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PERLAPIO(1)	       Perl Programmers	Reference Guide		   PERLAPIO(1)

NAME
       perlapio	- perl's IO abstraction	interface.

SYNOPSIS
	 #define PERLIO_NOT_STDIO 0    /* For co-existence with	stdio only */
	 #include <perlio.h>	       /* Usually via #include <perl.h>	*/

	 PerlIO	*PerlIO_stdin(void);
	 PerlIO	*PerlIO_stdout(void);
	 PerlIO	*PerlIO_stderr(void);

	 PerlIO	*PerlIO_open(const char	*path,const char *mode);
	 PerlIO	*PerlIO_fdopen(int fd, const char *mode);
	 PerlIO	*PerlIO_reopen(const char *path, /* deprecated */
		 const char *mode, PerlIO *old);
	 int	 PerlIO_close(PerlIO *f);

	 int	 PerlIO_stdoutf(const char *fmt,...)
	 int	 PerlIO_puts(PerlIO *f,const char *string);
	 int	 PerlIO_putc(PerlIO *f,int ch);
	 SSize_t PerlIO_write(PerlIO *f,const void *buf,size_t numbytes);
	 int	 PerlIO_printf(PerlIO *f, const	char *fmt,...);
	 int	 PerlIO_vprintf(PerlIO *f, const char *fmt, va_list args);
	 int	 PerlIO_flush(PerlIO *f);

	 int	 PerlIO_eof(PerlIO *f);
	 int	 PerlIO_error(PerlIO *f);
	 void	 PerlIO_clearerr(PerlIO	*f);

	 int	 PerlIO_getc(PerlIO *d);
	 int	 PerlIO_ungetc(PerlIO *f,int ch);
	 SSize_t PerlIO_read(PerlIO *f,	void *buf, size_t numbytes);

	 int	 PerlIO_fileno(PerlIO *f);

	 void	 PerlIO_setlinebuf(PerlIO *f);

	 Off_t	 PerlIO_tell(PerlIO *f);
	 int	 PerlIO_seek(PerlIO *f,	Off_t offset, int whence);
	 void	 PerlIO_rewind(PerlIO *f);

	 int	 PerlIO_getpos(PerlIO *f, SV *save);	/* prototype changed */
	 int	 PerlIO_setpos(PerlIO *f, SV *saved);	/* prototype changed */

	 int	 PerlIO_fast_gets(PerlIO *f);
	 int	 PerlIO_has_cntptr(PerlIO *f);
	 SSize_t PerlIO_get_cnt(PerlIO *f);
	 char	*PerlIO_get_ptr(PerlIO *f);
	 void	 PerlIO_set_ptrcnt(PerlIO *f, char *ptr, SSize_t count);

	 int	 PerlIO_canset_cnt(PerlIO *f);		    /* deprecated */
	 void	 PerlIO_set_cnt(PerlIO *f, int count);	    /* deprecated */

	 int	 PerlIO_has_base(PerlIO	*f);
	 char	*PerlIO_get_base(PerlIO	*f);
	 SSize_t PerlIO_get_bufsiz(PerlIO *f);

	 PerlIO	*PerlIO_importFILE(FILE	*stdio,	const char *mode);
	 FILE	*PerlIO_exportFILE(PerlIO *f, const char *mode);
	 FILE	*PerlIO_findFILE(PerlIO	*f);
	 void	 PerlIO_releaseFILE(PerlIO *f,FILE *stdio);

	 int	 PerlIO_apply_layers(PerlIO *f,	const char *mode,
							   const char *layers);
	 int	 PerlIO_binmode(PerlIO *f, int ptype, int imode,
							   const char *layers);
	 void	 PerlIO_debug(const char *fmt,...);

DESCRIPTION
       Perl's source code, and extensions that want maximum portability,
       should use the above functions instead of those defined in ANSI C's
       stdio.h.	 The perl headers (in particular "perlio.h") will "#define"
       them to the I/O mechanism selected at Configure time.

       The functions are modeled on those in stdio.h, but parameter order has
       been "tidied up a little".

       "PerlIO *" takes	the place of FILE *. Like FILE * it should be treated
       as opaque (it is	probably safe to assume	it is a	pointer	to something).

       There are currently two implementations:

       1. USE_STDIO
	   All above are #define'd to stdio functions or are trivial wrapper
	   functions which call	stdio. In this case only PerlIO	* is a FILE *.
	   This	has been the default implementation since the abstraction was
	   introduced in perl5.003_02.

       2. USE_PERLIO
	   Introduced just after perl5.7.0, this is a re-implementation	of the
	   above abstraction which allows perl more control over how IO	is
	   done	as it decouples	IO from	the way	the operating system and C
	   library choose to do	things.	For USE_PERLIO PerlIO *	has an extra
	   layer of indirection	- it is	a pointer-to-a-pointer.	 This allows
	   the PerlIO *	to remain with a known value while swapping the
	   implementation around underneath at run time. In this case all the
	   above are true (but very simple) functions which call the
	   underlying implementation.

	   This	is the only implementation for which "PerlIO_apply_layers()"
	   does	anything "interesting".

	   The USE_PERLIO implementation is described in perliol.

       Because "perlio.h" is a thin layer (for efficiency) the semantics of
       these functions are somewhat dependent on the underlying
       implementation.	Where these variations are understood they are noted
       below.

       Unless otherwise	noted, functions return	0 on success, or a negative
       value (usually "EOF" which is usually -1) and set "errno" on error.

       PerlIO_stdin(), PerlIO_stdout(),	PerlIO_stderr()
	   Use these rather than "stdin", "stdout", "stderr". They are written
	   to look like	"function calls" rather	than variables because this
	   makes it easier to make them	function calls if platform cannot
	   export data to loaded modules, or if	(say) different	"threads"
	   might have different	values.

       PerlIO_open(path, mode),	PerlIO_fdopen(fd,mode)
	   These correspond to fopen()/fdopen()	and the	arguments are the
	   same.  Return "NULL"	and set	"errno"	if there is an error.  There
	   may be an implementation limit on the number	of open	handles, which
	   may be lower	than the limit on the number of	open files - "errno"
	   may not be set when "NULL" is returned if this limit	is exceeded.

       PerlIO_reopen(path,mode,f)
	   While this currently	exists in both implementations,	perl itself
	   does	not use	it. As perl does not use it, it	is not well tested.

	   Perl	prefers	to "dup" the new low-level descriptor to the
	   descriptor used by the existing PerlIO. This	may become the
	   behaviour of	this function in the future.

       PerlIO_printf(f,fmt,...), PerlIO_vprintf(f,fmt,a)
	   These are fprintf()/vfprintf() equivalents.

       PerlIO_stdoutf(fmt,...)
	   This	is printf() equivalent.	printf is #defined to this function,
	   so it is (currently)	legal to use "printf(fmt,...)" in perl
	   sources.

       PerlIO_read(f,buf,count), PerlIO_write(f,buf,count)
	   These correspond functionally to fread() and	fwrite() but the
	   arguments and return	values are different.  The PerlIO_read() and
	   PerlIO_write() signatures have been modeled on the more sane	low
	   level read()	and write() functions instead: The "file" argument is
	   passed first, there is only one "count", and	the return value can
	   distinguish between error and "EOF".

	   Returns a byte count	if successful (which may be zero or positive),
	   returns negative value and sets "errno" on error.  Depending	on
	   implementation "errno" may be "EINTR" if operation was interrupted
	   by a	signal.

       PerlIO_close(f)
	   Depending on	implementation "errno" may be "EINTR" if operation was
	   interrupted by a signal.

       PerlIO_puts(f,s), PerlIO_putc(f,c)
	   These correspond to fputs() and fputc().  Note that arguments have
	   been	revised	to have	"file" first.

       PerlIO_ungetc(f,c)
	   This	corresponds to ungetc().  Note that arguments have been
	   revised to have "file" first.  Arranges that	next read operation
	   will	return the byte	c.  Despite the	implied	"character" in the
	   name	only values in the range 0..0xFF are defined. Returns the byte
	   c on	success	or -1 ("EOF") on error.	 The number of bytes that can
	   be "pushed back" may	vary, only 1 character is certain, and then
	   only	if it is the last character that was read from the handle.

       PerlIO_getc(f)
	   This	corresponds to getc().	Despite	the c in the name only byte
	   range 0..0xFF is supported.	Returns	the character read or -1
	   ("EOF") on error.

       PerlIO_eof(f)
	   This	corresponds to feof().	Returns	a true/false indication	of
	   whether the handle is at end	of file.  For terminal devices this
	   may or may not be "sticky" depending	on the implementation.	The
	   flag	is cleared by PerlIO_seek(), or	PerlIO_rewind().

       PerlIO_error(f)
	   This	corresponds to ferror().  Returns a true/false indication of
	   whether there has been an IO	error on the handle.

       PerlIO_fileno(f)
	   This	corresponds to fileno(), note that on some platforms, the
	   meaning of "fileno" may not match Unix. Returns -1 if the handle
	   has no open descriptor associated with it.

       PerlIO_clearerr(f)
	   This	corresponds to clearerr(), i.e., clears	'error'	and (usually)
	   'eof' flags for the "stream". Does not return a value.

       PerlIO_flush(f)
	   This	corresponds to fflush().  Sends	any buffered write data	to the
	   underlying file.  If	called with "NULL" this	may flush all open
	   streams (or core dump with some USE_STDIO implementations).
	   Calling on a	handle open for	read only, or on which last operation
	   was a read of some kind may lead to undefined behaviour on some
	   USE_STDIO implementations.  The USE_PERLIO (layers) implementation
	   tries to behave better: it flushes all open streams when passed
	   "NULL", and attempts	to retain data on read streams either in the
	   buffer or by	seeking	the handle to the current logical position.

       PerlIO_seek(f,offset,whence)
	   This	corresponds to fseek().	 Sends buffered	write data to the
	   underlying file, or discards	any buffered read data,	then positions
	   the file descriptor as specified by offset and whence (sic).	 This
	   is the correct thing	to do when switching between read and write on
	   the same handle (see	issues with PerlIO_flush() above).  Offset is
	   of type "Off_t" which is a perl Configure value which may not be
	   same	as stdio's "off_t".

       PerlIO_tell(f)
	   This	corresponds to ftell().	 Returns the current file position, or
	   (Off_t) -1 on error.	 May just return value system "knows" without
	   making a system call	or checking the	underlying file	descriptor (so
	   use on shared file descriptors is not safe without a
	   PerlIO_seek()). Return value	is of type "Off_t" which is a perl
	   Configure value which may not be same as stdio's "off_t".

       PerlIO_getpos(f,p), PerlIO_setpos(f,p)
	   These correspond (loosely) to fgetpos() and fsetpos(). Rather than
	   stdio's Fpos_t they expect a	"Perl Scalar Value" to be passed. What
	   is stored there should be considered	opaque.	The layout of the data
	   may vary from handle	to handle.  When not using stdio or if
	   platform does not have the stdio calls then they are	implemented in
	   terms of PerlIO_tell() and PerlIO_seek().

       PerlIO_rewind(f)
	   This	corresponds to rewind(). It is usually defined as being

	       PerlIO_seek(f,(Off_t)0L,	SEEK_SET);
	       PerlIO_clearerr(f);

       PerlIO_tmpfile()
	   This	corresponds to tmpfile(), i.e.,	returns	an anonymous PerlIO or
	   NULL	on error.  The system will attempt to automatically delete the
	   file	when closed.  On Unix the file is usually "unlink"-ed just
	   after it is created so it does not matter how it gets closed. On
	   other systems the file may only be deleted if closed	via
	   PerlIO_close() and/or the program exits via "exit".	Depending on
	   the implementation there may	be "race conditions" which allow other
	   processes access to the file, though	in general it will be safer in
	   this	regard than ad.	hoc. schemes.

       PerlIO_setlinebuf(f)
	   This	corresponds to setlinebuf().  Does not return a	value. What
	   constitutes a "line"	is implementation dependent but	usually	means
	   that	writing	"\n" flushes the buffer.  What happens with things
	   like	"this\nthat" is	uncertain.  (Perl core uses it only when
	   "dumping"; it has nothing to	do with	$| auto-flush.)

   Co-existence	with stdio
       There is	outline	support	for co-existence of PerlIO with	stdio.
       Obviously if PerlIO is implemented in terms of stdio there is no
       problem.	However	in other cases then mechanisms must exist to create a
       FILE * which can	be passed to library code which	is going to use	stdio
       calls.

       The first step is to add	this line:

	  #define PERLIO_NOT_STDIO 0

       before including	any perl header	files. (This will probably become the
       default at some point).	That prevents "perlio.h" from attempting to
       #define stdio functions onto PerlIO functions.

       XS code is probably better using	"typemap" if it	expects	FILE *
       arguments.  The standard	typemap	will be	adjusted to comprehend any
       changes in this area.

       PerlIO_importFILE(f,mode)
	   Used	to get a PerlIO	* from a FILE *.

	   The mode argument should be a string	as would be passed to
	   fopen/PerlIO_open.  If it is	NULL then - for	legacy support - the
	   code	will (depending	upon the platform and the implementation)
	   either attempt to empirically determine the mode in which f is
	   open, or use	"r+" to	indicate a read/write stream.

	   Once	called the FILE	* should ONLY be closed	by calling
	   "PerlIO_close()" on the returned PerlIO *.

	   The PerlIO is set to	textmode. Use PerlIO_binmode if	this is	not
	   the desired mode.

	   This	is not the reverse of PerlIO_exportFILE().

       PerlIO_exportFILE(f,mode)
	   Given a PerlIO * create a 'native' FILE * suitable for passing to
	   code	expecting to be	compiled and linked with ANSI C	stdio.h.  The
	   mode	argument should	be a string as would be	passed to
	   fopen/PerlIO_open.  If it is	NULL then - for	legacy support - the
	   FILE	* is opened in same mode as the	PerlIO *.

	   The fact that such a	FILE * has been	'exported' is recorded,
	   (normally by	pushing	a new :stdio "layer" onto the PerlIO *), which
	   may affect future PerlIO operations on the original PerlIO *.  You
	   should not call "fclose()" on the file unless you call
	   "PerlIO_releaseFILE()" to disassociate it from the PerlIO *.	 (Do
	   not use PerlIO_importFILE() for doing the disassociation.)

	   Calling this	function repeatedly will create	a FILE * on each call
	   (and	will push an :stdio layer each time as well).

       PerlIO_releaseFILE(p,f)
	   Calling PerlIO_releaseFILE informs PerlIO that all use of FILE * is
	   complete. It	is removed from	the list of 'exported' FILE *s,	and
	   the associated PerlIO * should revert to its	original behaviour.

	   Use this to disassociate a file from	a PerlIO * that	was associated
	   using PerlIO_exportFILE().

       PerlIO_findFILE(f)
	   Returns a native FILE * used	by a stdio layer. If there is none, it
	   will	create one with	PerlIO_exportFILE. In either case the FILE *
	   should be considered	as belonging to	PerlIO subsystem and should
	   only	be closed by calling "PerlIO_close()".

   "Fast gets" Functions
       In addition to standard-like API	defined	so far above there is an
       "implementation"	interface which	allows perl to get at internals	of
       PerlIO.	The following calls correspond to the various FILE_xxx macros
       determined by Configure - or their equivalent in	other implementations.
       This section is really of interest to only those	concerned with
       detailed	perl-core behaviour, implementing a PerlIO mapping or writing
       code which can make use of the "read ahead" that	has been done by the
       IO system in the	same way perl does. Note that any code that uses these
       interfaces must be prepared to do things	the traditional	way if a
       handle does not support them.

       PerlIO_fast_gets(f)
	   Returns true	if implementation has all the interfaces required to
	   allow perl's	"sv_gets" to "bypass" normal IO	mechanism.  This can
	   vary	from handle to handle.

	     PerlIO_fast_gets(f) = PerlIO_has_cntptr(f)	&& \
				   PerlIO_canset_cnt(f)	&& \
				   'Can	set pointer into buffer'

       PerlIO_has_cntptr(f)
	   Implementation can return pointer to	current	position in the
	   "buffer" and	a count	of bytes available in the buffer.  Do not use
	   this	- use PerlIO_fast_gets.

       PerlIO_get_cnt(f)
	   Return count	of readable bytes in the buffer. Zero or negative
	   return means	no more	bytes available.

       PerlIO_get_ptr(f)
	   Return pointer to next readable byte	in buffer, accessing via the
	   pointer (dereferencing) is only safe	if PerlIO_get_cnt() has
	   returned a positive value.  Only positive offsets up	to value
	   returned by PerlIO_get_cnt()	are allowed.

       PerlIO_set_ptrcnt(f,p,c)
	   Set pointer into buffer, and	a count	of bytes still in the buffer.
	   Should be used only to set pointer to within	range implied by
	   previous calls to "PerlIO_get_ptr" and "PerlIO_get_cnt". The	two
	   values must be consistent with each other (implementation may only
	   use one or the other	or may require both).

       PerlIO_canset_cnt(f)
	   Implementation can adjust its idea of number	of bytes in the
	   buffer.  Do not use this - use PerlIO_fast_gets.

       PerlIO_set_cnt(f,c)
	   Obscure - set count of bytes	in the buffer. Deprecated.  Only
	   usable if PerlIO_canset_cnt() returns true.	Currently used in only
	   doio.c to force count less than -1 to -1.  Perhaps should be
	   PerlIO_set_empty or similar.	 This call may actually	do nothing if
	   "count" is deduced from pointer and a "limit".  Do not use this -
	   use PerlIO_set_ptrcnt().

       PerlIO_has_base(f)
	   Returns true	if implementation has a	buffer,	and can	return pointer
	   to whole buffer and its size. Used by perl for -T / -B tests.
	   Other uses would be very obscure...

       PerlIO_get_base(f)
	   Return start	of buffer. Access only positive	offsets	in the buffer
	   up to the value returned by PerlIO_get_bufsiz().

       PerlIO_get_bufsiz(f)
	   Return the total number of bytes in the buffer, this	is neither the
	   number that can be read, nor	the amount of memory allocated to the
	   buffer. Rather it is	what the operating system and/or
	   implementation happened to "read()" (or whatever) last time IO was
	   requested.

   Other Functions
       PerlIO_apply_layers(f,mode,layers)
	   The new interface to	the USE_PERLIO implementation. The layers
	   ":crlf" and ":raw" are only ones allowed for	other implementations
	   and those are silently ignored. (As of perl5.8 ":raw" is
	   deprecated.)	 Use PerlIO_binmode() below for	the portable case.

       PerlIO_binmode(f,ptype,imode,layers)
	   The hook used by perl's "binmode" operator.	ptype is perl's
	   character for the kind of IO:

	   '<' read
	   '>' write
	   '+' read/write

	   imode is "O_BINARY" or "O_TEXT".

	   layers is a string of layers	to apply, only ":crlf" makes sense in
	   the non USE_PERLIO case. (As	of perl5.8 ":raw" is deprecated	in
	   favour of passing NULL.)

	   Portable cases are:

	       PerlIO_binmode(f,ptype,O_BINARY,NULL);
	   and
	       PerlIO_binmode(f,ptype,O_TEXT,":crlf");

	   On Unix these calls probably	have no	effect whatsoever.  Elsewhere
	   they	alter "\n" to CR,LF translation	and possibly cause a special
	   text	"end of	file" indicator	to be written or honoured on read. The
	   effect of making the	call after doing any IO	to the handle depends
	   on the implementation. (It may be ignored, affect any data which is
	   already buffered as well, or	only apply to subsequent data.)

       PerlIO_debug(fmt,...)
	   PerlIO_debug	is a printf()-like function which can be used for
	   debugging.  No return value.	Its main use is	inside PerlIO where
	   using real printf, warn() etc. would	recursively call PerlIO	and be
	   a problem.

	   PerlIO_debug	writes to the file named by $ENV{'PERLIO_DEBUG'} or
	   defaults to stderr if the environment variable is not defined.
	   Typical use might be

	     Bourne shells (sh,	ksh, bash, zsh,	ash, ...):
	      PERLIO_DEBUG=/tmp/perliodebug.log	./perl -Di somescript some args

	     Csh/Tcsh:
	      setenv PERLIO_DEBUG /tmp/perliodebug.log
	      ./perl -Di somescript some args

	     If	you have the "env" utility:
	      env PERLIO_DEBUG=/tmp/perliodebug.log ./perl -Di somescript args

	     Win32:
	      set PERLIO_DEBUG=perliodebug.log
	      perl -Di somescript some args

	   On a	Perl built without "-DDEBUGGING", or when the "-Di" command-
	   line	switch is not specified, or under taint, PerlIO_debug()	is a
	   no-op.

perl v5.35.5			  2021-09-26			   PERLAPIO(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION

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