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passwd(4)			 File Formats			     passwd(4)

       passwd -	password file


       The  file  /etc/passwd  is  a  local source of information about	users'
       accounts. The password file can be used in conjunction with other pass-
       word  sources,  such as the NIS maps passwd.byname and passwd.bygid and
       the NIS+	table passwd. Programs use the getpwnam(3C) routines to	access
       this information.

       Each passwd entry is a single line of the form:



	     is	 the user's login name.	It is recommended that this field con-
	     form to the checks	performed by pwck(1M).

	     is	an empty field.	The encrypted password for the user is in  the
	     corresponding entry in the	/etc/shadow file. pwconv(1M) relies on
	     a special value of	'x' in the password field of  /etc/passwd.  If
	     this  value  of  'x' exists in the	password field of /etc/passwd,
	     this indicates that the password  for  the	 user  is  already  in
	     /etc/shadow and should not	be modified.

       uid   is	the user's unique numerical ID for the system.

       gid   is	the unique numerical ID	of the group that the user belongs to.

	     is	the user's real	name, along with information to	pass along  in
	     a mail-message heading. (It is called the gcos-field for histori-
	     cal reasons.) An ``&'' (ampersand)	in this	field stands  for  the
	     login  name  (in  cases  where the	login name appears in a	user's
	     real name).

	     is	the pathname to	the directory in which the user	 is  initially
	     positioned	upon logging in.

	     is	 the user's initial shell program. If this field is empty, the
	     default shell is /usr/bin/sh.

       The maximum value of the	uid and	gid fields is 2147483647. To  maximize
       interoperability	 and  compatibility, administrators are	recommended to
       assign users a range of UIDs and	GIDs below 60000 where possible.

       The password file is an ASCII file. Because the encrypted passwords are
       always kept in the shadow file, /etc/passwd has general read permission
       on all systems and can be used by routines that map  between  numerical
       user IDs	and user names.

       Blank  lines  are  treated  as malformed	entries	in the passwd file and
       cause consumers of the file , such as getpwnam(3C), to fail.

       Previous	releases used a	password entry	beginning  with	 a  `+'	 (plus
       sign)  or  `-' (minus sign) to selectively incorporate entries from NIS
       maps for	password. If still required, this is supported	by  specifying
       ``passwd	 : compat'' in nsswitch.conf(4). The "compat" source might not
       be supported in future releases.	The preferred sources are  files  fol-
       lowed  by  the  identifier of a name service, such as nis or ldap. This
       has the effect of incorporating the entire contents of  the  name  ser-
       vice's passwd database after the	passwd file.

       Example 1: Sample passwd	file

       Here is a sample	passwd file:

       fred:6k/7KCFRPNVXg:508:10:& Fredericks:/usr2/fred:/bin/csh

       and the sample password entry from nsswitch.conf:

       passwd: files nisplus

       In  this	example, there are specific entries for	users root and fred to
       assure that they	can login even when the	system is running single-user.
       In addition, anyone in the NIS+ table passwd will be able to login with
       their usual password, shell, and	home directory.

       If the password file is:

       fred:6k/7KCFRPNVXg:508:10:& Fredericks:/usr2/fred:/bin/csh

       and the password	entry from nsswitch.conf is:

       passwd: compat

       then all	the entries listed in the NIS passwd.byuid  and	 passwd.byname
       maps  will  be  effectively incorporated	after the entries for root and




       chgrp(1), chown(1), finger(1),  groups(1),  login(1),  newgrp(1),  nis-
       passwd(1),   passwd(1),	 sh(1),	 sort(1),  chown(1M),  domainname(1M),
       getent(1M), in.ftpd(1M),	passmgmt(1M),  pwck(1M),  pwconv(1M),  su(1M),
       useradd(1M),  userdel(1M), usermod(1M), a64l(3C), crypt(3C), getpw(3C),
       getpwnam(3C),  getspnam(3C),  putpwent(3C),  group(4),  hosts.equiv(4),
       nsswitch.conf(4), shadow(4), environ(5),	unistd(3HEAD)

       System Administration Guide: Basic Administration

SunOS 5.9			  3 Oct	2001			     passwd(4)


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