seemingly accepting connections that will be dropped
	     later on.

	     never     pf will never send syncookie SYNACKs (the default).
	     always    pf will always send syncookie SYNACKs.
	     adaptive  pf will enable syncookie	mode when a given percentage
		       of the state table is used up by	half-open TCP connec-
		       tions, such as those that saw the initial SYN but
		       didn't finish the three way handshake.  The thresholds
		       for entering and	leaving	syncookie mode can be speci-
		       fied using:

			     set syncookies adaptive (start 25%, end 12%)

     set timeout variable value
	     frag	Seconds	before an unassembled fragment is expired (60
			by default).
	     interval	Interval between purging expired states	and fragments
			(10 seconds by default).
	     src.track	Length of time to retain a source tracking entry after
			the last state expires (0 by default, which means
			there is no global limit.  The value is	defined	by the
			rule which creates the state.).

	     When a packet matches a stateful connection, the seconds to live
	     for the connection	will be	updated	to that	of the protocol	and
	     modifier which corresponds	to the connection state.  Each packet
	     which matches this	state will reset the TTL.  Tuning these	values
	     may improve the performance of the	firewall at the	risk of	drop-
	     ping valid	idle connections.

	     tcp.closed	(90 seconds by default)
		     The state after one endpoint sends	an RST.
	     tcp.closing (900 seconds by default)
		     The state after the first FIN has been sent.
	     tcp.established (24 hours by default)
		     The fully established state.
	     tcp.finwait (45 seconds by	default)
		     The state after both FINs have been exchanged and the
		     connection	is closed.  Some hosts (notably	web servers on
		     Solaris) send TCP packets even after closing the connec-
		     tion.  Increasing tcp.finwait (and	possibly tcp.closing)
		     can prevent blocking of such packets.
	     tcp.first (120 seconds by default)
		     The state after the first packet.
	     tcp.opening (30 seconds by	default)
		     The state after the second	packet but before both end-
		     points have acknowledged the connection.

	     ICMP and UDP are handled in a fashion similar to TCP, but with a
	     much more limited set of states:

	     icmp.error	(10 seconds by default)
		     The state after an	ICMP error came	back in	response to an
		     ICMP packet.
	     icmp.first	(20 seconds by default)
		     The state after the first packet.
	     udp.first (60 seconds by default)
		     The state after the first packet.
	     udp.multiple (60 seconds by default)
		     The state if both hosts have sent packets.
	     udp.single	(30 seconds by default)
		     The state if the source host sends	more than one packet
		     but the destination host has never	sent one back.

	     Other protocols are handled similarly to UDP:

	     other.first (60 seconds by	default)
	     other.multiple (60	seconds	by default)
	     other.single (30 seconds by default)

	     Timeout values can	be reduced adaptively as the number of state
	     table entries grows.

	     adaptive.start (60000 states by default)
		     When the number of	state entries exceeds this value,
		     adaptive scaling begins.  All timeout values are scaled
		     linearly with factor (adaptive.end	- number of states) /
		     (adaptive.end - adaptive.start).
	     adaptive.end (120000 states by default)
		     When reaching this	number of state	entries, all timeout
		     values become zero, effectively purging all state entries
		     immediately.  This	value is used to define	the scale fac-
		     tor; it should not	actually be reached (set a lower state
		     limit, see	below).

	     Adaptive timeouts are enabled by default, with an adaptive.start
	     value equal to 60%	of the state limit, and	an adaptive.end	value
	     equal to 120% of the state	limit.	They can be disabled by	set-
	     ting both adaptive.start and adaptive.end to 0.

	     The adaptive timeout values can be	defined	both globally and for
	     each rule.	 When used on a	per-rule basis,	the values relate to
	     the number	of states created by the rule, otherwise to the	total
	     number of states.

	     For example:

		   set timeout tcp.first 120
		   set timeout tcp.established 86400
		   set timeout { adaptive.start	60000, adaptive.end 120000 }
		   set limit states 100000

	     With 9000 state table entries, the	timeout	values are scaled to
	     50% (tcp.first 60,	tcp.established	43200).

     "pfctl -F Reset" restores default values for the following	options: de-
     bug, all limit options, loginterface, reassemble, skip, syncookies, all

     Packets can be assigned to	queues for the purpose of bandwidth control.
     At	least one declaration is required to configure queues, and later any
     packet filtering rule can reference the defined queues by name.  When
     filtering,	the last referenced queue name is where	any passed packets
     will be queued, while for blocked packets it specifies where any result-
     ing ICMP or TCP RST packets should	be queued.  If the referenced queue
     does not exist on the outgoing interface, the default queue for that in-
     terface is	used.  Queues attached to an interface build a tree, thus each
     queue can have further child queues.  Only	leaf queues, i.e. queues with-
     out children, can be used to assign packets to.  The root queue must
     specifically reference an interface, all other queues pick	up the inter-
     faces they	should be created on from their	parent queues.

     In	the following example, a queue named std is created on the interface
     em0, with 3 child queues ssh, mail	and http:

	   queue std on	em0 bandwidth 100M
	   queue ssh parent std	bandwidth 10M
	   queue mail parent std bandwidth 10M
	   queue http parent std bandwidth 80M default

     The specified bandwidth is	the target bandwidth, every queue can receive
     more bandwidth as long as the parent still	has some available.  The maxi-
     mum bandwidth that	should be assigned to a	given queue can	be limited us-
     ing the max keyword.  If a	limitation isn't imposed on the	root queue,
     borrowing can result in saturating	the bandwidth of the outgoing inter-
     face.  Similarly, a minimum (reserved) bandwidth can be specified:

	   queue ssh parent std	bandwidth 10M min 5M max 25M

     For each of these 3 bandwidth specifications an additional	burst band-
     width and time can	be specified:

	   queue ssh parent std	bandwidth 10M burst 90M	for 100ms

     All bandwidth values are specified	as bits	per second or using the	suf-
     fixes K, M, and G to represent kilobits, megabits,	and gigabits per sec-
     ond, respectively.	 The value must	not exceed the interface bandwidth.

     If	multiple connections are assigned the same queue, they're not guaran-
     teed to share the queue bandwidth fairly.	An alternative flow queue man-
     ager can be used to achieve fair sharing by indicating how	many simulta-
     neous states are expected with a flows option, unless a minimum bandwidth
     has been specified	as well.

     When packets are classified by the	stateful inspection engine, a flow
     identifier	is assigned to all packets belonging to	the state, thus	limit-
     ing the number of individual flows	that can be recognized by the resolu-
     tion of a flow identifier.	 The current implementation is able to clas-
     sify traffic into 32767 distinct flows.  However, efficient fair sharing
     is	observed even with a much smaller number of flows.  For	example	on a
     10Mbit/s DSL or a cable modem uplink, the following simple	configuration
     can be used:

	 queue outq on em0 bandwidth 9M	max 9M flows 1024 qlimit 1024 \

     It's important to specify the upper bound within 90-95% of	the expected
     bandwidth and raise the default queue limit.

     If	a flows	option appears without a bandwidth specification, the flow
     queue manager is selected as the queueing discipline for the correspond-
     ing interface acting as a default queue for all outgoing packets.	In
     such a scenario, a	queueing hierarchy is not supported.

     In	addition to the	bandwidth and flow specifications, queues support the
     following options:

	   Packets not matched by another queue	are assigned to	this queue.
	   Exactly one default queue per interface is required.

     on	interface
	   Specifies the interface the queue operates on.  If not given, it
	   operates on all matching interfaces.

     parent name
	   Defines which parent	queue the queue	should be attached to.	Manda-
	   tory	for all	queues except root queues.  The	parent queue must ex-

     quantum size
	   Specifies the quantum of service for	the flow queue manager.	 The
	   lower the quantum size the more advantage is	given to streams of
	   smaller packets at the expense of bulk transfers.  The default
	   value is set	to the configured Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) of
	   the specified interface.

     qlimit limit
	   The maximum number of packets held in the queue.  The default is

     Packets can be assigned to	queues based on	filter rules by	using the
     queue keyword.  Normally only one queue is	specified; when	a second one
     is	specified it will instead be used for packets which have a TOS of
     lowdelay and for TCP ACKs with no data payload.

     To	continue the previous example, the examples below would	specify	the
     four referenced queues, plus a few	child queues.  Interactive ssh(1) ses-
     sions get a queue with a minimum bandwidth; scp(1)	and sftp(1) bulk
     transfers go to a separate	queue.	The queues are then referenced by fil-
     tering rules.

	 queue rootq on	em0 bandwidth 100M max 100M
	 queue http parent rootq bandwidth 60M burst 90M for 100ms
	 queue	developers parent http bandwidth 45M
	 queue	employees parent http bandwidth	15M
	 queue mail parent rootq bandwidth 10M
	 queue ssh parent rootq	bandwidth 20M
	 queue	ssh_interactive	parent ssh bandwidth 10M min 5M
	 queue	ssh_bulk parent	ssh bandwidth 10M
	 queue std parent rootq	bandwidth 20M default

	 block return out on em0 inet all set queue std
	 pass out on em0 inet proto tcp	from $developerhosts to	any port 80 \
	       set queue developers
	 pass out on em0 inet proto tcp	from $employeehosts to any port	80 \
	       set queue employees
	 pass out on em0 inet proto tcp	from any to any	port 22	\
	       set queue(ssh_bulk, ssh_interactive)
	 pass out on em0 inet proto tcp	from any to any	port 25	\
	       set queue mail

     Tables are	named structures which can hold	a collection of	addresses and
     networks.	Lookups	against	tables in pf(4)	are relatively fast, making a
     single rule with tables much more efficient, in terms of processor	usage
     and memory	consumption, than a large number of rules which	differ only in
     IP	address	(either	created	explicitly or automatically by rule expan-

     Tables can	be used	as the source or destination of	filter or translation
     rules.  They can also be used for the redirect address of nat-to and
     rdr-to and	in the routing options of filter rules,	but not	for bitmask

     Tables can	be defined with	any of the following pfctl(8) mechanisms.  As
     with macros, reserved words may not be used as table names.

     manually  Persistent tables can be	manually created with the add or
	       replace option of pfctl(8), before or after the ruleset has
	       been loaded.

     pf.conf   Table definitions can be	placed directly	in this	file and
	       loaded at the same time as other	rules are loaded, atomically.
	       Table definitions inside	pf.conf	use the	table statement, and
	       are especially useful to	define non-persistent tables.  The
	       contents	of a pre-existing table	defined	without	a list of ad-
	       dresses to initialize it	is not altered when pf.conf is loaded.
	       A table initialized with	the empty list,	{ }, will be cleared
	       on load.

     Tables may	be defined with	the following attributes:

     const     The const flag prevents the user	from altering the contents of
	       the table once it has been created.  Without that flag,
	       pfctl(8)	can be used to add or remove addresses from the	table
	       at any time, even when running with securelevel(7) = 2.

     counters  The counters flag enables per-address packet and	byte counters,
	       which can be displayed with pfctl(8).

     persist   The persist flag	forces the kernel to keep the table even when
	       no rules	refer to it.  If the flag is not set, the kernel will
	       automatically remove the	table when the last rule referring to
	       it is flushed.

     This example creates a table called "private", to hold RFC	1918 private
     network blocks, and a table called	"badhosts", which is initially empty.
     A filter rule is set up to	block all traffic coming from addresses	listed
     in	either table:

	   table <private> const { 10/8, 172.16/12, 192.168/16 }
	   table <badhosts> persist
	   block on fxp0 from {	<private>, <badhosts> }	to any

     The private table cannot have its contents	changed	and the	badhosts table
     will exist	even when no active filter rules reference it.	Addresses may
     later be added to the badhosts table, so that traffic from	these hosts
     can be blocked by using the following:

	   # pfctl -t badhosts -Tadd

     A table can also be initialized with an address list specified in one or
     more external files, using	the following syntax:

	   table <spam>	persist	file "/etc/spammers" file "/etc/openrelays"
	   block on fxp0 from <spam> to	any

     The files /etc/spammers and /etc/openrelays list IP addresses, one	per
     line.  Any	lines beginning	with a `#' are treated as comments and ig-
     nored.  In	addition to being specified by IP address, hosts may also be
     specified by their	hostname.  When	the resolver is	called to add a	host-
     name to a table, all resulting IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are	placed into
     the table.	 IP addresses can also be entered in a table by	specifying a
     valid interface name, a valid interface group, or the self	keyword, in
     which case	all addresses assigned to the interface(s) will	be added to
     the table.

     Besides the main ruleset, pf.conf can specify anchor attachment points.
     An	anchor is a container that can hold rules, address tables, and other
     anchors.  When evaluation of the main ruleset reaches an anchor rule,
     pf(4) will	proceed	to evaluate all	rules specified	in that	anchor.

     The following example blocks all packets on the external interface	by de-
     fault, then evaluates all rules in	the anchor named "spam", and finally
     passes all	outgoing connections and incoming connections to port 25:

	   ext_if = "kue0"
	   block on $ext_if all
	   anchor spam
	   pass	out on $ext_if all
	   pass	in on $ext_if proto tcp	from any to $ext_if port smtp

     Anchors can be manipulated	through	pfctl(8) without reloading the main
     ruleset or	other anchors.	This loads a single rule into the anchor,
     which blocks all packets from a specific address:

	   # echo "block in quick from to any" | pfctl -a spam -f -

     The anchor	can also be populated by adding	a load anchor rule after the
     anchor rule.  When	pfctl(8) loads pf.conf,	it will	also load all the
     rules from	the file /etc/pf-spam.conf into	the anchor.

	   anchor spam
	   load	anchor spam from "/etc/pf-spam.conf"

     An	anchor rule can	also contain a filter ruleset in a brace-delimited
     block.  In	that case, no separate loading of rules	into the anchor	is re-
     quired.  Brace delimited blocks may contain rules or other	brace-delim-
     ited blocks.  When	an anchor is populated this way	the anchor name	be-
     comes optional.  Since the	parser specification for anchor	names is a
     string, double quote characters (`"') should be placed around the anchor

	   anchor "external" on	egress {
		   anchor out {
			   pass	proto tcp from any to port { 25, 80, 443 }
		   pass	in proto tcp to	any port 22

     Anchor rules can also specify packet filtering parameters using the same
     syntax as filter rules.  When parameters are used,	the anchor rule	is
     only evaluated for	matching packets.  This	allows conditional evaluation
     of	anchors, like:

	   block on $ext_if all
	   anchor spam proto tcp from any to any port smtp
	   pass	out on $ext_if all
	   pass	in on $ext_if proto tcp	from any to $ext_if port smtp

     The rules inside anchor "spam" are	only evaluated for TCP packets with
     destination port 25.  Hence, the following	will only block	connections
     from to port 25:

	   # echo "block in quick from to any" | pfctl -a spam -f -

     Matching filter and translation rules marked with the quick option	are
     final and abort the evaluation of the rules in other anchors and the main
     ruleset.  If the anchor itself is marked with the quick option, ruleset
     evaluation	will terminate when the	anchor is exited if the	packet is
     matched by	any rule within	the anchor.

     An	anchor references other	anchor attachment points using the following

     anchor name
	   Evaluates the filter	rules in the specified anchor.

     An	anchor has a name which	specifies the path where pfctl(8) can be used
     to	access the anchor to perform operations	on it, such as attaching child
     anchors to	it or loading rules into it.  Anchors may be nested, with com-
     ponents separated by `/' characters, similar to how file system hierar-
     chies are laid out.  The main ruleset is actually the default anchor, so
     filter and	translation rules, for example,	may also be contained in any

     Anchor rules are evaluated	relative to the	anchor in which	they are con-
     tained.  For example, all anchor rules specified in the main ruleset will
     reference anchor attachment points	underneath the main ruleset, and an-
     chor rules	specified in a file loaded from	a load anchor rule will	be at-
     tached under that anchor point.

     Anchors may end with the asterisk (`*') character,	which signifies	that
     all anchors attached at that point	should be evaluated in the alphabeti-
     cal ordering of their anchor name.	 For example, the following will eval-
     uate each rule in each anchor attached to the "spam" anchor:

	   anchor "spam/*"

     Note that it will only evaluate anchors that are directly attached	to the
     "spam" anchor, and	will not descend to evaluate anchors recursively.

     Since anchors are evaluated relative to the anchor	in which they are con-
     tained, there is a	mechanism for accessing	the parent and ancestor	an-
     chors of a	given anchor.  Similar to file system path name	resolution, if
     the sequence `..' appears as an anchor path component, the	parent anchor
     of	the current anchor in the path evaluation at that point	will become
     the new current anchor.  As an example, consider the following:

	   # printf 'anchor "spam/allowed"\n' |	pfctl -f -
	   # printf 'anchor "../banned"\npass\n' | pfctl -a spam/allowed -f -

     Evaluation	of the main ruleset will lead into the spam/allowed anchor,
     which will	evaluate the rules in the spam/banned anchor, if any, before
     finally evaluating	the pass rule.

     pf(4) filters packets statefully, which has several advantages.  For TCP
     connections, comparing a packet to	a state	involves checking its sequence
     numbers, as well as TCP timestamps	if a rule using	the reassemble tcp pa-
     rameter applies to	the connection.	 If these values are outside the nar-
     row windows of expected values, the packet	is dropped.  This prevents
     spoofing attacks, such as when an attacker	sends packets with a fake
     source address/port but does not know the connection's sequence numbers.
     Similarly,	pf(4) knows how	to match ICMP replies to states.  For example,
     to	allow echo requests (such as those created by ping(8)) out statefully
     and match incoming	echo replies correctly to states:

	   pass	out inet proto icmp all	icmp-type echoreq

     Also, looking up states is	usually	faster than evaluating rules.  If
     there are 50 rules, all of	them are evaluated sequentially	in O(n).  Even
     with 50000	states,	only 16	comparisons are	needed to match	a state, since
     states are	stored in a binary search tree that allows searches in
     O(log2 n).

     Furthermore, correct handling of ICMP error messages is critical to many
     protocols,	particularly TCP.  pf(4) matches ICMP error messages to	the
     correct connection, checks	them against connection	parameters, and	passes
     them if appropriate.  For example if an ICMP source quench	message	refer-
     ring to a stateful	TCP connection arrives,	it will	be matched to the
     state and get passed.

     Finally, state tracking is	required for nat-to and	rdr-to options,	in or-
     der to track address and port translations	and reverse the	translation on
     returning packets.

     pf(4) will	also create state for other protocols which are	effectively
     stateless by nature.  UDP packets are matched to states using only	host
     addresses and ports, and other protocols are matched to states using only
     the host addresses.

     If	stateless filtering of individual packets is desired, the no state
     keyword can be used to specify that state will not	be created if this is
     the last matching rule.  Note that	packets	which match neither block nor
     pass rules, and thus are passed by	default, are effectively passed	as if
     no	state had been specified.

     A number of parameters can	also be	set to affect how pf(4)	handles	state
     tracking, as detailed below.

   State Modulation
     Much of the security derived from TCP is attributable to how well the
     initial sequence numbers (ISNs) are chosen.  Some popular stack implemen-
     tations choose very poor ISNs and thus are	normally susceptible to	ISN
     prediction	exploits.  By applying a modulate state	rule to	a TCP connec-
     tion, pf(4) will create a high quality random sequence number for each
     connection	endpoint.

     The modulate state	directive implicitly keeps state on the	rule and is
     only applicable to	TCP connections.

     For instance:

	   block all
	   pass	out proto tcp from any to any modulate state
	   pass	in  proto tcp from any to any port 25 flags S/SFRA \
		 modulate state

     Note that modulated connections will not recover when the state table is
     lost (firewall reboot, flushing the state table, etc.).  pf(4) will not
     be	able to	infer a	connection again after the state table flushes the
     connection's modulator.  When the state is	lost, the connection may be
     left dangling until the respective	endpoints time out the connection.  It
     is	possible on a fast local network for the endpoints to start an ACK
     storm while trying	to resynchronize after the loss	of the modulator.  The
     default flags settings (or	a more strict equivalent) should be used on
     modulate state rules to prevent ACK storms.

     Note that alternative methods are available to prevent loss of the	state
     table and allow for firewall failover.  See carp(4) and pfsync(4) for
     further information.

   SYN Proxy
     By	default, pf(4) passes packets that are part of a TCP handshake between
     the endpoints.  The synproxy state	option can be used to cause pf(4) it-
     self to complete the handshake with the active endpoint, perform a	hand-
     shake with	the passive endpoint, and then forward packets between the

     No	packets	are sent to the	passive	endpoint before	the active endpoint
     has completed the handshake, hence	so-called SYN floods with spoofed
     source addresses will not reach the passive endpoint, as the sender can't
     complete the handshake.

     The proxy is transparent to both endpoints; they each see a single	con-
     nection from/to the other endpoint.  pf(4)	chooses	random initial se-
     quence numbers for	both handshakes.  Once the handshakes are completed,
     the sequence number modulators (see previous section) are used to trans-
     late further packets of the connection.  synproxy state includes modulate

     Rules with	synproxy state will not	work if	pf(4) operates on a bridge(4).
     Also they act on incoming SYN packets only.


	   pass	in proto tcp from any to any port www synproxy state

   Stateful Tracking Options
     A number of options related to stateful tracking can be applied on	a per-
     rule basis.  One of keep state, modulate state, or	synproxy state must be
     specified explicitly to apply these options to a rule.

	   States can match packets on any interfaces (the opposite of
	   if-bound).  This is the default.
	   States are bound to an interface (the opposite of floating).
     max number
	   Limits the number of	concurrent states the rule may create.	When
	   this	limit is reached, further packets that would create state are
	   dropped until existing states time out.
	   Prevent state changes for states created by this rule from appear-
	   ing on the pfsync(4)	interface.
	   States created by this rule are exported on the pflow(4) interface.
	   Uses	a sloppy TCP connection	tracker	that does not check sequence
	   numbers at all, which makes insertion and ICMP teardown attacks way
	   easier.  This is intended to	be used	in situations where one	does
	   not see all packets of a connection,	e.g. in	asymmetric routing
	   situations.	It cannot be used with modulate	state or synproxy
     timeout seconds
	   Changes the timeout values used for states created by this rule.
	   For a list of all valid timeout names, see OPTIONS above.

     Multiple options can be specified,	separated by commas:

	   pass	in proto tcp from any to any \
		 port www keep state \
		 (max 100, source-track	rule, max-src-nodes 75,	\
		 max-src-states	3, tcp.established 60, tcp.closing 5)

     When the source-track keyword is specified, the number of states per
     source IP is tracked.

     source-track global
	   The number of states	created	by all rules that use this option is
	   limited.  Each rule can specify different max-src-nodes and
	   max-src-states options, however state entries created by any	par-
	   ticipating rule count towards each individual rule's	limits.
     source-track rule
	   The maximum number of states	created	by this	rule is	limited	by the
	   rule's max-src-nodes	and max-src-states options.  Only state	en-
	   tries created by this particular rule count toward the rule's lim-

     The following limits can be set:

     max-src-nodes number
	   Limits the maximum number of	source addresses which can simultane-
	   ously have state table entries.
     max-src-states number
	   Limits the maximum number of	simultaneous state entries that	a sin-
	   gle source address can create with this rule.

     For stateful TCP connections, limits on established connections (connec-
     tions which have completed	the TCP	3-way handshake) can also be enforced
     per source	IP.

     max-src-conn number
	   Limits the maximum number of	simultaneous TCP connections which
	   have	completed the 3-way handshake that a single host can make.
     max-src-conn-rate number/seconds
	   Limit the rate of new connections over a time interval.  The	con-
	   nection rate	is an approximation calculated as a moving average.

     When one of these limits is reached, further packets that would create
     state are dropped until existing states time out.

     Because the 3-way handshake ensures that the source address is not	being
     spoofed, more aggressive action can be taken based	on these limits.  With
     the overload <table> state	option,	source IP addresses which hit either
     of	the limits on established connections will be added to the named
     table.  This table	can be used in the ruleset to block further activity
     from the offending	host, redirect it to a tarpit process, or restrict its

     The optional flush	keyword	kills all states created by the	matching rule
     which originate from the host which exceeds these limits.	The global
     modifier to the flush command kills all states originating	from the of-
     fending host, regardless of which rule created the	state.

     For example, the following	rules will protect the webserver against hosts
     making more than 100 connections in 10 seconds.  Any host which connects
     faster than this rate will	have its address added to the <bad_hosts> ta-
     ble and have all states originating from it flushed.  Any new packets ar-
     riving from this host will	be dropped unconditionally by the block	rule.

	   block quick from <bad_hosts>
	   pass	in on $ext_if proto tcp	to $webserver port www keep state \
		 (max-src-conn-rate 100/10, overload <bad_hosts> flush global)

     Traffic normalisation is a	broad umbrella term for	aspects	of the packet
     filter which deal with verifying packets, packet fragments, spoof traf-
     fic, and other irregularities.

     Scrub involves sanitising packet content in such a	way that there are no
     ambiguities in packet interpretation on the receiving side.  It is	in-
     voked with	the scrub option, added	to regular rules.

     Parameters	are specified enclosed in parentheses.	At least one of	the
     following parameters must be specified:

     max-mss number
	   Enforces a maximum segment size (MSS) for matching TCP packets.

     min-ttl number
	   Enforces a minimum TTL for matching IP packets.

	   Clears the "dont-fragment" bit from a matching IPv4 packet.	Some
	   operating systems have NFS implementations which are	known to gen-
	   erate fragmented packets with the "dont-fragment" bit set.  pf(4)
	   will	drop such fragmented "dont-fragment" packets unless no-df is

	   Unfortunately some operating	systems	also generate their
	   "dont-fragment" packets with	a zero IP identification field.
	   Clearing the	"dont-fragment"	bit on packets with a zero IP ID may
	   cause deleterious results if	an upstream router later fragments the
	   packet.  Using random-id is recommended in combination with no-df
	   to ensure unique IP identifiers.

	   Replaces the	IPv4 identification field with random values to	com-
	   pensate for predictable values generated by many hosts.  This op-
	   tion	only applies to	packets	that are not fragmented	after the op-
	   tional fragment reassembly.

     reassemble	tcp
	   Statefully normalises TCP connections.  reassemble tcp performs the
	   following normalisations:

	   Neither side	of the connection is allowed to	reduce their IP	TTL.
	   An attacker may send	a packet such that it reaches the firewall,
	   affects the firewall	state, and expires before reaching the desti-
	   nation host.	 reassemble tcp	will raise the TTL of all packets back
	   up to the highest value seen	on the connection.

	   Timestamp Modulation
	   Modern TCP stacks will send a timestamp on every TCP	packet and
	   echo	the other endpoint's timestamp back to them.  Many operating
	   systems will	merely start the timestamp at zero when	first booted,
	   and increment it several times a second.  The uptime	of the host
	   can be deduced by reading the timestamp and multiplying by a	con-
	   stant.  Also	observing several different timestamps can be used to
	   count hosts behind a	NAT device.  And spoofing TCP packets into a
	   connection requires knowing or guessing valid timestamps.  Time-
	   stamps merely need to be monotonically increasing and not derived
	   off a guessable base	time.  reassemble tcp will cause scrub to mod-
	   ulate the TCP timestamps with a random number.

	   Extended PAWS Checks
	   There is a problem with TCP on long fat pipes, in that a packet
	   might get delayed for longer	than it	takes the connection to	wrap
	   its 32-bit sequence space.  In such an occurrence, the old packet
	   would be indistinguishable from a new packet	and would be accepted
	   as such.  The solution to this is called PAWS: Protection Against
	   Wrapped Sequence numbers.  It protects against it by	making sure
	   the timestamp on each packet	does not go backwards.	reassemble tcp
	   also	makes sure the timestamp on the	packet does not	go forward
	   more	than the RFC allows.  By doing this, pf(4) artificially	ex-
	   tends the security of TCP sequence numbers by 10 to 18 bits when
	   the host uses appropriately randomized timestamps, since a blind
	   attacker would have to guess	the timestamp as well.

     For example:

	   match in all	scrub (no-df random-id max-mss 1440)

   Fragment Handling
     The size of IP datagrams (packets)	can be significantly larger than the
     maximum transmission unit (MTU) of	the network.  In cases when it is nec-
     essary or more efficient to send such large packets, the large packet
     will be fragmented	into many smaller packets that will each fit onto the
     wire.  Unfortunately for a	firewalling device, only the first logical
     fragment will contain the necessary header	information for	the subproto-
     col that allows pf(4) to filter on	things such as TCP ports or to perform

     One alternative is	to filter individual fragments with filter rules.  If
     packet reassembly is turned off, it is passed to the filter.  Filter
     rules with	matching IP header parameters decide whether the fragment is
     passed or blocked,	in the same way	as complete packets are	filtered.
     Without reassembly, fragments can only be filtered	based on IP header
     fields (source/destination	address, protocol), since subprotocol header
     fields are	not available (TCP/UDP port numbers, ICMP code/type).  The
     fragment option can be used to restrict filter rules to apply only	to
     fragments,	but not	complete packets.  Filter rules	without	the fragment
     option still apply	to fragments, if they only specify IP header fields.
     For instance:

	   pass	in proto tcp from any to any port 80

     The rule above never applies to a fragment, even if the fragment is part
     of	a TCP packet with destination port 80, because without reassembly this
     information is not	available for each fragment.  This also	means that
     fragments cannot create new or match existing state table entries,	which
     makes stateful filtering and address translation (NAT, redirection) for
     fragments impossible.

     In	most cases, the	benefits of reassembly outweigh	the additional memory
     cost, so reassembly is on by default.

     The memory	allocated for fragment caching can be limited using pfctl(8).
     Once this limit is	reached, fragments that	would have to be cached	are
     dropped until other entries time out.  The	timeout	value can also be ad-

     When forwarding reassembled IPv6 packets, pf refragments them with	the
     original maximum fragment size.  This allows the sender to	determine the
     optimal fragment size by path MTU discovery.

   Blocking Spoofed Traffic
     Spoofing is the faking of IP addresses, typically for malicious purposes.
     The antispoof directive expands to	a set of filter	rules which will block
     all traffic with a	source IP from the network(s) directly connected to
     the specified interface(s)	from entering the system through any other in-

     For example:
	   antispoof for lo0

     Expands to:
	   block drop in on ! lo0 inet from	to any
	   block drop in on ! lo0 inet6	from ::1 to any

     For non-loopback interfaces, there	are additional rules to	block incoming
     packets with a source IP address identical	to the interface's IP(s).  For
     example, assuming the interface wi0 had an	IP address of and a
     netmask of

	   antispoof for wi0 inet

     Expands to:
	   block drop in on ! wi0 inet from	to any
	   block drop in inet from to any

     Caveat: Rules created by the antispoof directive interfere	with packets
     sent over loopback	interfaces to local addresses.	One should pass	these

     Passive OS	fingerprinting is a mechanism to inspect nuances of a TCP con-
     nection's initial SYN packet and guess at the host's operating system.
     Unfortunately these nuances are easily spoofed by an attacker so the fin-
     gerprint is not useful in making security decisions.  But the fingerprint
     is	typically accurate enough to make policy decisions upon.

     The fingerprints may be specified by operating system class, by version,
     or	by subtype/patchlevel.	The class of an	operating system is typically
     the vendor	or genre and would be OpenBSD for the pf(4) firewall itself.
     The version of the	oldest available OpenBSD release on the	main FTP site
     would be 2.6 and the fingerprint would be written as:

	   "OpenBSD 2.6"

     The subtype of an operating system	is typically used to describe the
     patchlevel	if that	patch led to changes in	the TCP	stack behavior.	 In
     the case of OpenBSD, the only subtype is for a fingerprint	that was nor-
     malised by	the no-df scrub	option and would be specified as:

	   "OpenBSD 3.3	no-df"

     Fingerprints for most popular operating systems are provided by pf.os(5).
     Once pf(4)	is running, a complete list of known operating system finger-
     prints may	be listed by running:

	   # pfctl -so

     Filter rules can enforce policy at	any level of operating system specifi-
     cation assuming a fingerprint is present.	Policy could limit traffic to
     approved operating	systems	or even	ban traffic from hosts that aren't at
     the latest	service	pack.

     The unknown class can also	be used	as the fingerprint which will match
     packets for which no operating system fingerprint is known.


	   pass	 out proto tcp from any	os OpenBSD
	   block out proto tcp from any	os Doors
	   block out proto tcp from any	os "Doors PT"
	   block out proto tcp from any	os "Doors PT SP3"
	   block out from any os "unknown"
	   pass	on lo0 proto tcp from any os "OpenBSD 3.3 lo0"

     Operating system fingerprinting is	limited	only to	the TCP	SYN packet.
     This means	that it	will not work on other protocols and will not match a
     currently established connection.

     Caveat: operating system fingerprints are occasionally wrong.  There are
     three problems: an	attacker can trivially craft his packets to appear as
     any operating system he chooses; an operating system patch	could change
     the stack behavior	and no fingerprints will match it until	the database
     is	updated; and multiple operating	systems	may have the same fingerprint.

     In	this example, the external interface is	kue0.  We use a	macro for the
     interface name, so	it can be changed easily.  All incoming	traffic	is
     "normalised", and everything is blocked and logged	by default.

	 ext_if	= "kue0"
	 match in all scrub (no-df max-mss 1440)
	 block return log on $ext_if all

     Here we specifically block	packets	we don't want: anything	coming from
     source we have no back routes for;	packets	whose ingress interface	does
     not match the one in the route back to their source address; anything
     that does not have	our address ( as	source;	broadcasts
     (cable modem noise); and anything from reserved address space or invalid

	 block in from no-route	to any
	 block in from urpf-failed to any
	 block out log quick on	$ext_if	from ! to any
	 block in quick	on $ext_if from	any to
	 block in log quick on $ext_if from {,, \,	} to any

     For ICMP, pass out/in ping	queries.  State	matching is done on host ad-
     dresses and ICMP ID (not type/code), so replies (like 0/0 for 8/0)	will
     match queries.  ICMP error	messages (which	always refer to	a TCP/UDP
     packet) are handled by the	TCP/UDP	states.

	 pass on $ext_if inet proto icmp all icmp-type 8 code 0

     For UDP, pass out all UDP connections.  DNS connections are passed	in.

	 pass out on $ext_if proto udp all
	 pass in on $ext_if proto udp from any to any port domain

     For TCP, pass out all TCP connections and modulate	state.	SSH, SMTP,
     DNS, and IDENT connections	are passed in.	We do not allow	Windows	9x
     SMTP connections since they are typically a viral worm.

	 pass out on $ext_if proto tcp all modulate state
	 pass in on $ext_if proto tcp from any to any \
	     port { ssh, smtp, domain, auth }
	 block in on $ext_if proto tcp from any	\
	     os	{ "Windows 95",	"Windows 98" } to any port smtp

     Here we pass in/out all IPv6 traffic: note	that we	have to	enable this in
     two different ways, on both our physical interface	and our	tunnel.

	 pass quick on gif0 inet6
	 pass quick on $ext_if proto ipv6

     This example illustrates packet tagging.  There are three interfaces:
     $int_if, $ext_if, and $wifi_if (wireless).	 NAT is	being done on $ext_if
     for all outgoing packets.	Packets	in on $int_if are tagged and passed
     out on $ext_if.  All other	outgoing packets (i.e. packets from the	wire-
     less network) are only permitted to access	port 80.

	 pass in on $int_if from any to	any tag	INTNET
	 pass in on $wifi_if from any to any

	 block out on $ext_if from any to any
	 pass out quick	on $ext_if tagged INTNET
	 pass out on $ext_if proto tcp from any	to any port 80

     In	this example, we tag incoming packets as they are redirected to
     spamd(8).	The tag	is used	to pass	those packets through the packet fil-

	 match in on $ext_if inet proto	tcp from <spammers> to port smtp \
	      tag SPAMD	rdr-to port spamd

	 block in on $ext_if
	 pass in on $ext_if inet proto tcp tagged SPAMD

     This example maps incoming	requests on port 80 to port 8080, on which a
     daemon is running (because, for example, it is not	run as root, and
     therefore lacks permission	to bind	to port	80).

	 match in on $ext_if proto tcp from any	to any port 80 \
	       rdr-to	port 8080

     If	a pass rule is used with the quick modifier, packets matching the
     translation rule are passed without inspecting subsequent filter rules.

	 pass in quick on $ext_if proto	tcp from any to	any port 80 \
	       rdr-to	port 8080

     In	the example below, vlan12 is configured	as; the machine
     translates	all packets coming from to when
     they are going out	any interface except vlan12.  This has the net effect
     of	making traffic from the network appear	as though it
     is	the Internet routable address to nodes behind any	inter-
     face on the router	except for the nodes on	vlan12.	 Thus,
     can talk to the nodes.

	 match out on !	vlan12 from to	any nat-to

     In	the example below, the machine sits between a fake internal
     144.19.74.* network, and a	routable external IP of	The
     last rule excludes	protocol AH from being translated.

	 pass out on $ext_if from nat-to
	 pass out on $ext_if proto ah from

     In	the example below, packets bound for one specific server, as well as
     those generated by	the sysadmins are not proxied; all other connections

	 pass in on $int_if proto { tcp, udp } from any	to any port 80 \
	       rdr-to	port 80
	 pass in on $int_if proto { tcp, udp } from any	to $server port	80
	 pass in on $int_if proto { tcp, udp } from $sysadmins to any port 80

     This example maps outgoing	packets' source	port to	an assigned proxy port
     instead of	an arbitrary port.  In this case, proxy	outgoing isakmp	with
     port 500 on the gateway.

	 match out on $ext_if inet proto udp from any port isakmp to any \
	     nat-to ($ext_if) port 500

     One more example uses rdr-to to redirect a	TCP and	UDP port to an inter-
     nal machine.

	 match in on $ext_if inet proto	tcp from any to	($ext_if) port 8080 \
	       rdr-to port 22
	 match in on $ext_if inet proto	udp from any to	($ext_if) port 8080 \
	       rdr-to port 53

     In	this example, a	NAT gateway is set up to translate internal addresses
     using a pool of public addresses (	A given	source address
     is	always translated to the same pool address by using the	source-hash
     keyword.  The gateway also	translates incoming web	server connections to
     a group of	web servers on the internal network.

	 match out on $ext_if inet from	any to any nat-to	\
	 match in  on $ext_if proto tcp	from any to any	port 80	\
	     rdr-to { weight	2, weight 1,	\ weight	8 } round-robin

     The bidirectional address translation example uses	a single binat-to rule
     that expands to a nat-to and an rdr-to rule.

	 pass on $ext_if from to any	binat-to

     The previous example is identical to the following	set of rules:

	 pass out on $ext_if inet from to any \
	       nat-to static-port
	 pass in on $ext_if inet from any to	rdr-to

     In	the example below, a router handling both address families translates
     an	internal IPv4 subnet to	IPv6 using the well-known 64:ff9b::/96 prefix:

	 pass in on $v4_if inet	af-to inet6 from ($v6_if) to 64:ff9b::/96

     Paired with the example above, the	example	below can be used on another
     router handling both address families to translate	back to	IPv4:

	 pass in on $v6_if inet6 to 64:ff9b::/96 af-to inet from ($v4_if)

     Syntax for	pf.conf	in BNF:

     line	    = (	option | pf-rule |
		      antispoof-rule | queue-rule | anchor-rule	|
		      anchor-close | load-anchor | table-rule |	include	)

     option	    = "set" ( [	"timeout" ( timeout | "{" timeout-list "}" ) ] |
		      [	"ruleset-optimization" [ "none"	| "basic" |
		      "profile"	] ] |
		      [	"optimization" [ "default" | "normal" |	"high-latency" |
		      "satellite" | "aggressive" | "conservative" ] ]
		      [	"limit"	( limit-item | "{" limit-list "}" ) ] |
		      [	"loginterface" ( interface-name	| "none" ) ] |
		      [	"block-policy" ( "drop"	| "return" ) ] |
		      [	"state-policy" ( "if-bound" | "floating" ) ]
		      [	"state-defaults" state-opts ]
		      [	"fingerprints" filename	] |
		      [	"skip on" ifspec ] |
		      [	"debug"	( "emerg" | "alert" | "crit" | "err" |
		      "warning"	| "notice" | "info" | "debug" )	] |
		      [	"reassemble" ( "yes" | "no" ) [	"no-df"	] ] )

     pf-rule	    = action [ ( "in" |	"out" )	]
		      [	"log" [	"(" logopts ")"] ] [ "quick" ]
		      [	"on" ( ifspec |	"rdomain" number ) ] [ af ]
		      [	protospec ] [ hosts ] [	filteropts ]

     logopts	    = logopt [ [ "," ] logopts ]
     logopt	    = "all" | "matches"	| "user" | "to"	interface-name

     filteropts	    = filteropt	[ [ ","	] filteropts ]
     filteropt	    = user | group | flags | icmp-type | icmp6-type |
		      "tos" tos	|
		      (	"no" | "keep" |	"modulate" | "synproxy"	) "state"
		      [	"(" state-opts ")" ] | "scrub" "(" scrubopts ")" |
		      "fragment" | "allow-opts"	| "once" |
		      "divert-packet" "port" port | "divert-reply" |
		      "divert-to" host "port" port |
		      "label" string | "tag" string | [	"!" ] "tagged" string |
		      "max-pkt-rate" number "/"	seconds	|
		      "set delay" number |
		      "set prio" ( number | "("	number [ [ "," ] number	] ")" )	|
		      "set queue" ( string | "(" string	[ [ ","	] string ] ")" ) |
		      "rtable" number |	"probability" number"%"	| "prio" number	|
		      "af-to" af "from"	( redirhost | "{" redirhost-list "}" )
		      [	"to" ( redirhost | "{" redirhost-list "}" ) ] |
		      "binat-to" ( redirhost | "{" redirhost-list "}" )
		      [	portspec ] [ pooltype ]	|
		      "rdr-to" ( redirhost | "{" redirhost-list	"}" )
		      [	portspec ] [ pooltype ]	|
		      "nat-to" ( redirhost | "{" redirhost-list	"}" )
		      [	portspec ] [ pooltype ]	[ "static-port"	] |
		      [	route ]	| [ "set tos" tos ] |
		      [	[ "!" ]	"received-on" (	interface-name | interface-group ) ]

     scrubopts	    = scrubopt [ [ "," ] scrubopts ]
     scrubopt	    = "no-df" |	"min-ttl" number | "max-mss" number |
		      "reassemble tcp" | "random-id"

     antispoof-rule = "antispoof" [ "log" ] [ "quick" ]
		      "for" ifspec [ af	] [ "label" string ]

     table-rule	    = "table" "<" string ">" [ tableopts ]
     tableopts	    = tableopt [ tableopts ]
     tableopt	    = "persist"	| "const" | "counters" |
		      "file" string | "{" [ tableaddrs ] "}"
     tableaddrs	    = tableaddr-spec [ [ "," ] tableaddrs ]
     tableaddr-spec = [	"!" ] tableaddr	[ "/" mask-bits	]
     tableaddr	    = hostname | ifspec	| "self" |
		      ipv4-dotted-quad | ipv6-coloned-hex

     queue-rule	    = "queue" string [ "on" interface-name ] queueopts-list

     anchor-rule    = "anchor" [ string	] [ ( "in" | "out" ) ] [ "on" ifspec ]
		      [	af ] [ protospec ] [ hosts ] [ filteropt-list ]	[ "{" ]

     anchor-close   = "}"

     load-anchor    = "load anchor" string "from" filename

     queueopts-list = queueopts-list queueopts | queueopts
     queueopts	    = ([ "bandwidth" bandwidth ] | [ "min" bandwidth ] |
		      [	"max" bandwidth	] | [ "parent" string ]	|
		      [	"default" ]) |
		      ([ "flows" number	] | [ "quantum"	number ]) |
		      [	"qlimit" number	]

     bandwidth	    = bandwidth-spec [ "burst" bandwidth-spec "for" number "ms"	]
     bandwidth-spec = number ( "" | "K"	| "M" |	"G" )

     action	    = "pass" | "match" | "block" [ return ]
     return	    = "drop" | "return"	|
		      "return-rst" [ "(" "ttl" number ")" ] |
		      "return-icmp" [ "(" icmpcode [ [ "," ] icmp6code ] ")" ] |
		      "return-icmp6" [ "(" icmp6code ")" ]
     icmpcode	    = (	icmp-code-name | icmp-code-number )
     icmp6code	    = (	icmp6-code-name	| icmp6-code-number )

     ifspec	    = (	[ "!" ]	( interface-name | interface-group ) ) |
		      "{" interface-list "}"
     interface-list = [	"!" ] (	interface-name | interface-group )
		      [	[ "," ]	interface-list ]
     route	    = (	"route-to" | "reply-to"	| "dup-to" )
		      (	redirhost | "{"	redirhost-list "}" )
     af		    = "inet" | "inet6"

     protospec	    = "proto" (	proto-name | proto-number |
		      "{" proto-list "}" )
     proto-list	    = (	proto-name | proto-number ) [ [	"," ] proto-list ]

     hosts	    = "all" |
		      "from" ( "any" | "no-route" | "urpf-failed" | "self" |
		      host | "{" host-list "}" | "route" string	) [ port ]
		      [	os ]
		      "to"   ( "any" | "no-route" | "self" | host |
		      "{" host-list "}"	| "route" string ) [ port ]

     ipspec	    = "any" | host | "{" host-list "}"
     host	    = [	"!" ] (	address	[ "weight" number ] |
		      address [	"/" mask-bits ]	[ "weight" number ] |
		      "<" string ">" )
     redirhost	    = address [	"/" mask-bits ]
     address	    = (	interface-name | interface-group |
		      "(" ( interface-name | interface-group ) ")" |
		      hostname | ipv4-dotted-quad | ipv6-coloned-hex )
     host-list	    = host [ [ "," ] host-list ]
     redirhost-list = redirhost	[ [ ","	] redirhost-list ]

     port	    = "port" ( unary-op	| binary-op | "{" op-list "}" )
     portspec	    = "port" ( number |	name ) [ ":" ( "*" | number | name ) ]
     os		    = "os"  ( os-name |	"{" os-list "}"	)
     user	    = "user" ( unary-op	| binary-op | "{" op-list "}" )
     group	    = "group" (	unary-op | binary-op | "{" op-list "}" )

     unary-op	    = [	"=" | "!=" | "<" | "<="	| ">" |	">=" ]
		      (	name | number )
     binary-op	    = number ( "<>" | "><" | ":" ) number
     op-list	    = (	unary-op | binary-op ) [ [ "," ] op-list ]

     os-name	    = operating-system-name
     os-list	    = os-name [	[ "," ]	os-list	]

     flags	    = "flags" (	[ flag-set ] "/"  flag-set | "any" )
     flag-set	    = [	"F" ] [	"S" ] [	"R" ] [	"P" ] [	"A" ] [	"U" ] [	"E" ]
		      [	"W" ]

     icmp-type	    = "icmp-type" ( icmp-type-code | "{" icmp-list "}" )
     icmp6-type	    = "icmp6-type" ( icmp-type-code | "{" icmp-list "}"	)
     icmp-type-code = (	icmp-type-name | icmp-type-number )
		      [	"code" ( icmp-code-name	| icmp-code-number ) ]
     icmp-list	    = icmp-type-code [ [ "," ] icmp-list ]

     tos	    = (	"lowdelay" | "throughput" | "reliability" |
		      [	"0x" ] number )

     state-opts	    = state-opt	[ [ ","	] state-opts ]
     state-opt	    = (	"max" number | "no-sync" | timeout | "sloppy" |
		      "pflow" |	"source-track" [ ( "rule" | "global" ) ] |
		      "max-src-nodes" number | "max-src-states"	number |
		      "max-src-conn" number |
		      "max-src-conn-rate" number "/" number |
		      "overload" "<" string ">"	[ "flush" [ "global" ] ] |
		      "if-bound" | "floating" )

     timeout-list   = timeout [	[ "," ]	timeout-list ]
     timeout	    = (	"tcp.first" | "tcp.opening" | "tcp.established"	|
		      "tcp.closing" | "tcp.finwait" | "tcp.closed" |
		      "udp.first" | "udp.single" | "udp.multiple" |
		      "icmp.first" | "icmp.error" |
		      "other.first" | "other.single" | "other.multiple"	|
		      "frag" | "interval" | "src.track"	|
		      "adaptive.start" | "adaptive.end"	) number

     limit-list	    = limit-item [ [ "," ] limit-list ]
     limit-item	    = (	"states" | "frags" | "src-nodes" | "tables" |
		      "table-entries" )	number

     pooltype	    = (	"bitmask" | "least-states" |
		      "random" | "round-robin" |
		      "source-hash" [ (	hex-key	| string-key ) ] )
		      [	"sticky-address" ]

     include	    = "include"	filename

     /etc/hosts		    Host name database.
     /etc/pf.conf	    Default location of	the ruleset file.
     /etc/examples/pf.conf  Example ruleset file.
     /etc/pf.os		    Default location of	OS fingerprints.
     /etc/protocols	    Protocol name database.
     /etc/services	    Service name database.

     pf(4), pflow(4), pfsync(4), pf.os(5), pfctl(8), pflogd(8)

     The pf.conf file format first appeared in OpenBSD 3.0.

FreeBSD	13.0		       February	1, 2021			  FreeBSD 13.0


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