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PDFROFF(1)		    General Commands Manual		    PDFROFF(1)

       pdfroff - create	PDF documents using groff

       pdfroff [-abcegilpstzCEGNRSUVXZ]	[-d cs]	[-f fam] [-F dir] [-I dir]
	       [-L arg]	[-m name] [-M dir] [-n num] [-o	list] [-P arg] [-r cn]
	       [-T dev]	[-w name] [-W name] [--emit-ps]	[--no-toc-relocation]
	       [--no-kill-null-pages] [--stylesheet=name] [--no-pdf-output]
	       [--pdf-output=name] [--no-reference-dictionary]
	       [--reference-dictionary=name] [--report-progress]
	       [--keep-temporary-files]	[file ...]

       pdfroff -h
       pdfroff --help

       pdfroff -v [groff-option	...]
       pdfroff --version [groff-option ...]

       pdfroff is a wrapper program for	the GNU	text processing	system,	groff.
       It transparently	handles	the mechanics of multiple pass groff  process-
       ing,  when  applied to suitably marked up groff source files, such that
       tables of contents and body text	are formatted separately, and are sub-
       sequently  combined  in	the  correct order, for	final publication as a
       single PDF document.  A further optional	"style	sheet"	capability  is
       provided;  this	allows for the definition of content which is required
       to precede the table of contents, in the	published document.

       For each	invocation of pdfroff, the ultimate  groff  output  stream  is
       post-processed  by  the	GhostScript interpreter, to produce a finished
       PDF document.

       pdfroff makes no	assumptions about, and imposes no restrictions on, the
       use of any groff	macro packages which the user may choose to employ, in
       order to	achieve	a desired document format; however,  it	 does  include
       specific	 built	in  support  for the pdfmark macro package, should the
       user choose to employ it.  Specifically,	if the pdfhref macro,  defined
       in  the pdfmark.tmac package, is	used to	define public reference	marks,
       or dynamic links	to such	reference marks, then pdfroff performs as many
       preformatting  groff passes as required,	up to a	maximum	limit of four,
       in order	to compile a document reference	dictionary, to resolve	refer-
       ences, and to expand the	dynamically defined content of links.

       The  command  line is parsed in accordance with normal GNU conventions,
       but with	one exception -- when specifying any short form	option	(i.e.,
       a  single  character option introduced by a single hyphen), and if that
       option expects an argument, then	it  must  be  specified	 independently
       (i.e.,  it  may	not be appended	to any group of	other single character
       short form options).

       Long form option	names (i.e., those introduced by a double hyphen)  may
       be abbreviated to their minimum length unambiguous initial substring.

       Otherwise, pdfroff usage	closely	mirrors	that of	groff itself.  Indeed,
       with the	exception of the -h, -v, and -T	dev short  form	 options,  and
       all  long form options, which are parsed	internally by pdfroff, all op-
       tions and file name arguments specified on the command line are	passed
       on  to  groff,  to  control the formatting of the PDF document.	Conse-
       quently,	pdfroff	accepts	all options and	 arguments,  as	 specified  in
       groff(1),  which	may also be considered as the definitive reference for
       all standard pdfroff options and	argument usage.

       pdfroff accepts all of the short	form options (i.e.,  those  introduced
       by  a  single  hyphen), which are available with	groff itself.  In most
       cases, these are	simply passed transparently to groff;  the  following,
       however,	are handled specially by pdfroff.

       -h     Same as --help; see below.

       -i     Process  standard	 input,	after all other	specified input	files.
	      This is passed transparently to  groff,  but,  if	 grouped  with
	      other  options,  it  must	 be the	first in the group.  Hiding it
	      within a group breaks standard input processing, in the multiple
	      pass groff processing context of pdfroff.

       -T dev Only  -T ps  is supported	by pdfroff.  Attempting	to specify any
	      other device causes pdfroff to abort.

       -v     Same as --version; see below.

       See groff(1) for	a description of all other short form  options,	 which
       are transparently passed	through	pdfroff	to groff.

       All  long  form options (i.e., those introduced by a double hyphen) are
       interpreted locally by pdfroff; they are	not passed on to groff,	unless
       otherwise stated	below.

       --help Causes pdfroff to	display	a summary of the its usage syntax, and
	      supported	options, and then exit.

	      Suppresses the final output conversion step, causing pdfroff  to
	      emit  PostScript	output instead of PDF.	This may be useful, to
	      capture intermediate PostScript output, when using a specialised
	      postprocessor, such as gpresent for example, in place of the de-
	      fault GhostScript	PDF writer.

	      Suppresses the deletion of temporary files, which	 normally  oc-
	      curs  after  pdfroff has completed PDF document formatting; this
	      may be useful, when debugging formatting problems.

	      See section "Files" below	for a  description  of	the  temporary
	      files used by pdfroff.

	      May  be  used  with  the --reference-dictionary=name option (de-
	      scribed below) to	eliminate the overhead of PDF formatting, when
	      running  pdfroff	to create a reference dictionary, for use in a
	      different	document.

	      May be used to eliminate the overhead of	creating  a  reference
	      dictionary,  when	 it is known that the target PDF document con-
	      tains no public references, created by the pdfhref macro.

	      May be used to eliminate the extra groff processing pass,	 which
	      is  required to generate a table of contents, and	relocate it to
	      the start	of the PDF  document,  when  processing	 any  document
	      which lacks an automatically generated table of contents.

	      While  preparing	for  simulation	 of the	manual collation step,
	      which is traditionally required to relocate a table of  contents
	      to  the  start  of  a  document, pdfroff accumulates a number of
	      empty page descriptions into the intermediate PostScript	output
	      stream.	During the final collation step, these empty pages are
	      normally discarded  from	the  finished  document;  this	option
	      forces pdfroff to	leave them in place.

	      Specifies	the name to be used for	the resultant PDF document; if
	      unspecified, the PDF output is written to	 standard  output.   A
	      future  version  of  pdfroff  may	use this option, to encode the
	      document name in a generated reference dictionary.

	      Specifies	the name to be used for	the generated  reference  dic-
	      tionary  file;  if unspecified, the reference dictionary is cre-
	      ated in a	temporary file,	which is  deleted  when	 pdfroff  com-
	      pletes  processing of the	current	document.  This	option must be
	      specified, if it is desired to save  the	reference  dictionary,
	      for use in references placed in other PDF	documents.

	      Causes  pdfroff  to display an informational message on standard
	      error, at	the start of each groff	processing pass.

	      Specifies	the name of an input file, to be used as a style sheet
	      for  formatting of content, which	is to be placed	before the ta-
	      ble of contents, in the formatted	PDF document.

	      Causes pdfroff to	display	a version identification message.  The
	      entire  command line is then passed transparently	to groff, in a
	      one pass operation only, in  order  to  display  the  associated
	      groff version information, before	exiting.

       The following environment variables may be set, and exported, to	modify
       the behaviour of	pdfroff.

	      Specifies	the program to be used for collation of	 the  finished
	      PDF document.

	      This  collation  step may	be required to move tables of contents
	      to the start of the finished PDF document, when formatting  with
	      traditional  macro  packages, which print	them at	the end.  How-
	      ever, users should not normally need to specify PDFROFF_COLLATE,
	      (and  indeed,  are  not  encouraged  to do so).  If unspecified,
	      pdfroff uses sed(1) by default, which normally suffices.

	      If PDFROFF_COLLATE is specified, then it must act	as  a  filter,
	      accepting	a list of file name arguments, and write its output to
	      the   stdout   stream,   whence	it    is    piped    to	   the
	      PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND,  to produce the finished PDF out-

	      When specifying PDFROFF_COLLATE, it  is  normally	 necessary  to
	      also specify PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES.

	      PDFROFF_COLLATE  is  ignored,  if	 pdfroff  is  invoked with the
	      --no-kill-null-pages option.

	      Specifies	options	to be passed to	the PDFROFF_COLLATE program.

	      It   should   not	  normally    be    necessary	 to    specify
	      PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES.	 The  internal	default	 is  a	sed(1)
	      script, which is intended	to remove completely blank pages  from
	      the  collated  output stream, and	which should be	appropriate in
	      most applications	of pdfroff.  However, if  any  alternative  to
	      sed(1)  is specified for PDFROFF_COLLATE,	then it	is likely that
	      a	    corresponding      alternative	specification	   for
	      PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES is required.

	      As  in  the  case	of PDFROFF_COLLATE, PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES is
	      ignored, if pdfroff is invoked with the --no-kill-null-pages op-

	      Specifies	 the command to	be used	for the	final document conver-
	      sion from	PostScript intermediate	output to PDF.	It must	behave
	      as  a  filter, writing its output	to the stdout stream, and must
	      accept an	arbitrary number of files ... arguments, with the spe-
	      cial case	of - representing the stdin stream.

	      If unspecified, PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND defaults to
		   gs -dBATCH -dQUIET -dNOPAUSE	-dSAFER	-sDEVICE=pdfwrite \

	      Identifies  the  directory in which pdfroff should create	tempo-
	      rary files.  If GROFF_TMPDIR is not specified,  then  the	 vari-
	      ables  TMPDIR,  TMP and TEMP are considered in turn, as possible
	      temporary	file repositories.  If none of	these  are  set,  then
	      temporary	files are created in the current directory.

	      Specifies	the program to be invoked, when	pdfroff	converts groff
	      PostScript output	to PDF.	 If  PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND  is
	      specified,  then the command name	it specifies is	implicitly as-
	      signed to	GROFF_GHOSTSCRIPT_INTERPRETER, overriding any explicit
	      setting	   specified	  in	  the	  environment.	    If
	      GROFF_GHOSTSCRIPT_INTERPRETER is	not  specified,	 then  pdfroff
	      searches the process PATH, looking for a program with any	of the
	      well known names for the GhostScript interpreter;	if  no	Ghost-
	      Script interpreter can be	found, pdfroff aborts.

	      Specifies	 the program to	be invoked, when pdfroff is extracting
	      reference	dictionary entries from	a groff	 intermediate  message
	      stream.  If GROFF_AWK_INTERPRETER	is not specified, then pdfroff
	      searches the process PATH, looking for any of the	preferred pro-
	      grams, `gawk', `mawk', `nawk', and `awk',	in this	order; if none
	      of these are found, pdfroff issues a warning message,  and  con-
	      tinue processing;	however, in this case, no reference dictionary
	      is created.

       OSTYPE Typically	defined	automatically by the operating system,	OSTYPE
	      is  used	on Microsoft Win32/MS-DOS platforms only, to infer the
	      default PATH_SEPARATOR character,	which is used when parsing the
	      process PATH to search for external helper programs.

	      If  set,	PATH_SEPARATOR overrides the default separator charac-
	      ter, (`:'	on POSIX/Unix systems, inferred	from OSTYPE on	Micro-
	      soft  Win32/MS-DOS), which is used when parsing the process PATH
	      to search	for external helper programs.

	      If this is set to	a non-empty value, then	pdfroff	always behaves
	      as  if the --report-progress option is specified,	on the command

       Input and output	files for pdfroff may be named according to  any  con-
       vention	of the user's choice.  Typically, input	files may be named ac-
       cording to the choice of	the principal formatting macro package,	 e.g.,	might  be  an  input  file  for	formatting using the ms	macros
       (s.tmac); normally, the final output file should	be named file.pdf.

       Temporary files,	created	by pdfroff, are	placed in the file system  hi-
       erarchy,	 in  or	below the directory specified by environment variables
       (see section "Environment" above).  If mktemp(1)	is  available,	it  is
       invoked	to  create  a  private subdirectory of the nominated temporary
       files directory,	(with subdirectory  name  derived  from	 the  template
       pdfroff-XXXXXXXXXX);  if	this subdirectory is successfully created, the
       temporary files will be placed within it, otherwise they	will be	placed
       directly	in the directory nominated in the environment.

       All  temporary  files  themselves are named according to	the convention
       pdf$$.*,	where $$ is  the  standard  shell  variable  representing  the
       process	ID  of the pdfroff process itself, and * represents any	of the
       extensions used by pdfroff to identify the following temporary and  in-
       termediate files.

	      A	 scratch  pad  file, used to capture reference data emitted by
	      groff, during the	reference dictionary compilation phase.

	      The reference dictionary,	as compiled in the last	but  one  pass
	      of  the reference	dictionary compilation phase; (at the start of
	      the first	pass,  this  file  is  created	empty;	in  successive
	      passes,  it  contains  the reference dictionary entries, as col-
	      lected in	the preceding pass).

	      If the --reference-dictionary=name option	is specified, this in-
	      termediate  file	becomes	 permanent,  and is named name,	rather
	      than pdf$$.ref.

	      Used to collect reference	dictionary entries during  the	active
	      pass  of the reference dictionary	compilation phase.  At the end
	      of any pass, when	the content of pdf$$.cmp compares as identical
	      to   pdf$$.ref,	(or   the  corresponding  file	named  by  the
	      --reference-dictionary=name option), then	 reference  dictionary
	      compilation is terminated, and the document reference map	is ap-
	      pended to	this intermediate file,	for  inclusion	in  the	 final
	      formatting passes.

	      An  intermediate	PostScript  file, in which "Table of Contents"
	      entries are collected, to	facilitate relocation before the  body
	      text, on ultimate	output to the GhostScript postprocessor.

	      An  intermediate PostScript file,	in which the body text is col-
	      lected prior to ultimate output to the  GhostScript  postproces-
	      sor, in the proper sequence, after pdf$$.tc.

       pdfroff was written by Keith Marshall <>.

       See  groff(1)  for the definitive reference to document formatting with
       groff.  Since pdfroff provides a	superset of  all  groff	 capabilities,
       groff(1)	 may  also be considered to be the definitive reference	to all
       standard	capabilities of	pdfroff, with this document providing the ref-
       erence to pdfroff's extended features.

       While  pdfroff  imposes neither any restriction on, nor any requirement
       for, the	use of any specific groff macro	package, a number of  supplied
       macro  packages,	 and  in  particular those associated with the package
       pdfmark.tmac, are best suited for use with  pdfroff  as	the  preferred
       formatter.   Detailed documentation on the use of these packages	may be
       found, in PDF format, in	the reference guide "Portable Document	Format
       Publishing with GNU Troff", included in the installed documentation set
       as /usr/local/share/doc/groff-1.22.4/pdf/pdfmark.pdf.

groff 1.22.4		       17 December 2018			    PDFROFF(1)


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