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PERLPORT(1)	       Perl Programmers	Reference Guide		   PERLPORT(1)

       perlport	- Writing portable Perl

       Perl runs on numerous operating systems.	 While most of them share much
       in common, they also have their own unique features.

       This document is	meant to help you to find out what constitutes
       portable	Perl code.  That way once you make a decision to write
       portably, you know where	the lines are drawn, and you can stay within

       There is	a tradeoff between taking full advantage of one	particular
       type of computer	and taking advantage of	a full range of	them.
       Naturally, as you broaden your range and	become more diverse, the
       common factors drop, and	you are	left with an increasingly smaller area
       of common ground	in which you can operate to accomplish a particular
       task.  Thus, when you begin attacking a problem,	it is important	to
       consider	under which part of the	tradeoff curve you want	to operate.
       Specifically, you must decide whether it	is important that the task
       that you	are coding has the full	generality of being portable, or
       whether to just get the job done	right now.  This is the	hardest	choice
       to be made.  The	rest is	easy, because Perl provides many choices,
       whichever way you want to approach your problem.

       Looking at it another way, writing portable code	is usually about
       willfully limiting your available choices.  Naturally, it takes
       discipline and sacrifice	to do that.  The product of portability	and
       convenience may be a constant.  You have	been warned.

       Be aware	of two important points:

       Not all Perl programs have to be	portable
	   There is no reason you should not use Perl as a language to glue
	   Unix	tools together,	or to prototype	a Macintosh application, or to
	   manage the Windows registry.	 If it makes no	sense to aim for
	   portability for one reason or another in a given program, then
	   don't bother.

       Nearly all of Perl already is portable
	   Don't be fooled into	thinking that it is hard to create portable
	   Perl	code.  It isn't.  Perl tries its level-best to bridge the gaps
	   between what's available on different platforms, and	all the	means
	   available to	use those features.  Thus almost all Perl code runs on
	   any machine without modification.  But there	are some significant
	   issues in writing portable code, and	this document is entirely
	   about those issues.

       Here's the general rule:	When you approach a task commonly done using a
       whole range of platforms, think about writing portable code.  That way,
       you don't sacrifice much	by way of the implementation choices you can
       avail yourself of, and at the same time you can give your users lots of
       platform	choices.  On the other hand, when you have to take advantage
       of some unique feature of a particular platform,	as is often the	case
       with systems programming	(whether for Unix, Windows, VMS, etc.),
       consider	writing	platform-specific code.

       When the	code will run on only two or three operating systems, you may
       need to consider	only the differences of	those particular systems.  The
       important thing is to decide where the code will	run and	to be
       deliberate in your decision.

       The material below is separated into three main sections: main issues
       of portability ("ISSUES"), platform-specific issues ("PLATFORMS"), and
       built-in	Perl functions that behave differently on various ports

       This information	should not be considered complete; it includes
       possibly	transient information about idiosyncrasies of some of the
       ports, almost all of which are in a state of constant evolution.	 Thus,
       this material should be considered a perpetual work in progress ("<IMG
       SRC="yellow_sign.gif" ALT="Under	Construction">").

       In most operating systems, lines	in files are terminated	by newlines.
       Just what is used as a newline may vary from OS to OS.  Unix
       traditionally uses "\012", one type of DOSish I/O uses "\015\012",
       Mac OS uses "\015", and z/OS uses "\025".

       Perl uses "\n" to represent the "logical" newline, where	what is
       logical may depend on the platform in use.  In MacPerl, "\n" always
       means "\015".  On EBCDIC	platforms, "\n"	could be "\025"	or "\045".  In
       DOSish perls, "\n" usually means	"\012",	but when accessing a file in
       "text" mode, perl uses the ":crlf" layer	that translates	it to (or
       from) "\015\012", depending on whether you're reading or	writing. Unix
       does the	same thing on ttys in canonical	mode.  "\015\012" is commonly
       referred	to as CRLF.

       To trim trailing	newlines from text lines use "chomp".  With default
       settings	that function looks for	a trailing "\n"	character and thus
       trims in	a portable way.

       When dealing with binary	files (or text files in	binary mode) be	sure
       to explicitly set $/ to the appropriate value for your file format
       before using "chomp".

       Because of the "text" mode translation, DOSish perls have limitations
       in using	"seek" and "tell" on a file accessed in	"text" mode.  Stick to
       "seek"-ing to locations you got from "tell" (and	no others), and	you
       are usually free	to use "seek" and "tell" even in "text"	mode.  Using
       "seek" or "tell"	or other file operations may be	non-portable.  If you
       use "binmode" on	a file,	however, you can usually "seek"	and "tell"
       with arbitrary values safely.

       A common	misconception in socket	programming is that "\n	eq \012"
       everywhere.  When using protocols such as common	Internet protocols,
       "\012" and "\015" are called for	specifically, and the values of	the
       logical "\n" and	"\r" (carriage return) are not reliable.

	   print $socket "Hi there, client!\r\n";      # WRONG
	   print $socket "Hi there, client!\015\012";  # RIGHT

       However,	using "\015\012" (or "\cM\cJ", or "\x0D\x0A") can be tedious
       and unsightly, as well as confusing to those maintaining	the code.  As
       such, the "Socket" module supplies the Right Thing for those who	want

	   use Socket qw(:DEFAULT :crlf);
	   print $socket "Hi there, client!$CRLF"      # RIGHT

       When reading from a socket, remember that the default input record
       separator $/ is "\n", but robust	socket code will recognize as either
       "\012" or "\015\012" as end of line:

	   while (<$socket>) {	# NOT ADVISABLE!
	       # ...

       Because both CRLF and LF	end in LF, the input record separator can be
       set to LF and any CR stripped later.  Better to write:

	   use Socket qw(:DEFAULT :crlf);
	   local($/) = LF;	# not needed if	$/ is already \012

	   while (<$socket>) {
	       s/$CR?$LF/\n/;	# not sure if socket uses LF or	CRLF, OK
	   #   s/\015?\012/\n/;	# same thing

       This example is preferred over the previous one--even for Unix
       platforms--because now any "\015"'s ("\cM"'s) are stripped out (and
       there was much rejoicing).

       Similarly, functions that return	text data--such	as a function that
       fetches a web page--should sometimes translate newlines before
       returning the data, if they've not yet been translated to the local
       newline representation.	A single line of code will often suffice:

	   $data =~ s/\015?\012/\n/g;
	   return $data;

       Some of this may	be confusing.  Here's a	handy reference	to the ASCII
       CR and LF characters.  You can print it out and stick it	in your

	   LF  eq  \012	 eq  \x0A  eq  \cJ  eq	chr(10)	 eq  ASCII 10
	   CR  eq  \015	 eq  \x0D  eq  \cM  eq	chr(13)	 eq  ASCII 13

		    | Unix | DOS  | Mac	 |
	       \n   |  LF  |  LF  |  CR	 |
	       \r   |  CR  |  CR  |  LF	 |
	       \n * |  LF  | CRLF |  CR	 |
	       \r * |  CR  |  CR  |  LF	 |
	       * text-mode STDIO

       The Unix	column assumes that you	are not	accessing a serial line	(like
       a tty) in canonical mode.  If you are, then CR on input becomes "\n",
       and "\n"	on output becomes CRLF.

       These are just the most common definitions of "\n" and "\r" in Perl.
       There may well be others.  For example, on an EBCDIC implementation
       such as z/OS (OS/390) or	OS/400 (using the ILE, the PASE	is ASCII-
       based) the above	material is similar to "Unix" but the code numbers

	   LF  eq  \025	 eq  \x15  eq  \cU  eq	chr(21)	 eq  CP-1047 21
	   LF  eq  \045	 eq  \x25  eq		chr(37)	 eq  CP-0037 37
	   CR  eq  \015	 eq  \x0D  eq  \cM  eq	chr(13)	 eq  CP-1047 13
	   CR  eq  \015	 eq  \x0D  eq  \cM  eq	chr(13)	 eq  CP-0037 13

		    | z/OS | OS/400 |
	       \n   |  LF  |  LF    |
	       \r   |  CR  |  CR    |
	       \n * |  LF  |  LF    |
	       \r * |  CR  |  CR    |
	       * text-mode STDIO

   Numbers endianness and Width
       Different CPUs store integers and floating point	numbers	in different
       orders (called endianness) and widths (32-bit and 64-bit	being the most
       common today).  This affects your programs when they attempt to
       transfer	numbers	in binary format from one CPU architecture to another,
       usually either "live" via network connection, or	by storing the numbers
       to secondary storage such as a disk file	or tape.

       Conflicting storage orders make an utter	mess out of the	numbers.  If a
       little-endian host (Intel, VAX) stores 0x12345678 (305419896 in
       decimal), a big-endian host (Motorola, Sparc, PA) reads it as
       0x78563412 (2018915346 in decimal).  Alpha and MIPS can be either:
       Digital/Compaq used/uses	them in	little-endian mode; SGI/Cray uses them
       in big-endian mode.  To avoid this problem in network (socket)
       connections use the "pack" and "unpack" formats "n" and "N", the
       "network" orders.  These	are guaranteed to be portable.

       As of Perl 5.10.0, you can also use the ">" and "<" modifiers to	force
       big- or little-endian byte-order.  This is useful if you	want to	store
       signed integers or 64-bit integers, for example.

       You can explore the endianness of your platform by unpacking a data
       structure packed	in native format such as:

	   print unpack("h*", pack("s2", 1, 2)), "\n";
	   # '10002000'	on e.g.	Intel x86 or Alpha 21064 in little-endian mode
	   # '00100020'	on e.g.	Motorola 68040

       If you need to distinguish between endian architectures you could use
       either of the variables set like	so:

	   $is_big_endian   = unpack("h*", pack("s", 1)) =~ /01/;
	   $is_little_endian = unpack("h*", pack("s", 1)) =~ /^1/;

       Differing widths	can cause truncation even between platforms of equal
       endianness.  The	platform of shorter width loses	the upper parts	of the
       number.	There is no good solution for this problem except to avoid
       transferring or storing raw binary numbers.

       One can circumnavigate both these problems in two ways.	Either
       transfer	and store numbers always in text format, instead of raw
       binary, or else consider	using modules like "Data::Dumper" and
       "Storable" (included as of Perl 5.8).  Keeping all data as text
       significantly simplifies	matters.

   Files and Filesystems
       Most platforms these days structure files in a hierarchical fashion.
       So, it is reasonably safe to assume that	all platforms support the
       notion of a "path" to uniquely identify a file on the system.  How that
       path is really written, though, differs considerably.

       Although	similar, file path specifications differ between Unix,
       Windows,	Mac OS,	OS/2, VMS, VOS,	RISC OS, and probably others.  Unix,
       for example, is one of the few OSes that	has the	elegant	idea of	a
       single root directory.

       DOS, OS/2, VMS, VOS, and	Windows	can work similarly to Unix with	"/" as
       path separator, or in their own idiosyncratic ways (such	as having
       several root directories	and various "unrooted" device files such NIL:
       and LPT:).

       Mac OS 9	and earlier used ":" as	a path separator instead of "/".

       The filesystem may support neither hard links ("link") nor symbolic
       links ("symlink", "readlink", "lstat").

       The filesystem may support neither access timestamp nor change
       timestamp (meaning that about the only portable timestamp is the
       modification timestamp),	or one second granularity of any timestamps
       (e.g. the FAT filesystem	limits the time	granularity to two seconds).

       The "inode change timestamp" (the "-C" filetest)	may really be the
       "creation timestamp" (which it is not in	Unix).

       VOS perl	can emulate Unix filenames with	"/" as path separator.	The
       native pathname characters greater-than,	less-than, number-sign,	and
       percent-sign are	always accepted.

       RISC OS perl can	emulate	Unix filenames with "/"	as path	separator, or
       go native and use "." for path separator	and ":"	to signal filesystems
       and disk	names.

       Don't assume Unix filesystem access semantics: that read, write,	and
       execute are all the permissions there are, and even if they exist, that
       their semantics (for example what do "r", "w", and "x" mean on a
       directory) are the Unix ones.  The various Unix/POSIX compatibility
       layers usually try to make interfaces like "chmod" work,	but sometimes
       there simply is no good mapping.

       The "File::Spec"	modules	provide	methods	to manipulate path
       specifications and return the results in	native format for each
       platform.  This is often	unnecessary as Unix-style paths	are understood
       by Perl on every	supported platform, but	if you need to produce native
       paths for a native utility that does not	understand Unix	syntax,	or if
       you are operating on paths or path components in	unknown	(and thus
       possibly	native)	syntax,	"File::Spec" is	your friend.  Here are two
       brief examples:

	   use File::Spec::Functions;
	   chdir(updir());	  # go up one directory

	   # Concatenate a path	from its components
	   my $file = catfile(updir(), 'temp', 'file.txt');
	   # on	Unix:	 '../temp/file.txt'
	   # on	Win32:	 '..\temp\file.txt'
	   # on	VMS:	 '[-.temp]file.txt'

       In general, production code should not have file	paths hardcoded.
       Making them user-supplied or read from a	configuration file is better,
       keeping in mind that file path syntax varies on different machines.

       This is especially noticeable in	scripts	like Makefiles and test
       suites, which often assume "/" as a path	separator for subdirectories.

       Also of use is "File::Basename" from the	standard distribution, which
       splits a	pathname into pieces (base filename, full path to directory,
       and file	suffix).

       Even when on a single platform (if you can call Unix a single
       platform), remember not to count	on the existence or the	contents of
       particular system-specific files	or directories,	like /etc/passwd,
       /etc/sendmail.conf, /etc/resolv.conf, or	even /tmp/.  For example,
       /etc/passwd may exist but not contain the encrypted passwords, because
       the system is using some	form of	enhanced security.  Or it may not
       contain all the accounts, because the system is using NIS.  If code
       does need to rely on such a file, include a description of the file and
       its format in the code's	documentation, then make it easy for the user
       to override the default location	of the file.

       Don't assume a text file	will end with a	newline.  They should, but
       people forget.

       Do not have two files or	directories of the same	name with different
       case, like and, as many platforms have case-insensitive
       (or at least case-forgiving) filenames.	Also, try not to have non-word
       characters (except for ".") in the names, and keep them to the 8.3
       convention, for maximum portability, onerous a burden though this may

       Likewise, when using the	"AutoSplit" module, try	to keep	your functions
       to 8.3 naming and case-insensitive conventions; or, at the least, make
       it so the resulting files have a	unique (case-insensitively) first 8

       Whitespace in filenames is tolerated on most systems, but not all, and
       even on systems where it	might be tolerated, some utilities might
       become confused by such whitespace.

       Many systems (DOS, VMS ODS-2) cannot have more than one "." in their

       Don't assume ">"	won't be the first character of	a filename.  Always
       use the three-arg version of "open":

	   open	my $fh,	'<', $existing_file) or	die $!;

       Two-arg "open" is magic and can translate characters like ">", "<", and
       "|" in filenames, which is usually the wrong thing to do.  "sysopen"
       and three-arg "open" don't have this problem.

       Don't use ":" as	a part of a filename since many	systems	use that for
       their own semantics (Mac	OS Classic for separating pathname components,
       many networking schemes and utilities for separating the	nodename and
       the pathname, and so on).  For the same reasons,	avoid "@", ";" and

       Don't assume that in pathnames you can collapse two leading slashes
       "//" into one: some networking and clustering filesystems have special
       semantics for that.  Let	the operating system sort it out.

       The portable filename characters	as defined by ANSI C are

	a b c d	e f g h	i j k l	m n o p	q r s t	u v w x	y z
	A B C D	E F G H	I J K L	M N O P	Q R S T	U V W X	Y Z
	0 1 2 3	4 5 6 7	8 9
	. _ -

       and "-" shouldn't be the	first character.  If you want to be
       hypercorrect, stay case-insensitive and within the 8.3 naming
       convention (all the files and directories have to be unique within one
       directory if their names	are lowercased and truncated to	eight
       characters before the ".", if any, and to three characters after	the
       ".", if any).  (And do not use "."s in directory	names.)

   System Interaction
       Not all platforms provide a command line.  These	are usually platforms
       that rely primarily on a	Graphical User Interface (GUI) for user
       interaction.  A program requiring a command line	interface might	not
       work everywhere.	 This is probably for the user of the program to deal
       with, so	don't stay up late worrying about it.

       Some platforms can't delete or rename files held	open by	the system,
       this limitation may also	apply to changing filesystem metainformation
       like file permissions or	owners.	 Remember to "close" files when	you
       are done	with them.  Don't "unlink" or "rename" an open file.  Don't
       "tie" or	"open" a file already tied or opened; "untie" or "close" it

       Don't open the same file	more than once at a time for writing, as some
       operating systems put mandatory locks on	such files.

       Don't assume that write/modify permission on a directory	gives the
       right to	add or delete files/directories	in that	directory.  That is
       filesystem specific: in some filesystems	you need write/modify
       permission also (or even	just) in the file/directory itself.  In	some
       filesystems (AFS, DFS) the permission to	add/delete directory entries
       is a completely separate	permission.

       Don't assume that a single "unlink" completely gets rid of the file:
       some filesystems	(most notably the ones in VMS) have versioned
       filesystems, and	"unlink" removes only the most recent one (it doesn't
       remove all the versions because by default the native tools on those
       platforms remove	just the most recent version, too).  The portable
       idiom to	remove all the versions	of a file is

	   1 while unlink "file";

       This will terminate if the file is undeleteable for some	reason
       (protected, not there, and so on).

       Don't count on a	specific environment variable existing in %ENV.	 Don't
       count on	%ENV entries being case-sensitive, or even case-preserving.
       Don't try to clear %ENV by saying "%ENV = ();", or, if you really have
       to, make	it conditional on "$^O ne 'VMS'" since in VMS the %ENV table
       is much more than a per-process key-value string	table.

       On VMS, some entries in the %ENV	hash are dynamically created when
       their key is used on a read if they did not previously exist.  The
       values for $ENV{HOME}, $ENV{TERM}, $ENV{PATH}, and $ENV{USER}, are
       known to	be dynamically generated.  The specific	names that are
       dynamically generated may vary with the version of the C	library	on
       VMS, and	more may exist than are	documented.

       On VMS by default, changes to the %ENV hash persist after perl exits.
       Subsequent invocations of perl in the same process can inadvertently
       inherit environment settings that were meant to be temporary.

       Don't count on signals or %SIG for anything.

       Don't count on filename globbing.  Use "opendir", "readdir", and
       "closedir" instead.

       Don't count on per-program environment variables, or per-program
       current directories.

       Don't count on specific values of $!, neither numeric nor especially
       the string values. Users	may switch their locales causing error
       messages	to be translated into their languages.	If you can trust a
       POSIXish	environment, you can portably use the symbols defined by the
       "Errno" module, like "ENOENT".  And don't trust on the values of	$! at
       all except immediately after a failed system call.

   Command names versus	file pathnames
       Don't assume that the name used to invoke a command or program with
       "system"	or "exec" can also be used to test for the existence of	the
       file that holds the executable code for that command or program.
       First, many systems have	"internal" commands that are built-in to the
       shell or	OS and while these commands can	be invoked, there is no
       corresponding file.  Second, some operating systems (e.g., Cygwin,
       DJGPP, OS/2, and	VOS) have required suffixes for	executable files;
       these suffixes are generally permitted on the command name but are not
       required.  Thus,	a command like "perl" might exist in a file named
       perl, perl.exe, or, depending on	the operating system.  The
       variable	$Config{_exe} in the "Config" module holds the executable
       suffix, if any.	Third, the VMS port carefully sets up $^X and
       $Config{perlpath} so that no further processing is required.  This is
       just as well, because the matching regular expression used below	would
       then have to deal with a	possible trailing version number in the	VMS
       file name.

       To convert $^X to a file	pathname, taking account of the	requirements
       of the various operating	system possibilities, say:

	use Config;
	my $thisperl = $^X;
	if ($^O	ne 'VMS') {
	    $thisperl .= $Config{_exe}
		unless $thisperl =~ m/\Q$Config{_exe}\E$/i;

       To convert $Config{perlpath} to a file pathname,	say:

	use Config;
	my $thisperl = $Config{perlpath};
	if ($^O	ne 'VMS') {
	    $thisperl .= $Config{_exe}
		unless $thisperl =~ m/\Q$Config{_exe}\E$/i;

       Don't assume that you can reach the public Internet.

       Don't assume that there is only one way to get through firewalls	to the
       public Internet.

       Don't assume that you can reach outside world through any other port
       than 80,	or some	web proxy.  ftp	is blocked by many firewalls.

       Don't assume that you can send email by connecting to the local SMTP

       Don't assume that you can reach yourself	or any node by the name
       'localhost'.  The same goes for ''.  You will have to try

       Don't assume that the host has only one network card, or	that it	can't
       bind to many virtual IP addresses.

       Don't assume a particular network device	name.

       Don't assume a particular set of	"ioctl"s will work.

       Don't assume that you can ping hosts and	get replies.

       Don't assume that any particular	port (service) will respond.

       Don't assume that "Sys::Hostname" (or any other API or command) returns
       either a	fully qualified	hostname or a non-qualified hostname: it all
       depends on how the system had been configured.  Also remember that for
       things such as DHCP and NAT, the	hostname you get back might not	be
       very useful.

       All the above don'ts may	look daunting, and they	are, but the key is to
       degrade gracefully if one cannot	reach the particular network service
       one wants.  Croaking or hanging do not look very	professional.

   Interprocess	Communication (IPC)
       In general, don't directly access the system in code meant to be
       portable.  That means, no "system", "exec", "fork", "pipe", "``"	or
       "qx//", "open" with a "|", nor any of the other things that makes being
       a Perl hacker worth being.

       Commands	that launch external processes are generally supported on most
       platforms (though many of them do not support any type of forking).
       The problem with	using them arises from what you	invoke them on.
       External	tools are often	named differently on different platforms, may
       not be available	in the same location, might accept different
       arguments, can behave differently, and often present their results in a
       platform-dependent way.	Thus, you should seldom	depend on them to
       produce consistent results.  (Then again, if you're calling "netstat
       -a", you	probably don't expect it to run	on both	Unix and CP/M.)

       One especially common bit of Perl code is opening a pipe	to sendmail:

	   open(my $mail, '|-',	'/usr/lib/sendmail -t')
	       or die "cannot fork sendmail: $!";

       This is fine for	systems	programming when sendmail is known to be
       available.  But it is not fine for many non-Unix	systems, and even some
       Unix systems that may not have sendmail installed.  If a	portable
       solution	is needed, see the various distributions on CPAN that deal
       with it.	 "Mail::Mailer"	and "Mail::Send" in the	"MailTools"
       distribution are	commonly used, and provide several mailing methods,
       including "mail", "sendmail", and direct	SMTP (via "Net::SMTP") if a
       mail transfer agent is not available.  "Mail::Sendmail" is a standalone
       module that provides simple, platform-independent mailing.

       The Unix	System V IPC ("msg*(), sem*(), shm*()")	is not available even
       on all Unix platforms.

       Do not use either the bare result of "pack("N", 10, 20, 30, 40)"	or
       bare v-strings (such as "v10.20.30.40") to represent IPv4 addresses:
       both forms just pack the	four bytes into	network	order.	That this
       would be	equal to the C language	"in_addr" struct (which	is what	the
       socket code internally uses) is not guaranteed.	To be portable use the
       routines	of the "Socket"	module,	such as	"inet_aton", "inet_ntoa", and

       The rule	of thumb for portable code is: Do it all in portable Perl, or
       use a module (that may internally implement it with platform-specific
       code, but exposes a common interface).

   External Subroutines	(XS)
       XS code can usually be made to work with	any platform, but dependent
       libraries, header files,	etc., might not	be readily available or
       portable, or the	XS code	itself might be	platform-specific, just	as
       Perl code might be.  If the libraries and headers are portable, then it
       is normally reasonable to make sure the XS code is portable, too.

       A different type	of portability issue arises when writing XS code:
       availability of a C compiler on the end-user's system.  C brings	with
       it its own portability issues, and writing XS code will expose you to
       some of those.  Writing purely in Perl is an easier way to achieve

   Standard Modules
       In general, the standard	modules	work across platforms.	Notable
       exceptions are the "CPAN" module	(which currently makes connections to
       external	programs that may not be available), platform-specific modules
       (like "ExtUtils::MM_VMS"), and DBM modules.

       There is	no one DBM module available on all platforms.  "SDBM_File" and
       the others are generally	available on all Unix and DOSish ports,	but
       not in MacPerl, where only "NDBM_File" and "DB_File" are	available.

       The good	news is	that at	least some DBM module should be	available, and
       "AnyDBM_File" will use whichever	module it can find.  Of	course,	then
       the code	needs to be fairly strict, dropping to the greatest common
       factor (e.g., not exceeding 1K for each record),	so that	it will	work
       with any	DBM module.  See AnyDBM_File for more details.

   Time	and Date
       The system's notion of time of day and calendar date is controlled in
       widely different	ways.  Don't assume the	timezone is stored in
       $ENV{TZ}, and even if it	is, don't assume that you can control the
       timezone	through	that variable.	Don't assume anything about the	three-
       letter timezone abbreviations (for example that MST would be the
       Mountain	Standard Time, it's been known to stand	for Moscow Standard
       Time).  If you need to use timezones, express them in some unambiguous
       format like the exact number of minutes offset from UTC,	or the POSIX
       timezone	format.

       Don't assume that the epoch starts at 00:00:00, January 1, 1970,
       because that is OS- and implementation-specific.	 It is better to store
       a date in an unambiguous	representation.	 The ISO 8601 standard defines
       YYYY-MM-DD as the date format, or YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS (that's a literal
       "T" separating the date from the	time).	Please do use the ISO 8601
       instead of making us guess what date 02/03/04 might be.	ISO 8601 even
       sorts nicely as-is.  A text representation (like	"1987-12-18") can be
       easily converted	into an	OS-specific value using	a module like
       "Time::Piece" (see "Date	Parsing" in Time::Piece) or "Date::Parse".  An
       array of	values,	such as	those returned by "localtime", can be
       converted to an OS-specific representation using	"Time::Local".

       When calculating	specific times,	such as	for tests in time or date
       modules,	it may be appropriate to calculate an offset for the epoch.

	   use Time::Local qw(timegm);
	   my $offset =	timegm(0, 0, 0,	1, 0, 70);

       The value for $offset in	Unix will be 0,	but in Mac OS Classic will be
       some large number.  $offset can then be added to	a Unix time value to
       get what	should be the proper value on any system.

   Character sets and character	encoding
       Assume very little about	character sets.

       Assume nothing about numerical values ("ord", "chr") of characters.  Do
       not use explicit	code point ranges (like	"\xHH-\xHH)".  However,
       starting	in Perl	v5.22, regular expression pattern bracketed character
       class ranges specified like "qr/[\N{U+HH}-\N{U+HH}]/" are portable, and
       starting	in Perl	v5.24, the same	ranges are portable in "tr///".	 You
       can portably use	symbolic character classes like	"[:print:]".

       Do not assume that the alphabetic characters are	encoded	contiguously
       (in the numeric sense).	There may be gaps.  Special coding in Perl,
       however,	guarantees that	all subsets of "qr/[A-Z]/", "qr/[a-z]/", and
       "qr/[0-9]/" behave as expected.	"tr///"	behaves	the same for these
       ranges.	In patterns, any ranges	specified with end points using	the
       "\N{...}" notations ensures character set portability, but it is	a bug
       in Perl v5.22 that this isn't true of "tr///", fixed in v5.24.

       Do not assume anything about the	ordering of the	characters.  The
       lowercase letters may come before or after the uppercase	letters; the
       lowercase and uppercase may be interlaced so that both "a" and "A" come
       before "b"; the accented	and other international	characters may be
       interlaced so that ae comes before "b".	Unicode::Collate can be	used
       to sort this all	out.

       If you may assume POSIX (a rather large assumption), you	may read more
       about the POSIX locale system from perllocale.  The locale system at
       least attempts to make things a little bit more portable, or at least
       more convenient and native-friendly for non-English users.  The system
       affects character sets and encoding, and	date and time
       formatting--amongst other things.

       If you really want to be	international, you should consider Unicode.
       See perluniintro	and perlunicode	for more information.

       By default Perl assumes your source code	is written in an 8-bit ASCII
       superset. To embed Unicode characters in	your strings and regexes, you
       can use the "\x{HH}" or (more portably) "\N{U+HH}" notations. You can
       also use	the "utf8" pragma and write your code in UTF-8,	which lets you
       use Unicode characters directly (not just in quoted constructs but also
       in identifiers).

   System Resources
       If your code is destined	for systems with severely constrained (or
       missing!) virtual memory	systems	then you want to be especially mindful
       of avoiding wasteful constructs such as:

	   my @lines = <$very_large_file>;	      #	bad

	   while (<$fh>) {$file	.= $_}		      #	sometimes bad
	   my $file = join('', <$fh>);		      #	better

       The last	two constructs may appear unintuitive to most people.  The
       first repeatedly	grows a	string,	whereas	the second allocates a large
       chunk of	memory in one go.  On some systems, the	second is more
       efficient than the first.

       Most multi-user platforms provide basic levels of security, usually
       implemented at the filesystem level.  Some, however, unfortunately do
       not.  Thus the notion of	user id, or "home" directory, or even the
       state of	being logged-in, may be	unrecognizable on many platforms.  If
       you write programs that are security-conscious, it is usually best to
       know what type of system	you will be running under so that you can
       write code explicitly for that platform (or class of platforms).

       Don't assume the	Unix filesystem	access semantics: the operating	system
       or the filesystem may be	using some ACL systems,	which are richer
       languages than the usual	"rwx".	Even if	the "rwx" exist, their
       semantics might be different.

       (From the security viewpoint, testing for permissions before attempting
       to do something is silly	anyway:	if one tries this, there is potential
       for race	conditions. Someone or something might change the permissions
       between the permissions check and the actual operation.	Just try the

       Don't assume the	Unix user and group semantics: especially, don't
       expect $< and $>	(or $( and $)) to work for switching identities	(or

       Don't assume set-uid and	set-gid	semantics.  (And even if you do, think
       twice: set-uid and set-gid are a	known can of security worms.)

       For those times when it is necessary to have platform-specific code,
       consider	keeping	the platform-specific code in one place, making
       porting to other	platforms easier.  Use the "Config" module and the
       special variable	$^O to differentiate platforms,	as described in

       Beware of the "else syndrome":

	 if ($^O eq 'MSWin32') {
	   # code that assumes Windows
	 } else	{
	   # code that assumes Linux

       The "else" branch should	be used	for the	really ultimate	fallback, not
       for code	specific to some platform.

       Be careful in the tests you supply with your module or programs.
       Module code may be fully	portable, but its tests	might not be.  This
       often happens when tests	spawn off other	processes or call external
       programs	to aid in the testing, or when (as noted above)	the tests
       assume certain things about the filesystem and paths.  Be careful not
       to depend on a specific output style for	errors,	such as	when checking
       $! after	a failed system	call.  Using $!	for anything else than
       displaying it as	output is doubtful (though see the "Errno" module for
       testing reasonably portably for error value). Some platforms expect a
       certain output format, and Perl on those	platforms may have been
       adjusted	accordingly.  Most specifically, don't anchor a	regex when
       testing an error	value.

CPAN Testers
       Modules uploaded	to CPAN	are tested by a	variety	of volunteers on
       different platforms.  These CPAN	testers	are notified by	mail of	each
       new upload, and reply to	the list with PASS, FAIL, NA (not applicable
       to this platform), or UNKNOWN (unknown),	along with any relevant

       The purpose of the testing is twofold: one, to help developers fix any
       problems	in their code that crop	up because of lack of testing on other
       platforms; two, to provide users	with information about whether a given
       module works on a given platform.

       Also see:

       o   Mailing list:

       o   Testing results: <>

       Perl is built with a $^O	variable that indicates	the operating system
       it was built on.	 This was implemented to help speed up code that would
       otherwise have to "use Config" and use the value	of $Config{osname}.
       Of course, to get more detailed information about the system, looking
       into %Config is certainly recommended.

       %Config cannot always be	trusted, however, because it was built at
       compile time.  If perl was built	in one place, then transferred
       elsewhere, some values may be wrong.  The values	may even have been
       edited after the	fact.

       Perl works on a bewildering variety of Unix and Unix-like platforms
       (see e.g. most of the files in the hints/ directory in the source code
       kit).  On most of these systems,	the value of $^O (hence
       $Config{osname},	too) is	determined either by lowercasing and stripping
       punctuation from	the first field	of the string returned by typing
       "uname -a" (or a	similar	command) at the	shell prompt or	by testing the
       file system for the presence of uniquely	named files such as a kernel
       or header file.	Here, for example, are a few of	the more popular Unix

	   uname	 $^O	    $Config{archname}
	   AIX		 aix	    aix
	   BSD/OS	 bsdos	    i386-bsdos
	   Darwin	 darwin	    darwin
	   DYNIX/ptx	 dynixptx   i386-dynixptx
	   FreeBSD	 freebsd    freebsd-i386
	   Haiku	 haiku	    BePC-haiku
	   Linux	 linux	    arm-linux
	   Linux	 linux	    armv5tel-linux
	   Linux	 linux	    i386-linux
	   Linux	 linux	    i586-linux
	   Linux	 linux	    ppc-linux
	   HP-UX	 hpux	    PA-RISC1.1
	   IRIX		 irix	    irix
	   Mac OS X	 darwin	    darwin
	   NeXT	3	 next	    next-fat
	   NeXT	4	 next	    OPENSTEP-Mach
	   openbsd	 openbsd    i386-openbsd
	   OSF1		 dec_osf    alpha-dec_osf
	   reliantunix-n svr4	    RM400-svr4
	   SCO_SV	 sco_sv	    i386-sco_sv
	   SINIX-N	 svr4	    RM400-svr4
	   sn4609	 unicos	    CRAY_C90-unicos
	   sn6521	 unicosmk   t3e-unicosmk
	   sn9617	 unicos	    CRAY_J90-unicos
	   SunOS	 solaris    sun4-solaris
	   SunOS	 solaris    i86pc-solaris
	   SunOS4	 sunos	    sun4-sunos

       Because the value of $Config{archname} may depend on the	hardware
       architecture, it	can vary more than the value of	$^O.

   DOS and Derivatives
       Perl has	long been ported to Intel-style	microcomputers running under
       systems like PC-DOS, MS-DOS, OS/2, and most Windows platforms you can
       bring yourself to mention (except for Windows CE, if you	count that).
       Users familiar with COMMAND.COM or CMD.EXE style	shells should be aware
       that each of these file specifications may have subtle differences:

	   my $filespec0 = "c:/foo/bar/file.txt";
	   my $filespec1 = "c:\\foo\\bar\\file.txt";
	   my $filespec2 = 'c:\foo\bar\file.txt';
	   my $filespec3 = 'c:\\foo\\bar\\file.txt';

       System calls accept either "/" or "\" as	the path separator.  However,
       many command-line utilities of DOS vintage treat	"/" as the option
       prefix, so may get confused by filenames	containing "/".	 Aside from
       calling any external programs, "/" will work just fine, and probably
       better, as it is	more consistent	with popular usage, and	avoids the
       problem of remembering what to backwhack	and what not to.

       The DOS FAT filesystem can accommodate only "8.3" style filenames.
       Under the "case-insensitive, but	case-preserving" HPFS (OS/2) and NTFS
       (NT) filesystems	you may	have to	be careful about case returned with
       functions like "readdir"	or used	with functions like "open" or

       DOS also	treats several filenames as special, such as AUX, PRN, NUL,
       CON, COM1, LPT1,	LPT2, etc.  Unfortunately, sometimes these filenames
       won't even work if you include an explicit directory prefix.  It	is
       best to avoid such filenames, if	you want your code to be portable to
       DOS and its derivatives.	 It's hard to know what	these all are,

       Users of	these operating	systems	may also wish to make use of scripts
       such as pl2bat.bat to put wrappers around your scripts.

       Newline ("\n") is translated as "\015\012" by the I/O system when
       reading from and	writing	to files (see "Newlines").
       "binmode($filehandle)" will keep	"\n" translated	as "\012" for that
       filehandle.  "binmode" should always be used for	code that deals	with
       binary data.  That's assuming you realize in advance that your data is
       in binary.  General-purpose programs should often assume	nothing	about
       their data.

       The $^O variable	and the	$Config{archname} values for various DOSish
       perls are as follows:

	   OS		  $^O	    $Config{archname}  ID    Version
	   MS-DOS	  dos	    ?
	   PC-DOS	  dos	    ?
	   OS/2		  os2	    ?
	   Windows 3.1	  ?	    ?		       0     3 01
	   Windows 95	  MSWin32   MSWin32-x86	       1     4 00
	   Windows 98	  MSWin32   MSWin32-x86	       1     4 10
	   Windows ME	  MSWin32   MSWin32-x86	       1     ?
	   Windows NT	  MSWin32   MSWin32-x86	       2     4 xx
	   Windows NT	  MSWin32   MSWin32-ALPHA      2     4 xx
	   Windows NT	  MSWin32   MSWin32-ppc	       2     4 xx
	   Windows 2000	  MSWin32   MSWin32-x86	       2     5 00
	   Windows XP	  MSWin32   MSWin32-x86	       2     5 01
	   Windows 2003	  MSWin32   MSWin32-x86	       2     5 02
	   Windows Vista  MSWin32   MSWin32-x86	       2     6 00
	   Windows 7	  MSWin32   MSWin32-x86	       2     6 01
	   Windows 7	  MSWin32   MSWin32-x64	       2     6 01
	   Windows 2008	  MSWin32   MSWin32-x86	       2     6 01
	   Windows 2008	  MSWin32   MSWin32-x64	       2     6 01
	   Windows CE	  MSWin32   ?		       3
	   Cygwin	  cygwin    cygwin

       The various MSWin32 Perl's can distinguish the OS they are running on
       via the value of	the fifth element of the list returned from
       "Win32::GetOSVersion()".	 For example:

	   if ($^O eq 'MSWin32') {
	       my @os_version_info = Win32::GetOSVersion();
	       print +('3.1','95','NT')[$os_version_info[4]],"\n";

       There are also "Win32::IsWinNT()|Win32/Win32::IsWinNT()",
       "Win32::IsWin95()|Win32/Win32::IsWin95()", and "Win32::GetOSName()";
       try "perldoc Win32".  The very portable "POSIX::uname()"	will work too:

	   c:\>	perl -MPOSIX -we "print	join '|', uname"
	   Windows NT|moonru|5.0|Build 2195 (Service Pack 2)|x86

       Errors set by Winsock functions are now put directly into $^E, and the
       relevant	"WSAE*"	error codes are	now exported from the Errno and	POSIX
       modules for testing this	against.

       The previous behavior of	putting	the errors (converted to POSIX-style
       "E*" error codes	since Perl 5.20.0) into	$! was buggy due to the	non-
       equivalence of like-named Winsock and POSIX error constants, a
       relationship between which has unfortunately been established in	one
       way or another since Perl 5.8.0.

       The new behavior	provides a much	more robust solution for checking
       Winsock errors in portable software without accidentally	matching POSIX
       tests that were intended	for other OSes and may have different meanings
       for Winsock.

       The old behavior	is currently retained, warts and all, for backwards
       compatibility, but users	are encouraged to change any code that tests
       $! against "E*" constants for Winsock errors to instead test $^E
       against "WSAE*" constants.  After a suitable deprecation	period,	which
       started with Perl 5.24, the old behavior	may be removed,	leaving	$!
       unchanged after Winsock function	calls, to avoid	any possible confusion
       over which error	variable to check.

       Also see:

       o   The djgpp environment for DOS, <> and

       o   The EMX environment for DOS,	OS/2, etc.,
	   <>  Also perlos2.

       o   Build instructions for Win32	in perlwin32, or under the Cygnus
	   environment in perlcygwin.

       o   The "Win32::*" modules in Win32.

       o   The ActiveState Pages, <>

       o   The Cygwin environment for Win32; README.cygwin (installed as
	   perlcygwin),	<>

       o   The U/WIN environment for Win32,

       o   Build instructions for OS/2,	perlos2

       Perl on VMS is discussed	in perlvms in the Perl distribution.

       The official name of VMS	as of this writing is OpenVMS.

       Interacting with	Perl from the Digital Command Language (DCL) shell
       often requires a	different set of quotation marks than Unix shells do.
       For example:

	   $ perl -e "print ""Hello, world.\n"""
	   Hello, world.

       There are several ways to wrap your Perl	scripts	in DCL .COM files, if
       you are so inclined.  For example:

	   $ write sys$output "Hello from DCL!"
	   $ if	p1 .eqs. ""
	   $ then perl -x 'f$environment("PROCEDURE")
	   $ else perl -x - 'p1	'p2 'p3	'p4 'p5	'p6 'p7	'p8
	   $ deck/dollars="__END__"

	   print "Hello	from Perl!\n";

	   $ endif

       Do take care with "$ ASSIGN/nolog/user SYS$COMMAND: SYS$INPUT" if your
       Perl-in-DCL script expects to do	things like "$read = <STDIN>;".

       The VMS operating system	has two	filesystems, designated	by their on-
       disk structure (ODS) level: ODS-2 and its successor ODS-5.  The initial
       port of Perl to VMS pre-dates ODS-5, but	all current testing and
       development assumes ODS-5 and its capabilities, including case
       preservation, extended characters in filespecs, and names up to 8192
       bytes long.

       Perl on VMS can accept either VMS- or Unix-style	file specifications as
       in either of the	following:

	   $ perl -ne "print if	/perl_setup/i" SYS$LOGIN:LOGIN.COM
	   $ perl -ne "print if	/perl_setup/i" /sys$login/

       but not a mixture of both as in:

	   $ perl -ne "print if	/perl_setup/i" sys$login:/
	   Can't open sys$login:/ file specification syntax error

       In general, the easiest path to portability is always to	specify
       filenames in Unix format	unless they will need to be processed by
       native commands or utilities.  Because of this latter consideration,
       the File::Spec module by	default	returns	native format specifications
       regardless of input format.  This default may be	reversed so that
       filenames are always reported in	Unix format by specifying the
       "DECC$FILENAME_UNIX_REPORT" feature logical in the environment.

       The file	type, or extension, is always present in a VMS-format file
       specification even if it's zero-length.	This means that, by default,
       "readdir" will return a trailing	dot on a file with no extension, so
       where you would see "a" on Unix you'll see "a." on VMS.	However, the
       trailing	dot may	be suppressed by enabling the
       "DECC$READDIR_DROPDOTNOTYPE" feature in the environment (see the	CRTL
       documentation on	feature	logical	names).

       What "\n" represents depends on the type	of file	opened.	 It usually
       represents "\012" but it	could also be "\015", "\012", "\015\012",
       "\000", "\040", or nothing depending on the file	organization and
       record format.  The "VMS::Stdio"	module provides	access to the special
       "fopen()" requirements of files with unusual attributes on VMS.

       The value of $^O	on OpenVMS is "VMS".  To determine the architecture
       that you	are running on refer to	$Config{archname}.

       On VMS, perl determines the UTC offset from the
       "SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL" logical name.  Although the VMS epoch began
       at 17-NOV-1858 00:00:00.00, calls to "localtime"	are adjusted to	count
       offsets from 01-JAN-1970	00:00:00.00, just like Unix.

       Also see:

       o   README.vms (installed as README_vms), perlvms

       o   vmsperl list,

       o   vmsperl on the web, <>

       o   VMS Software	Inc. web site, <>

       Perl on VOS (also known as OpenVOS) is discussed	in README.vos in the
       Perl distribution (installed as perlvos).  Perl on VOS can accept
       either VOS- or Unix-style file specifications as	in either of the

	   $ perl -ne "print if	/perl_setup/i" >system>notices
	   $ perl -ne "print if	/perl_setup/i" /system/notices

       or even a mixture of both as in:

	   $ perl -ne "print if	/perl_setup/i" >system/notices

       Even though VOS allows the slash	character to appear in object names,
       because the VOS port of Perl interprets it as a pathname	delimiting
       character, VOS files, directories, or links whose names contain a slash
       character cannot	be processed.  Such files must be renamed before they
       can be processed	by Perl.

       Older releases of VOS (prior to OpenVOS Release 17.0) limit file	names
       to 32 or	fewer characters, prohibit file	names from starting with a "-"
       character, and prohibit file names from containing " " (space) or any
       character from the set "!#%&'()*;<=>?".

       Newer releases of VOS (OpenVOS Release 17.0 or later) support a feature
       known as	extended names.	 On these releases, file names can contain up
       to 255 characters, are prohibited from starting with a "-" character,
       and the set of prohibited characters is reduced to "#%*<>?".  There are
       restrictions involving spaces and apostrophes:  these characters	must
       not begin or end	a name,	nor can	they immediately precede or follow a
       period.	Additionally, a	space must not immediately precede another
       space or	hyphen.	 Specifically, the following character combinations
       are prohibited:	space-space, space-hyphen, period-space, space-period,
       period-apostrophe, apostrophe-period, leading or	trailing space,	and
       leading or trailing apostrophe.	Although an extended file name is
       limited to 255 characters, a path name is still limited to 256

       The value of $^O	on VOS is "vos".  To determine the architecture	that
       you are running on refer	to $Config{archname}.

       Also see:

       o   README.vos (installed as perlvos)

       o   The VOS mailing list.

	   There is no specific	mailing	list for Perl on VOS.  You can contact
	   the Stratus Technologies Customer Assistance	Center (CAC) for your
	   region, or you can use the contact information located in the
	   distribution	files on the Stratus Anonymous FTP site.

       o   Stratus Technologies	on the web at <>

       o   VOS Open-Source Software on the web at

   EBCDIC Platforms
       v5.22 core Perl runs on z/OS (formerly OS/390).	Theoretically it could
       run on the successors of	OS/400 on AS/400 minicomputers as well as
       VM/ESA, and BS2000 for S/390 Mainframes.	 Such computers	use EBCDIC
       character sets internally (usually Character Code Set ID	0037 for
       OS/400 and either 1047 or POSIX-BC for S/390 systems).

       The rest	of this	section	may need updating, but we don't	know what it
       should say.  Please email comments to

       On the mainframe	Perl currently works under the "Unix system services
       for OS/390" (formerly known as OpenEdition), VM/ESA OpenEdition,	or the
       BS200 POSIX-BC system (BS2000 is	supported in Perl 5.6 and greater).
       See perlos390 for details.  Note	that for OS/400	there is also a	port
       of Perl 5.8.1/5.10.0 or later to	the PASE which is ASCII-based (as
       opposed to ILE which is EBCDIC-based), see perlos400.

       As of R2.5 of USS for OS/390 and	Version	2.3 of VM/ESA these Unix sub-
       systems do not support the "#!" shebang trick for script	invocation.
       Hence, on OS/390	and VM/ESA Perl	scripts	can be executed	with a header
       similar to the following	simple script:

	   : # use perl
	       eval 'exec /usr/local/bin/perl -S $0 ${1+"$@"}'
		   if 0;
	   #!/usr/local/bin/perl     # just a comment really

	   print "Hello	from perl!\n";

       OS/390 will support the "#!" shebang trick in release 2.8 and beyond.
       Calls to	"system" and backticks can use POSIX shell syntax on all S/390

       On the AS/400, if PERL5 is in your library list,	you may	need to	wrap
       your Perl scripts in a CL procedure to invoke them like so:

	     CALL PGM(PERL5/PERL) PARM('/QOpenSys/')

       This will invoke	the Perl script in the	root of	the QOpenSys
       file system.  On	the AS/400 calls to "system" or	backticks must use CL

       On these	platforms, bear	in mind	that the EBCDIC	character set may have
       an effect on what happens with some Perl	functions (such	as "chr",
       "pack", "print",	"printf", "ord", "sort", "sprintf", "unpack"), as well
       as bit-fiddling with ASCII constants using operators like "^", "&" and
       "|", not	to mention dealing with	socket interfaces to ASCII computers
       (see "Newlines").

       Fortunately, most web servers for the mainframe will correctly
       translate the "\n" in the following statement to	its ASCII equivalent
       ("\r" is	the same under both Unix and z/OS):

	   print "Content-type:	text/html\r\n\r\n";

       The values of $^O on some of these platforms include:

	   uname	 $^O	    $Config{archname}
	   OS/390	 os390	    os390
	   OS400	 os400	    os400
	   POSIX-BC	 posix-bc   BS2000-posix-bc

       Some simple tricks for determining if you are running on	an EBCDIC
       platform	could include any of the following (perhaps all):

	   if ("\t" eq "\005")	{ print	"EBCDIC	may be spoken here!\n";	}

	   if (ord('A')	== 193)	{ print	"EBCDIC	may be spoken here!\n";	}

	   if (chr(169)	eq 'z')	{ print	"EBCDIC	may be spoken here!\n";	}

       One thing you may not want to rely on is	the EBCDIC encoding of
       punctuation characters since these may differ from code page to code
       page (and once your module or script is rumoured	to work	with EBCDIC,
       folks will want it to work with all EBCDIC character sets).

       Also see:

       o   perlos390, perlos400, perlbs2000, perlebcdic.

       o   The list is for discussion	of porting issues as
	   well	as general usage issues	for all	EBCDIC Perls.  Send a message
	   body	of "subscribe perl-mvs"	to

       o   AS/400 Perl information at <>	as
	   well	as on CPAN in the ports/ directory.

   Acorn RISC OS
       Because Acorns use ASCII	with newlines ("\n") in	text files as "\012"
       like Unix, and because Unix filename emulation is turned	on by default,
       most simple scripts will	probably work "out of the box".	 The native
       filesystem is modular, and individual filesystems are free to be	case-
       sensitive or insensitive, and are usually case-preserving.  Some	native
       filesystems have	name length limits, which file and directory names are
       silently	truncated to fit.  Scripts should be aware that	the standard
       filesystem currently has	a name length limit of 10 characters, with up
       to 77 items in a	directory, but other filesystems may not impose	such

       Native filenames	are of the form



	   Special_Field is not	usually	present, but may contain . and $ .
	   Filesystem =~ m|[A-Za-z0-9_]|
	   DsicName   =~ m|[A-Za-z0-9_/]|
	   $ represents	the root directory
	   . is	the path separator
	   @ is	the current directory (per filesystem but machine global)
	   ^ is	the parent directory
	   Directory and File =~ m|[^\0- "\.\$\%\&:\@\\^\|\177]+|

       The default filename translation	is roughly "tr|/.|./|",	swapping dots
       and slahes.

       Note that ""ADFS::HardDisk.$.File" ne 'ADFS::HardDisk.$.File'" and that
       the second stage	of "$" interpolation in	regular	expressions will fall
       foul of the $. variable if scripts are not careful.

       Logical paths specified by system variables containing comma-separated
       search lists are	also allowed; hence "System:Modules" is	a valid
       filename, and the filesystem will prefix	"Modules" with each section of
       "System$Path" until a name is made that points to an object on disk.
       Writing to a new	file "System:Modules" would be allowed only if
       "System$Path" contains a	single item list.  The filesystem will also
       expand system variables in filenames if enclosed	in angle brackets, so
       "<System$Dir>.Modules" would look for the file
       "$ENV{'System$Dir'} . 'Modules'".  The obvious implication of this is
       that fully qualified filenames can start	with "<>" and the three-
       argument	form of	"open" should always be	used.

       Because "." was in use as a directory separator and filenames could not
       be assumed to be	unique after 10	characters, Acorn implemented the C
       compiler	to strip the trailing ".c" ".h"	".s" and ".o" suffix from
       filenames specified in source code and store the	respective files in
       subdirectories named after the suffix.  Hence files are translated:

	   C:foo.h	  (logical path	variable)
	   sys/os.h	   sys.h.os	  (C compiler groks Unix-speak)
	   10charname.c	   c.10charname
	   10charname.o	   o.10charname
	   11charname_.c   c.11charname	  (assuming filesystem truncates at 10)

       The Unix	emulation library's translation	of filenames to	native assumes
       that this sort of translation is	required, and it allows	a user-defined
       list of known suffixes that it will transpose in	this fashion.  This
       may seem	transparent, but consider that with these rules	foo/bar/baz.h
       and foo/bar/h/baz both map to, and	that "readdir" and
       "glob" cannot and do not	attempt	to emulate the reverse mapping.	 Other
       "."'s in	filenames are translated to "/".

       As implied above, the environment accessed through %ENV is global, and
       the convention is that program specific environment variables are of
       the form	"Program$Name".	 Each filesystem maintains a current
       directory, and the current filesystem's current directory is the	global
       current directory.  Consequently, sociable programs don't change	the
       current directory but rely on full pathnames, and programs (and
       Makefiles) cannot assume	that they can spawn a child process which can
       change the current directory without affecting its parent (and everyone
       else for	that matter).

       Because native operating	system filehandles are global and are
       currently allocated down	from 255, with 0 being a reserved value, the
       Unix emulation library emulates Unix filehandles.  Consequently,	you
       can't rely on passing "STDIN", "STDOUT",	or "STDERR" to your children.

       The desire of users to express filenames	of the form "<Foo$Dir>.Bar" on
       the command line	unquoted causes	problems, too: "``" command output
       capture has to perform a	guessing game.	It assumes that	a string
       "<[^<>]+\$[^<>]>" is a reference	to an environment variable, whereas
       anything	else involving "<" or ">" is redirection, and generally
       manages to be 99% right.	 Of course, the	problem	remains	that scripts
       cannot rely on any Unix tools being available, or that any tools	found
       have Unix-like command line arguments.

       Extensions and XS are, in theory, buildable by anyone using free	tools.
       In practice, many don't,	as users of the	Acorn platform are used	to
       binary distributions.  MakeMaker	does run, but no available make
       currently copes with MakeMaker's	makefiles; even	if and when this
       should be fixed,	the lack of a Unix-like	shell will cause problems with
       makefile	rules, especially lines	of the form "cd	sdbm &&	make all", and
       anything	using quoting.

       "RISC OS" is the	proper name for	the operating system, but the value in
       $^O is "riscos" (because	we don't like shouting).

   Other perls
       Perl has	been ported to many platforms that do not fit into any of the
       categories listed above.	 Some, such as AmigaOS,	QNX, Plan 9, and VOS,
       have been well-integrated into the standard Perl	source code kit.  You
       may need	to see the ports/ directory on CPAN for	information, and
       possibly	binaries, for the likes	of: aos, Atari ST, lynxos, riscos,
       Novell Netware, Tandem Guardian,	etc.  (Yes, we know that some of these
       OSes may	fall under the Unix category, but we are not a standards

       Some approximate	operating system names and their $^O values in the
       "OTHER" category	include:

	   OS		 $^O	    $Config{archname}
	   Amiga DOS	 amigaos    m68k-amigos

       See also:

       o   Amiga, README.amiga (installed as perlamiga).

       o   A free perl5-based PERL.NLM for Novell Netware is available in
	   precompiled binary and source code form from
	   <> as well as from CPAN.

       o   Plan	9, README.plan9

       Listed below are	functions that are either completely unimplemented or
       else have been implemented differently on various platforms.  Preceding
       each description	will be, in parentheses, a list	of platforms that the
       description applies to.

       The list	may well be incomplete,	or even	wrong in some places.  When in
       doubt, consult the platform-specific README files in the	Perl source
       distribution, and any other documentation resources accompanying	a
       given port.

       Be aware, moreover, that	even among Unix-ish systems there are

       For many	functions, you can also	query %Config, exported	by default
       from the	"Config" module.  For example, to check	whether	the platform
       has the "lstat" call, check $Config{d_lstat}.  See Config for a full
       description of available	variables.

   Alphabetical	Listing	of Perl	Functions
       -X      (Win32) "-w" only inspects the read-only	file attribute
	       (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY), which	determines whether the
	       directory can be	deleted, not whether it	can be written to.
	       Directories always have read and	write access unless denied by
	       discretionary access control lists (DACLs).

	       (VMS) "-r", "-w", "-x", and "-o"	tell whether the file is
	       accessible, which may not reflect UIC-based file	protections.

	       (RISC OS) "-s" by name on an open file will return the space
	       reserved	on disk, rather	than the current extent.  "-s" on an
	       open filehandle returns the current size.

	       (Win32, VMS, RISC OS) "-R", "-W", "-X", "-O" are
	       indistinguishable from "-r", "-w", "-x",	"-o".

	       (Win32, VMS, RISC OS) "-g", "-k", "-l", "-u", "-A" are not
	       particularly meaningful.

	       (VMS, RISC OS) "-p" is not particularly meaningful.

	       (VMS) "-d" is true if passed a device spec without an explicit

	       (Win32) "-x" (or	"-X") determine	if a file ends in one of the
	       executable suffixes.  "-S" is meaningless.

	       (RISC OS) "-x" (or "-X")	determine if a file has	an executable
	       file type.

       alarm   (Win32) Emulated	using timers that must be explicitly polled
	       whenever	Perl wants to dispatch "safe signals" and therefore
	       cannot interrupt	blocking system	calls.

       atan2   (Tru64, HP-UX 10.20) Due	to issues with various CPUs, math
	       libraries, compilers, and standards, results for	"atan2"	may
	       vary depending on any combination of the	above.	Perl attempts
	       to conform to the Open Group/IEEE standards for the results
	       returned	from "atan2", but cannot force the issue if the	system
	       Perl is run on does not allow it.

	       The current version of the standards for	"atan2"	is available

       binmode (RISC OS) Meaningless.

	       (VMS) Reopens file and restores pointer;	if function fails,
	       underlying filehandle may be closed, or pointer may be in a
	       different position.

	       (Win32) The value returned by "tell" may	be affected after the
	       call, and the filehandle	may be flushed.

       chmod   (Win32) Only good for changing "owner" read-write access;
	       "group" and "other" bits	are meaningless.

	       (RISC OS) Only good for changing	"owner"	and "other" read-write

	       (VOS) Access permissions	are mapped onto	VOS access-control
	       list changes.

	       (Cygwin)	The actual permissions set depend on the value of the
	       "CYGWIN"	variable in the	SYSTEM environment settings.

	       (Android) Setting the exec bit on some locations	(generally
	       /sdcard)	will return true but not actually set the bit.

       chown   (Plan 9,	RISC OS) Not implemented.

	       (Win32) Does nothing, but won't fail.

	       (VOS) A little funky, because VOS's notion of ownership is a
	       little funky.

       chroot  (Win32, VMS, Plan 9, RISC OS, VOS) Not implemented.

       crypt   (Win32) May not be available if library or source was not
	       provided	when building perl.

	       (Android) Not implemented.

	       (VMS, Plan 9, VOS) Not implemented.

       dbmopen (VMS, Plan 9, VOS) Not implemented.

       dump    (RISC OS) Not useful.

	       (Cygwin,	Win32) Not supported.

	       (VMS) Invokes VMS debugger.

       exec    (Win32) "exec LIST" without the use of indirect object syntax
	       ("exec PROGRAM LIST") may fall back to trying the shell if the
	       first "spawn()" fails.

	       (SunOS, Solaris,	HP-UX) Does not	automatically flush output
	       handles on some platforms.

	       (Symbian	OS) Not	supported.

       exit    (VMS) Emulates Unix "exit" (which considers "exit 1" to
	       indicate	an error) by mapping the 1 to "SS$_ABORT" (44).	 This
	       behavior	may be overridden with the pragma "use vmsish 'exit'".
	       As with the CRTL's "exit()" function, "exit 0" is also mapped
	       to an exit status of "SS$_NORMAL" (1); this mapping cannot be
	       overridden.  Any	other argument to "exit" is used directly as
	       Perl's exit status.  On VMS, unless the future POSIX_EXIT mode
	       is enabled, the exit code should	always be a valid VMS exit
	       code and	not a generic number.  When the	POSIX_EXIT mode	is
	       enabled,	a generic number will be encoded in a method
	       compatible with the C library _POSIX_EXIT macro so that it can
	       be decoded by other programs, particularly ones written in C,
	       like the	GNV package.

	       (Solaris) "exit"	resets file pointers, which is a problem when
	       called from a child process (created by "fork") in "BEGIN".  A
	       workaround is to	use "POSIX::_exit".

		   exit	unless $Config{archname} =~ /\bsolaris\b/;
		   require POSIX;

       fcntl   (Win32) Not implemented.

	       (VMS) Some functions available based on the version of VMS.

       flock   (VMS, RISC OS, VOS) Not implemented.

       fork    (AmigaOS, RISC OS, VMS) Not implemented.

	       (Win32) Emulated	using multiple interpreters.  See perlfork.

	       (SunOS, Solaris,	HP-UX) Does not	automatically flush output
	       handles on some platforms.

	       (RISC OS) Not implemented.

       getpgrp (Win32, VMS, RISC OS) Not implemented.

       getppid (Win32, RISC OS)	Not implemented.

	       (Win32, VMS, RISC OS, VOS) Not implemented.

	       (Win32) Not implemented.

	       (RISC OS) Not useful.

	       (Win32, VMS, RISC OS) Not implemented.

	       (Android, Win32,	Plan 9)	Not implemented.

	       (Win32) Not implemented.

	       (RISC OS) Not useful.

	       (Win32, VMS, RISC OS) Not implemented.

	       (Android, Win32,	Plan 9)	Not implemented.

	       (Android) Not implemented.

	       (Android, Win32)	Not implemented.

	       (Android, Win32,	VMS) Not implemented.

	       (Irix 5)	"gethostbyname('localhost')" does not work everywhere:
	       you may have to use "gethostbyname('')".

	       (Win32) Not implemented.

	       (Android, Win32,	Plan 9)	Not implemented.

	       (Android, Win32,	Plan 9)	Not implemented.

	       (Win32, Plan 9) Not implemented.

       seekdir (Android) Not implemented.

	       (Android, Win32,	Plan 9,	RISC OS) Not implemented.

	       (Win32, Plan 9, RISC OS)	Not implemented.

	       (Android, Win32,	Plan 9,	RISC OS) Not implemented.

	       (Plan 9,	Win32, RISC OS)	Not implemented.

	       (Win32) Not implemented.

	       (Android) Either	not implemented	or a no-op.

	       (Android, RISC OS, VMS, Win32) Not implemented.

	       (Android, Win32)	Not implemented.

	       (Android, Win32,	Plan 9)	Not implemented.

	       (Android, Win32,	Plan 9)	Not implemented.

	       (Plan 9,	Win32) Not implemented.

	       (Plan 9)	Not implemented.

       glob    This operator is	implemented via	the "File::Glob" extension on
	       most platforms.	See File::Glob for portability information.

       gmtime  In theory, "gmtime" is reliable from -2**63 to 2**63-1.
	       However,	because	work-arounds in	the implementation use
	       floating	point numbers, it will become inaccurate as the	time
	       gets larger.  This is a bug and will be fixed in	the future.

	       (VOS) Time values are 32-bit quantities.

       ioctl   (VMS) Not implemented.

	       (Win32) Available only for socket handles, and it does what the
	       "ioctlsocket()" call in the Winsock API does.

	       (RISC OS) Available only	for socket handles.

       kill    (RISC OS) Not implemented, hence	not useful for taint checking.

	       (Win32) "kill" doesn't send a signal to the identified process
	       like it does on Unix platforms.	Instead	"kill($sig, $pid)"
	       terminates the process identified by $pid, and makes it exit
	       immediately with	exit status $sig.  As in Unix, if $sig is 0
	       and the specified process exists, it returns true without
	       actually	terminating it.

	       (Win32) "kill(-9, $pid)"	will terminate the process specified
	       by $pid and recursively all child processes owned by it.	 This
	       is different from the Unix semantics, where the signal will be
	       delivered to all	processes in the same process group as the
	       process specified by $pid.

	       (VMS) A pid of -1 indicating all	processes on the system	is not
	       currently supported.

       link    (RISC OS, VOS) Not implemented.

	       (AmigaOS) Link count not	updated	because	hard links are not
	       quite that hard (They are sort of half-way between hard and
	       soft links).

	       (Win32) Hard links are implemented on Win32 under NTFS only.
	       They are	natively supported on Windows 2000 and later.  On
	       Windows NT they are implemented using the Windows POSIX
	       subsystem support and the Perl process will need	Administrator
	       or Backup Operator privileges to	create hard links.

	       (VMS) Available on 64 bit OpenVMS 8.2 and later.

	       "localtime" has the same	range as "gmtime", but because time
	       zone rules change, its accuracy for historical and future times
	       may degrade but usually by no more than an hour.

       lstat   (RISC OS) Not implemented.

	       (Win32) Return values (especially for device and	inode) may be

       msgrcv  (Android, Win32,	VMS, Plan 9, RISC OS, VOS) Not implemented.

       open    (Win32, RISC OS)	Open modes "|-"	and "-|" are unsupported.

	       (SunOS, Solaris,	HP-UX) Opening a process does not
	       automatically flush output handles on some platforms.

	       (Win32, VMS, RISC OS) Not implemented.

       rename  (Win32) Can't move directories between directories on different
	       logical volumes.

	       (Win32) Will not	cause "readdir"	to re-read the directory
	       stream.	The entries already read before	the "rewinddir"	call
	       will just be returned again from	a cache	buffer.

       select  (Win32, VMS) Only implemented on	sockets.

	       (RISC OS) Only reliable on sockets.

	       Note that the "select FILEHANDLE" form is generally portable.

       semop   (Android, Win32,	VMS, RISC OS) Not implemented.

	       (Android, VMS, Win32, RISC OS) Not implemented.

       setpgrp (Win32, VMS, RISC OS, VOS) Not implemented.

	       (Win32, VMS, RISC OS, VOS) Not implemented.

	       (Android, Win32,	RISC OS) Not implemented.

	       (Plan 9)	Not implemented.

	       (Android, Win32,	VMS, RISC OS) Not implemented.

       sleep   (Win32) Emulated	using synchronization functions	such that it
	       can be interrupted by "alarm", and limited to a maximum of
	       4294967 seconds,	approximately 49 days.

	       (RISC OS) Not implemented.

	       (VMS) Available on 64 bit OpenVMS 8.2 and later.

       stat    Platforms that do not have "rdev", "blksize", or	"blocks" will
	       return these as '', so numeric comparison or manipulation of
	       these fields may	cause 'not numeric' warnings.

	       (Mac OS X) "ctime" not supported	on UFS.

	       (Win32) "ctime" is creation time	instead	of inode change	time.

	       (Win32) "dev" and "ino" are not meaningful.

	       (VMS) "dev" and "ino" are not necessarily reliable.

	       (RISC OS) "mtime", "atime" and "ctime" all return the last
	       modification time.  "dev" and "ino" are not necessarily

	       (OS/2) "dev", "rdev", "blksize",	and "blocks" are not
	       available.  "ino" is not	meaningful and will differ between
	       stat calls on the same file.

	       (Cygwin)	Some versions of cygwin	when doing a "stat("foo")" and
	       not finding it may then attempt to "stat("foo.exe")".

	       (Win32) "stat" needs to open the	file to	determine the link
	       count and update	attributes that	may have been changed through
	       hard links.  Setting "${^WIN32_SLOPPY_STAT}" to a true value
	       speeds up "stat"	by not performing this operation.

       symlink (Win32, RISC OS)	Not implemented.

	       (VMS) Implemented on 64 bit VMS 8.3.  VMS requires the symbolic
	       link to be in Unix syntax if it is intended to resolve to a
	       valid path.

       syscall (Win32, VMS, RISC OS, VOS) Not implemented.

       sysopen (Mac OS,	OS/390)	The traditional	0, 1, and 2 MODEs are
	       implemented with	different numeric values on some systems.  The
	       flags exported by "Fcntl" ("O_RDONLY", "O_WRONLY", "O_RDWR")
	       should work everywhere though.

       system  (Win32) As an optimization, may not call	the command shell
	       specified in $ENV{PERL5SHELL}.  "system(1, @args)" spawns an
	       external	process	and immediately	returns	its process
	       designator, without waiting for it to terminate.	 Return	value
	       may be used subsequently	in "wait" or "waitpid".	 Failure to
	       "spawn()" a subprocess is indicated by setting $? to "255 <<
	       8".  $? is set in a way compatible with Unix (i.e. the exit
	       status of the subprocess	is obtained by "$? >> 8", as described
	       in the documentation).

	       (RISC OS) There is no shell to process metacharacters, and the
	       native standard is to pass a command line terminated by "\n"
	       "\r" or "\0" to the spawned program.  Redirection such as ">
	       foo" is performed (if at	all) by	the run	time library of	the
	       spawned program.	 "system LIST" will call the Unix emulation
	       library's "exec"	emulation, which attempts to provide emulation
	       of the stdin, stdout, stderr in force in	the parent, provided
	       the child program uses a	compatible version of the emulation
	       library.	 "system SCALAR" will call the native command line
	       directly	and no such emulation of a child Unix program will
	       occur.  Mileage will vary.

	       (Win32) "system LIST" without the use of	indirect object	syntax
	       ("system	PROGRAM	LIST") may fall	back to	trying the shell if
	       the first "spawn()" fails.

	       (SunOS, Solaris,	HP-UX) Does not	automatically flush output
	       handles on some platforms.

	       (VMS) The return	value is POSIX-like (shifted up	by 8 bits),
	       which only allows room for a made-up value derived from the
	       severity	bits of	the native 32-bit condition code (unless
	       overridden by "use vmsish 'status'").  If the native condition
	       code is one that	has a POSIX value encoded, the POSIX value
	       will be decoded to extract the expected exit value.  For	more
	       details see "$?"	in perlvms.

       telldir (Android) Not implemented.

       times   (Win32) "Cumulative" times will be bogus.  On anything other
	       than Windows NT or Windows 2000,	"system" time will be bogus,
	       and "user" time is actually the time returned by	the "clock()"
	       function	in the C runtime library.

	       (RISC OS) Not useful.

	       (Older versions of VMS) Not implemented.

	       (VOS) Truncation	to same-or-shorter lengths only.

	       (Win32) If a FILEHANDLE is supplied, it must be writable	and
	       opened in append	mode (i.e., use	"open(my $fh, '>>',
	       'filename')" or "sysopen(my $fh,	..., O_APPEND|O_RDWR)".	 If a
	       filename	is supplied, it	should not be held open	elsewhere.

       umask   Returns "undef" where unavailable.

	       (AmigaOS) "umask" works but the correct permissions are set
	       only when the file is finally closed.

       utime   (VMS, RISC OS) Only the modification time is updated.

	       (Win32) May not behave as expected.  Behavior depends on	the C
	       runtime library's implementation	of "utime()", and the
	       filesystem being	used.  The FAT filesystem typically does not
	       support an "access time"	field, and it may limit	timestamps to
	       a granularity of	two seconds.

       waitpid (Win32) Can only	be applied to process handles returned for
	       processes spawned using "system(1, ...)"	or pseudo processes
	       created with "fork".

	       (RISC OS) Not useful.

Supported Platforms
       The following platforms are known to build Perl 5.12 (as	of April 2010,
       its release date) from the standard source code distribution available
       at <>

       Linux (x86, ARM,	IA64)
	   Windows 2000
	   Windows XP
	   Windows Server 2003
	   Windows Vista
	   Windows Server 2008
	   Windows 7
	   Some	tests are known	to fail:

	   o   ext/XS-APItest/t/call_checker.t - see

	   o   dist/I18N-Collate/t/I18N-Collate.t

	   o   ext/Win32CORE/t/win32core.t - may fail on recent	cygwin

       Solaris (x86, SPARC)
	   Alpha (7.2 and later)
	   I64 (8.2 and	later)
       Debian GNU/kFreeBSD
       Irix (6.5. What else?)
       Dragonfly BSD
       Midnight	BSD
       QNX Neutrino RTOS (6.5.0)
       MirOS BSD
       Stratus OpenVOS (17.0 or	later)

	   time_t issues that may or may not be	fixed
       Symbian (Series 60 v3, 3.2 and 5	- what else?)
       Stratus VOS / OpenVOS
	   Perl	now builds with	FreeMiNT/Atari.	It fails a few tests, that
	   needs some investigation.

	   The FreeMiNT	port uses GNU dld for loadable module capabilities. So
	   ensure you have that	library	installed when building	perl.

EOL Platforms
   (Perl 5.20)
       The following platforms were supported by a previous version of Perl
       but have	been officially	removed	from Perl's source code	as of 5.20:

       AT&T 3b1

   (Perl 5.14)
       The following platforms were supported up to 5.10.  They	may still have
       worked in 5.12, but supporting code has been removed for	5.14:

       Windows 95
       Windows 98
       Windows ME
       Windows NT4

   (Perl 5.12)
       The following platforms were supported by a previous version of Perl
       but have	been officially	removed	from Perl's source code	as of 5.12:

       Atari MiNT
       Apollo Domain/OS
       Apple Mac OS 8/9
       Tenon Machten

Supported Platforms (Perl 5.8)
       As of July 2002 (the Perl release 5.8.0), the following platforms were
       able to build Perl from the standard source code	distribution available
       at <>

	       BSD/OS	       (BSDi)
	       DOS DJGPP       1)
	       EPOC R5
	       HI-UXMPP	       (Hitachi) (5.8.0	worked but we didn't know it)
	       Mac OS Classic
	       Mac OS X	       (Darwin)
	       ReliantUNIX     (formerly SINIX)
	       OpenVMS	       (formerly VMS)
	       Open UNIX       (Unixware) (since Perl 5.8.1/5.9.0)
	       OS/400	       (using the PASE)	(since Perl 5.8.1/5.9.0)
	       POSIX-BC	       (formerly BS2000)
	       SunOS 4
	       SUPER-UX	       (NEC)
	       Tru64 UNIX      (formerly DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX)
	       VOS / OpenVOS
	       Win95/98/ME/2K/XP 2)
	       z/OS	       (formerly OS/390)

	       1) in DOS mode either the DOS or	OS/2 ports can be used
	       2) compilers: Borland, MinGW (GCC), VC6

       The following platforms worked with the previous	releases (5.6 and
       5.7), but we did	not manage either to fix or to test these in time for
       the 5.8.0 release.  There is a very good	chance that many of these will
       work fine with the 5.8.0.

	       SCO SV
	       Windows 3.1

       Known to	be broken for 5.8.0 (but 5.6.1 and 5.7.2 can be	used):

	       AmigaOS 3

       The following platforms have been known to build	Perl from source in
       the past	(5.005_03 and earlier),	but we haven't been able to verify
       their status for	the current release, either because the
       hardware/software platforms are rare or because we don't	have an	active
       champion	on these platforms--or both.  They used	to work, though, so go
       ahead and try compiling them, and let of any trouble.

	       DDE SMES
	       DOS EMX
	       MachTen 68k
	       Plan 9
	       SCO ODT/OSR
	       Unisys Dynix

       The following platforms have their own source code distributions	and
       binaries	available via <>

				       Perl release

	       OS/400 (ILE)	       5.005_02
	       Tandem Guardian	       5.004

       The following platforms have only binaries available via
       <> :

				       Perl release

	       Acorn RISCOS	       5.005_02
	       AOS		       5.002
	       LynxOS		       5.004_02

       Although	we do suggest that you always build your own Perl from the
       source code, both for maximal configurability and for security, in case
       you are in a hurry you can check	<>
       for binary distributions.

       perlaix,	perlamiga, perlbs2000, perlce, perlcygwin, perldos,
       perlebcdic, perlfreebsd,	perlhurd, perlhpux, perlirix, perlmacos,
       perlmacosx, perlnetware,	perlos2, perlos390, perlos400, perlplan9,
       perlqnx,	perlsolaris, perltru64,	perlunicode, perlvms, perlvos,
       perlwin32, and Win32.

       Abigail <>, Charles Bailey <>,
       Graham Barr <>, Tom Christiansen <>,
       Nicholas	Clark <>, Thomas Dorner <>,
       Andy Dougherty <>,	Dominic	Dunlop
       <>, Neale Ferguson <>, David J.
       Fiander <>, Paul Green <>, M.J.T.
       Guy <>, Jarkko Hietaniemi <>, Luther Huffman
       <>, Nick Ing-Simmons	<>,
       Andreas J. Koenig <>, Markus Laker
       <>, Andrew M.	Langmead <>, Lukas
       Mai <>, Larry Moore <>,	Paul Moore
       <>, Chris Nandor <>, Matthias
       Neeracher <>, Philip Newton <>, Gary Ng
       <71564.1743@CompuServe.COM>, Tom	Phoenix	<>, Andre
       Pirard <>, Peter Prymmer <>, Hugo van
       der Sanden <>, Gurusamy Sarathy
       <>, Paul J. Schinder	<>, Michael
       G Schwern <>, Dan Sugalski <>, Nathan
       Torkington <>, John	Malmberg <>

perl v5.26.0			  2017-04-19			   PERLPORT(1)

NAME | DESCRIPTION | ISSUES | CPAN Testers | PLATFORMS | FUNCTION IMPLEMENTATIONS | Supported Platforms | EOL Platforms | Supported Platforms (Perl 5.8) | SEE ALSO | AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS

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