# FreeBSD Manual Pages

Pandoc User's Guide()					 Pandoc	User's Guide()

NAME
pandoc -	general	markup converter

SYNOPSIS
pandoc [options]	[input-file]...

DESCRIPTION
Pandoc  is  a  Haskell library for converting from one markup format to
another,	and a command-line tool	that uses this library.

Pandoc can convert between numerous markup and word processing formats,
including, but not limited to, various flavors of Markdown, HTML, LaTeX
and Word	docx.  For the full lists of input and output formats, see the
--from and --to options below.  Pandoc can also produce PDF output: see
creating	a PDF, below.

Pandoc's	enhanced version of Markdown includes syntax for tables, defi-
nition  lists,  metadata	 blocks,  footnotes, citations,	math, and much
more.  See below	under Pandoc's Markdown.

Pandoc has a modular design: it consists	of a  set  of  readers,	 which
parse text in a given format and	produce	a native representation	of the
document	(an abstract syntax tree or AST), and a	set of writers,	 which
convert	this native representation into	a target format.  Thus,	adding
an input	or output format requires only	adding	a  reader  or  writer.
Users  can  also	 run  custom pandoc filters to modify the intermediate
AST.

Because pandoc's	intermediate representation of a document is less  ex-
pressive	 than  many of the formats it converts between,	one should not
expect perfect conversions between every	format and every other.	  Pan-
doc attempts to preserve	the structural elements	of a document, but not
formatting details such as margin size.	And  some  document  elements,
such  as	complex	tables,	may not	fit into pandoc's simple document mod-
el.  While conversions from pandoc's Markdown to	all formats aspire  to
be  perfect,  conversions  from	formats	 more expressive than pandoc's
Markdown	can be expected	to be lossy.

Using pandoc
If no input-files are specified,	input is read from stdin.  Output goes
to stdout by default.  For output to a file, use	the -o option:

pandoc -o	output.html input.txt

By  default,  pandoc produces a document	fragment.  To produce a	stand-
alone document (e.g. a valid HTML file including	 <head>	 and  <body>),
use the -s or --standalone flag:

pandoc -s	-o output.html input.txt

For more	information on how standalone documents	are produced, see Tem-
plates below.

If multiple input files are given, pandoc  will	concatenate  them  all
(with  blank  lines between them) before	parsing.  (Use --file-scope to
parse files individually.)

Specifying formats
The format of the input and output can be  specified  explicitly	 using
command-line  options.	The  input  format  can	be specified using the
-f/--from option, the output format using the -t/--to option.  Thus, to
convert hello.txt from Markdown to LaTeX, you could type:

pandoc -f	markdown -t latex hello.txt

To convert hello.html from HTML to Markdown:

pandoc -f	html -t	markdown hello.html

Supported  input	and output formats are listed below under Options (see
-f for input formats and	-t for output formats).	 You can also use pan-
doc  --list-input-formats  and  pandoc  --list-output-formats  to print
lists of	supported formats.

If the input or output format is	not specified explicitly, pandoc  will
attempt	to  guess  it from the extensions of the filenames.  Thus, for
example,

pandoc -o	hello.tex hello.txt

will convert hello.txt from Markdown to LaTeX.  If no  output  file  is
specified  (so that output goes to stdout), or if the output file's ex-
tension is unknown, the output format will default to HTML.  If no  in-
put file	is specified (so that input comes from stdin), or if the input
files' extensions are unknown, the input	format will be assumed	to  be
Markdown.

Character encoding
Pandoc uses the UTF-8 character encoding	for both input and output.  If
your local character encoding is	not UTF-8, you should pipe  input  and
output through iconv:

iconv -t utf-8 input.txt | pandoc	| iconv	-f utf-8

Note  that  in  some output formats (such as HTML, LaTeX, ConTeXt, RTF,
OPML, DocBook, and Texinfo), information	about the  character  encoding
is  included in the document header, which will only be included	if you
use the -s/--standalone option.

Creating a PDF
To produce a PDF, specify an output file	with a .pdf extension:

pandoc test.txt -o test.pdf

By default, pandoc will use LaTeX to create  the	 PDF,  which  requires
that  a	LaTeX  engine be installed (see	--pdf-engine below).  Alterna-
tively, pandoc can use ConTeXt, roff ms,	or  HTML  as  an  intermediate
format.	 To  do	this, specify an output	file with a .pdf extension, as
before, but add the --pdf-engine	option or -t context, -t html,	or  -t
ms to the command line.	The tool used to generate the PDF from the in-
termediate format may be	specified using	--pdf-engine.

You can control the PDF style using variables, depending	on the	inter-
mediate	format	used:  see variables for LaTeX,	variables for ConTeXt,
variables for wkhtmltopdf, variables for	ms.  When HTML is used	as  an
intermediate format, the	output can be styled using --css.

To debug	the PDF	creation, it can be useful to look at the intermediate
representation: instead of -o test.pdf, use for example -s -o  test.tex
to  output  the	generated  LaTeX.   You	can then test it with pdflatex
test.tex.

When using LaTeX, the following packages	need to	be available (they are
unicode-math, ifxetex, ifluatex,	listings (if the --listings option  is
used),  fancyvrb,  longtable,  booktabs,	graphicx (if the document con-
tains images), hyperref,	xcolor,	 ulem,	geometry  (with	 the  geometry
variable	set), setspace (with linestretch), and babel (with lang).  The
use of xelatex or lualatex as the PDF engine requires fontspec.	luala-
tex  uses  selnolig.   xelatex uses polyglossia (with lang), xecjk, and
bidi (with the dir variable set).  If the mathspec variable is set, xe-
latex  will  use	mathspec instead of unicode-math.  The upquote and mi-
crotype packages	are used if available, and csquotes will be  used  for
typography  if the csquotes variable or metadata	field is set to	a true
value.  The natbib, biblatex, bibtex, and biber packages	can optionally
be used for citation rendering.	The following packages will be used to
improve output quality if present, but pandoc does not require them  to
be present: upquote (for	straight quotes	in verbatim environments), mi-
crotype (for better spacing adjustments), parskip  (for	better	inter-
paragraph spaces), xurl (for better line	breaks in URLs), bookmark (for
better PDF bookmarks), and footnotehyper	or footnote  (to  allow	 foot-
notes in	tables).

Instead	of  an input file, an absolute URI may be given.  In this case
pandoc will fetch the content using HTTP:

pandoc -f	html -t	markdown https://www.fsf.org

It is possible to supply	a custom User-Agent  string  or	 other	header
when requesting a document from a URL:

pandoc -f	html -t	markdown --request-header User-Agent:"Mozilla/5.0" \
https://www.fsf.org

OPTIONS
General options
-f FORMAT, -r FORMAT, --from=FORMAT, --read=FORMAT
Specify input format.  FORMAT can	be:

o	bibtex (BibTeX bibliography)

o	biblatex (BibLaTeX bibliography)

o	commonmark (CommonMark Markdown)

o	commonmark_x (CommonMark Markdown with extensions)

o	creole (Creole 1.0)

o	csljson	(CSL JSON bibliography)

o	csv (CSV table)

o	docbook	(DocBook)

o	docx (Word docx)

o	dokuwiki (DokuWiki markup)

o	epub (EPUB)

o	fb2 (FictionBook2 e-book)

o	gfm (GitHub-Flavored Markdown),	or the deprecated and less ac-
curate markdown_github;	use markdown_github only if  you  need
extensions not supported in gfm.

o	html (HTML)

o	ipynb (Jupyter notebook)

o	jats (JATS XML)

o	jira (Jira/Confluence wiki markup)

o	json (JSON version of native AST)

o	latex (LaTeX)

o	markdown (Pandoc's Markdown)

o	markdown_mmd (MultiMarkdown)

o	markdown_phpextra (PHP Markdown	Extra)

o	markdown_strict	(original unextended Markdown)

o	mediawiki (MediaWiki markup)

o	man (roff man)

o	muse (Muse)

o	odt (ODT)

o	opml (OPML)

o	org (Emacs Org mode)

o	rst (reStructuredText)

o	t2t (txt2tags)

o	textile	(Textile)

o	tikiwiki (TikiWiki markup)

o	twiki (TWiki markup)

o	vimwiki	(Vimwiki)

Extensions  can be individually enabled or disabled by appending
+EXTENSION or -EXTENSION to the format name.  See	Extensions be-
low,  for	 a list	of extensions and their	names.	See --list-in-
put-formats and --list-extensions, below.

-t FORMAT, -w FORMAT, --to=FORMAT, --write=FORMAT
Specify output format.  FORMAT can be:

o	asciidoc (AsciiDoc) or asciidoctor (AsciiDoctor)

o	beamer (LaTeX beamer slide show)

o	bibtex (BibTeX bibliography)

o	biblatex (BibLaTeX bibliography)

o	commonmark (CommonMark Markdown)

o	commonmark_x (CommonMark Markdown with extensions)

o	context	(ConTeXt)

o	csljson	(CSL JSON bibliography)

o	docbook	or docbook4 (DocBook 4)

o	docbook5 (DocBook 5)

o	docx (Word docx)

o	dokuwiki (DokuWiki markup)

o	epub or	epub3 (EPUB v3 book)

o	epub2 (EPUB v2)

o	fb2 (FictionBook2 e-book)

o	gfm (GitHub-Flavored Markdown),	or the deprecated and less ac-
curate	markdown_github;  use markdown_github only if you need
extensions not supported in gfm.

o	html or	html5 (HTML, i.e. HTML5/XHTML polyglot markup)

o	html4 (XHTML 1.0 Transitional)

o	icml (InDesign ICML)

o	ipynb (Jupyter notebook)

o	jats_archiving (JATS XML, Archiving and	Interchange Tag	Set)

o	jats_articleauthoring (JATS XML, Article Authoring Tag Set)

o	jats_publishing	(JATS XML, Journal Publishing Tag Set)

o	jats (alias for	jats_archiving)

o	jira (Jira/Confluence wiki markup)

o	json (JSON version of native AST)

o	latex (LaTeX)

o	man (roff man)

o	markdown (Pandoc's Markdown)

o	markdown_mmd (MultiMarkdown)

o	markdown_phpextra (PHP Markdown	Extra)

o	markdown_strict	(original unextended Markdown)

o	mediawiki (MediaWiki markup)

o	ms (roff ms)

o	muse (Muse),

o	odt (OpenOffice	text document)

o	opml (OPML)

o	opendocument (OpenDocument)

o	org (Emacs Org mode)

o	pdf (PDF)

o	plain (plain text),

o	pptx (PowerPoint slide show)

o	rst (reStructuredText)

o	rtf (Rich Text Format)

o	texinfo	(GNU Texinfo)

o	textile	(Textile)

o	slideous (Slideous HTML	and JavaScript slide show)

o	slidy (Slidy HTML and JavaScript slide show)

o	dzslides (DZSlides HTML5 + JavaScript slide show),

o	revealjs (reveal.js HTML5 + JavaScript slide show)

o	s5 (S5 HTML and	JavaScript slide show)

o	tei (TEI Simple)

o	xwiki (XWiki markup)

o	zimwiki	(ZimWiki markup)

o	the path of a custom Lua writer, see Custom writers below

Note that	odt, docx, epub, and pdf output	will not  be  directed
to stdout	unless forced with -o -.

Extensions  can be individually enabled or disabled by appending
+EXTENSION or -EXTENSION to the format name.  See	Extensions be-
low,  for	a list of extensions and their names.  See --list-out-
put-formats and --list-extensions, below.

-o FILE,	--output=FILE
Write output to FILE instead of stdout.  If FILE	is  -,	output
will  go	to  stdout,  even  if a	non-textual format (docx, odt,
epub2, epub3) is specified.

--data-dir=DIRECTORY
Specify the user data directory to search	for pandoc data	files.
If this option is	not specified, the default user	data directory
will be used.  On	*nix and macOS systems this will be the	pandoc
subdirectory  of	the XDG	data directory (by default, $HOME/.lo- cal/share, overridable by setting the XDG_DATA_HOME environment variable). If that directory does not exist,$HOME/.pandoc will
be used (for backwards compatibility).  In Windows  the  default
You can find the default user data directory on your  system  by
looking  at  the	output	of pandoc --version.  A	reference.odt,
reference.docx, epub.css,	templates, slidy, slideous, or s5  di-
rectory  placed  in this directory will override pandoc's	normal
defaults.

-d FILE,	--defaults=FILE
Specify a	set of default option settings.	 FILE is a  YAML  file
whose  fields  correspond	 to command-line option	settings.  All
options for document  conversion,	 including  input  and	output
files,  can  be  set  using  a  defaults file.  The file will be
searched for first in the	working	directory, and then in the de-
faults subdirectory of the user data directory (see --data-dir).
The .yaml	extension may be omitted.   See	 the  section  Default
files  for  more	information on the file	format.	 Settings from
the defaults file	may be overridden or  extended	by  subsequent
options on the command line.

--bash-completion
Generate	a  bash	 completion script.  To	enable bash completion

eval "$(pandoc --bash-completion)" --verbose Give verbose debugging output. --quiet Suppress warning messages. --fail-if-warnings Exit with error status if there are any warnings. --log=FILE Write log messages in machine-readable JSON format to FILE. All messages above DEBUG level will be written, regardless of ver- bosity settings (--verbose, --quiet). --list-input-formats List supported input formats, one per line. --list-output-formats List supported output formats, one per line. --list-extensions[=FORMAT] List supported extensions for FORMAT, one per line, preceded by a + or - indicating whether it is enabled by default in FORMAT. If FORMAT is not specified, defaults for pandoc's Markdown are given. --list-highlight-languages List supported languages for syntax highlighting, one per line. --list-highlight-styles List supported styles for syntax highlighting, one per line. See --highlight-style. -v, --version Print version. -h, --help Show usage message. Reader options --shift-heading-level-by=NUMBER Shift heading levels by a positive or negative integer. For ex- ample, with --shift-heading-level-by=-1, level 2 headings become level 1 headings, and level 3 headings become level 2 headings. Headings cannot have a level less than 1, so a heading that would be shifted below level 1 becomes a regular paragraph. Ex- ception: with a shift of -N, a level-N heading at the beginning of the document replaces the metadata title. --shift-heading- level-by=-1 is a good choice when converting HTML or Markdown documents that use an initial level-1 heading for the document title and level-2+ headings for sections. --shift-heading-lev- el-by=1 may be a good choice for converting Markdown documents that use level-1 headings for sections to HTML, since pandoc us- es a level-1 heading to render the document title. --base-header-level=NUMBER Deprecated. Use --shift-heading-level-by=X instead, where X = NUMBER - 1. Specify the base level for headings (defaults to 1). --strip-empty-paragraphs Deprecated. Use the +empty_paragraphs extension instead. Ignore paragraphs with no content. This option is useful for convert- ing word processing documents where users have used empty para- graphs to create inter-paragraph space. --indented-code-classes=CLASSES Specify classes to use for indented code blocks-for example, perl,numberLines or haskell. Multiple classes may be separated by spaces or commas. --default-image-extension=EXTENSION Specify a default extension to use when image paths/URLs have no extension. This allows you to use the same source for formats that require different kinds of images. Currently this option only affects the Markdown and LaTeX readers. --file-scope Parse each file individually before combining for multifile doc- uments. This will allow footnotes in different files with the same identifiers to work as expected. If this option is set, footnotes and links will not work across files. Reading binary files (docx, odt, epub) implies --file-scope. -F PROGRAM, --filter=PROGRAM Specify an executable to be used as a filter transforming the pandoc AST after the input is parsed and before the output is written. The executable should read JSON from stdin and write JSON to stdout. The JSON must be formatted like pandoc's own JSON input and output. The name of the output format will be passed to the filter as the first argument. Hence, pandoc --filter ./caps.py -t latex is equivalent to pandoc -t json | ./caps.py latex | pandoc -f json -t latex The latter form may be useful for debugging filters. Filters may be written in any language. Text.Pandoc.JSON ex- ports toJSONFilter to facilitate writing filters in Haskell. Those who would prefer to write filters in python can use the module pandocfilters, installable from PyPI. There are also pandoc filter libraries in PHP, perl, and JavaScript/node.js. In order of preference, pandoc will look for filters in 1. a specified full or relative path (executable or non-exe- cutable) 2.$DATADIR/filters   (executable	  or   non-executable)	 where
$DATADIR is the user data directory (see --data-dir, above). 3.$PATH (executable only)

Filters, Lua-filters, and	citeproc processing are	applied	in the
order specified on the command line.

-L SCRIPT, --lua-filter=SCRIPT
Transform	the document in	a similar fashion as JSON filters (see
--filter), but use pandoc's built-in Lua filtering system.   The
given  Lua  script  is  expected to return a list	of Lua filters
which will be applied in order.  Each Lua	 filter	 must  contain
element-transforming  functions  indexed	by the name of the AST
element on which the filter function should be applied.

The pandoc Lua module provides helper functions for element cre-
ation.  It is always loaded into the script's Lua	environment.

See the Lua filters documentation	for further details.

In order of preference, pandoc will look for Lua filters in

1. a specified full or relative path

2. $DATADIR/filters where$DATADIR  is the user	data directory
(see --data-dir, above).

Filters, Lua filters, and	citeproc processing are	applied	in the
order specified on the command line.

Set  the metadata	field KEY to the value VAL.  A value specified
on the command line overrides a value specified in the  document
using YAML metadata blocks.  Values will be parsed as YAML bool-
ean or string values.  If	no value is specified, the value  will
be  treated as Boolean true.  Like --variable, --metadata	causes
template variables to be set.  But unlike	--variable, --metadata
affects the metadata of the underlying document (which is	acces-
sible from filters and may be printed in	some  output  formats)
and  metadata values will	be escaped when	inserted into the tem-
plate.

tion  can	be used	with every input format, but string scalars in
the YAML file will always	be parsed as Markdown.	Generally, the
input will be handled the	same as	in YAML	metadata blocks.  This
option can be  used  repeatedly  to  include  multiple  metadata
files;  values in	files specified	later on the command line will
be preferred over	those specified	in  earlier  files.   Metadata
values  specified	inside the document, or	by using -M, overwrite
values specified with this option.

-p, --preserve-tabs
Preserve tabs instead of converting them	to  spaces.   (By  de-
fault, pandoc converts tabs to spaces before parsing its input.)
Note that	this will only affect tabs in literal code  spans  and
code blocks.  Tabs in regular text are always treated as spaces.

--tab-stop=NUMBER
Specify the number of spaces per tab (default is 4).

--track-changes=accept|reject|all
Specifies	 what  to  do with insertions, deletions, and comments
produced by the MS Word "Track Changes"  feature.	  accept  (the
default) processes all the insertions and	deletions.  reject ig-
nores them.  Both	accept and reject ignore  comments.   all  in-
cludes all insertions, deletions,	and comments, wrapped in spans
with insertion, deletion,	comment-start, and comment-end	class-
es,  respectively.   The	author and time	of change is included.
all is useful for	scripting: only	accepting changes from a  cer-
tain reviewer, say, or before a certain date.  If	a paragraph is
inserted or deleted, track-changes=all produces a	span with  the
class paragraph-insertion/paragraph-deletion before the affected
paragraph	break.	This option only affects the docx reader.

--extract-media=DIR
Extract images and other media contained in or linked  from  the
source  document	to the path DIR, creating it if	necessary, and
adjust the images	references in the document so  they  point  to
the extracted files.  If the source format is a binary container
(docx, epub, or odt), the	media is extracted from	the  container
and  the	original  filenames  are used.	Otherwise the media is
constructed based	on SHA1	hashes of the contents.

--abbreviations=FILE
Specifies	a custom abbreviations file, with abbreviations	one to
a	line.  If this option is not specified,	pandoc will  read  the
data  file  abbreviations	 from  the user	data directory or fall
back on a	system default.	 To see	the system default, use	pandoc
--print-default-data-file=abbreviations.	 The  only  use	pandoc
makes of this list is in the Markdown reader.  Strings ending in
a	 period	that are found in this list will be followed by	a non-
breaking space, so that the period will  not  produce  sentence-
ending space in formats like LaTeX.

General writer options
-s, --standalone
Produce  output  with  an	 appropriate header and	footer (e.g. a
standalone HTML, LaTeX, TEI, or RTF file,	not a fragment).  This
option is	set automatically for pdf, epub, epub3,	fb2, docx, and
odt output.  For native output, this option causes  metadata  to
be included; otherwise, metadata is suppressed.

--template=FILE|URL
Use  the	specified  file	as a custom template for the generated
document.	 Implies --standalone.	See Templates,	below,	for  a
description  of  template	syntax.	 If no extension is specified,
an extension corresponding to the	writer will be added, so  that
--template=special  looks	 for special.html for HTML output.  If
the template is not found, pandoc	will search for	it in the tem-
plates subdirectory of the user data directory (see --data-dir).
If this option is	not used, a default template  appropriate  for
the  output  format  will	 be  used (see -D/--print-default-tem-
plate).

-V KEY[=VAL], --variable=KEY[:VAL]
Set the template variable	KEY to the value  VAL  when  rendering
the  document  in	 standalone mode.  If no VAL is	specified, the
key will be given	the value true.

-D FORMAT, --print-default-template=FORMAT
Print the	system default template	for an output FORMAT.  (See -t
for  a list of possible FORMATs.)	Templates in the user data di-
rectory are ignored.  This option	may be used  with  -o/--output
to  redirect  output to a	file, but -o/--output must come	before
--print-default-template on the command line.

Note that	some of	the default templates use partials, for	 exam-
ple styles.html.	To print the partials, use --print-default-da-
ta-file:	   for	   example,	--print-default-data-file=tem-
plates/styles.html.

--print-default-data-file=FILE
Print a system default data file.	 Files in the user data	direc-
tory are ignored.	 This option may be used with  -o/--output  to
redirect	output	to  a  file,  but -o/--output must come	before
--print-default-data-file	on the command line.

--eol=crlf|lf|native
Manually specify line endings: crlf  (Windows),  lf  (macOS/Lin-
ux/UNIX),	or native (line	endings	appropriate to the OS on which
pandoc is	being run).  The default is native.

--dpi=NUMBER
Specify the default dpi (dots per	 inch)	value  for  conversion
from  pixels  to inch/centimeters	and vice versa.	 (Technically,
the correct term would be	ppi: pixels per	inch.) The default  is
96dpi.   When  images  contain information about dpi internally,
the encoded value	is used	instead	of the	default	 specified  by
this option.

--wrap=auto|none|preserve
Determine	 how  text  is wrapped in the output (the source code,
not the rendered version).  With auto (the default), pandoc will
attempt to wrap lines to the column width	specified by --columns
(default 72).  With none,	pandoc will not	 wrap  lines  at  all.
With preserve, pandoc will attempt to preserve the wrapping from
the source document (that	is, where there	are  nonsemantic  new-
lines  in	 the source, there will	be nonsemantic newlines	in the
output as	well).	Automatic wrapping does	not currently work  in
HTML  output.   In ipynb output, this option affects wrapping of
the contents of markdown cells.

--columns=NUMBER
Specify length of	lines in characters.  This affects text	 wrap-
ping in the generated source code	(see --wrap).  It also affects
calculation of column widths for plain text tables  (see	Tables
below).

--toc, --table-of-contents
case of latex, context, docx, odt, opendocument, rst, or ms,  an
instruction  to create one) in the output	document.  This	option
has no effect unless -s/--standalone is used, and	it has no  ef-
fect on man, docbook4, docbook5, or jats output.

Note  that  if you are producing a PDF via ms, the table of con-
tents will appear	at the beginning of the	document,  before  the
title.  If you would prefer it to	be at the end of the document,
use the option --pdf-engine-opt=--no-toc-relocation.

--toc-depth=NUMBER
Specify the number of section levels to include in the table  of
contents.	  The default is 3 (which means	that level-1, 2, and 3
headings will be listed in the contents).

Strip out	HTML comments  in  the	Markdown  or  Textile  source,
rather  than passing them	on to Markdown,	Textile	or HTML	output
as raw HTML.  This does not apply	to HTML	 comments  inside  raw
HTML  blocks  when  the markdown_in_html_blocks extension	is not
set.

--no-highlight
Disables syntax highlighting for code blocks and	inlines,  even
when a language attribute	is given.

--highlight-style=STYLE|FILE
Specifies	 the  coloring	style to be used in highlighted	source
code.  Options are pygments  (the	 default),  kate,  monochrome,
breezeDark, espresso, zenburn, haddock, and tango.  For more in-
formation	on syntax highlighting in  pandoc,  see	 Syntax	 high-

Instead  of  a STYLE name, a JSON	file with extension .theme may
be supplied.  This will be parsed	as a KDE  syntax  highlighting
theme and	(if valid) used	as the highlighting style.

To  generate the JSON version of an existing style, use --print-
highlight-style.

--print-highlight-style=STYLE|FILE
Prints a JSON version of a highlighting style, which can be mod-
ified, saved with	a .theme extension, and	used with --highlight-
style.  This option may be used  with  -o/--output  to  redirect
output to	a file,	but -o/--output	must come before --print-high-
light-style on the command line.

--syntax-definition=FILE
Instructs	pandoc to load a KDE XML syntax	definition file, which
will  be	used  for  syntax highlighting of appropriately	marked
code blocks.  This can be	used to	add support for	new  languages
or  to  use  altered  syntax definitions for existing languages.
This option may be repeated to add multiple syntax definitions.

Include contents of FILE,	verbatim, at the end  of  the  header.
This  can	 be used, for example, to include special CSS or Java-
Script in	HTML documents.	 This option can be used repeatedly to
include  multiple	files in the header.  They will	be included in
the order	specified.  Implies --standalone.

-B FILE,	--include-before-body=FILE|URL
Include contents of FILE,	verbatim, at the beginning of the doc-
ument  body  (e.g. after	the  <body>  tag  in HTML, or the \be-
gin{document} command in LaTeX).	This can be  used  to  include
navigation  bars	or banners in HTML documents.  This option can
be used repeatedly to include multiple files.  They will be  in-
cluded in	the order specified.  Implies --standalone.

-A FILE,	--include-after-body=FILE|URL
Include  contents	 of FILE, verbatim, at the end of the document
body (before the </body> tag in HTML, or the \end{document} com-
mand  in	LaTeX).	 This option can be used repeatedly to include
multiple files.  They will be included in	the  order  specified.
Implies --standalone.

--resource-path=SEARCHPATH
List  of	paths  to  search for images and other resources.  The
paths should be separated	by : on	Linux, UNIX,  and  macOS  sys-
tems, and	by ; on	Windows.  If --resource-path is	not specified,
the default resource path	is the working directory.  Note	 that,
if  --resource-path  is specified, the working directory must be
explicitly listed	or it will  not	 be  searched.	 For  example:
--resource-path=.:test will search the working directory and the
test subdirectory, in that order.

Set the request header NAME to the value VAL  when  making  HTTP
requests	(for example, when a URL is given on the command line,
you're  behind  a	 proxy,	 you  also need	to set the environment
variable http_proxy to http://....

--no-check-certificate
HTTP  resources  (for  example when the certificate is no	longer
valid or self signed).

Options affecting specific writers
--self-contained
Produce a	standalone HTML	file with  no  external	 dependencies,
using  data: URIs	to incorporate the contents of linked scripts,
stylesheets, images, and videos.	Implies	--standalone.  The re-
sulting  file  should  be	"self-contained," in the sense that it
needs no external	files and no net access	to be displayed	 prop-
erly by a	browser.  This option works only with HTML output for-
mats, including html4, html5, html+lhs,  html5+lhs,  s5,	slidy,
slideous,	  dzslides,   and   revealjs.	Scripts,  images,  and
tive  URLs  will be sought relative to the working directory (if
the first	source file is local) or relative to the base URL  (if
the  first  source file is remote).  Elements with the attribute
data-external="1"	will be	left alone; the	documents they link to
will not be incorporated in the document.	 Limitation: resources
that are loaded dynamically through JavaScript cannot be	incor-
porated;	as  a  result,	--self-contained  does	not  work with
--mathjax, and some  advanced  features  (e.g. zoom  or  speaker
notes)  may  not	work  in an offline "self-contained" reveal.js
slide show.

--html-q-tags
Use <q> tags for quotes in HTML.	(This option only has  an  ef-
fect  if	the  smart  extension  is enabled for the input	format
used.)

--ascii
Use only ASCII characters	in output.   Currently	supported  for
XML  and	HTML formats (which use	entities instead of UTF-8 when
this option is selected),	CommonMark, gfm, and  Markdown	(which
use entities), roff ms (which use	hexadecimal escapes), and to a
limited degree LaTeX (which uses standard	commands for  accented
characters  when	possible).   roff man output uses ASCII	by de-
fault.

Markdown or reStructuredText.  By	default	inline links are used.
The placement of link references is affected by the --reference-
location option.

--reference-location=block|section|document
Specify whether footnotes	(and references, if reference-links is
set) are placed at the end of the	current	(top-level) block, the
current  section,	 or  the  document.   The default is document.
Currently	only affects the markdown writer.

Specify whether to use ATX-style	(#-prefixed)  or  Setext-style
output.  (The default is atx.)  ATX-style	 headings  are	always
used  for	levels 3+.  This option	also affects Markdown cells in
ipynb output.

--top-level-division=default|section|chapter|part
Treat top-level headings as the given division  type  in	LaTeX,
ConTeXt,	DocBook, and TEI output.  The hierarchy	order is part,
chapter, then section; all headings are shifted  such  that  the
top-level	 heading  becomes the specified	type.  The default be-
havior is	to determine the best division	type  via  heuristics:
unless other conditions apply, section is	chosen.	 When the doc-
umentclass variable is set to report, book,  or  memoir  (unless
the article option is specified),	chapter	is implied as the set-
ting for this option.  If	beamer is the output format,  specify-
ing  either chapter or part will cause top-level headings	to be-
come \part{..}, while second-level headings remain as their  de-
fault type.

-N, --number-sections
Number  section  headings	 in LaTeX, ConTeXt, HTML, Docx,	ms, or
EPUB output.  By default,	sections are not  numbered.   Sections
with  class unnumbered will never	be numbered, even if --number-
sections is specified.

--number-offset=NUMBER[,NUMBER,...]
Offset for section headings in HTML  output  (ignored  in	 other
output  formats).	 The first number is added to the section num-
ings,  and  so  on.  So, for example, if you want	the first top-
ing which	you want to be numbered	"1.5",	specify	 --number-off-
set=1,4.	Offsets	are 0 by default.  Implies --number-sections.

--listings
Use  the	listings  package  for LaTeX code blocks.  The package
does not support multi-byte encoding for source code.  To	handle
UTF-8  you  would	 need to use a custom template.	 This issue is
fully documented here: Encoding issue with the listings package.

-i, --incremental
Make list	items in slide shows  display  incrementally  (one  by
one).  The default is for	lists to be displayed all at once.

--slide-level=NUMBER
Specifies	 that  headings	with the specified level create	slides
(for beamer, s5, slidy,  slideous,  dzslides).   Headings	 above
this  level  in  the hierarchy are used to divide	the slide show
a	 slide.	  Note that content that is not	contained under	slide-
level headings will not appear in	the slide show.	  The  default
is to set	the slide level	based on the contents of the document;
see Structuring the slide	show.

--section-divs
Wrap sections in <section> tags (or <div>	tags for  html4),  and
attach  identifiers to the enclosing <section> (or <div>)	rather

--email-obfuscation=none|javascript|references
Specify a	method for obfuscating mailto:	links  in  HTML	 docu-
ments.   none  leaves mailto: links as they are.	javascript ob-
fuscates them using JavaScript.  references obfuscates  them  by
printing	their letters as decimal or hexadecimal	character ref-
erences.	The default is none.

--id-prefix=STRING
Specify a	prefix to be added to  all  identifiers	 and  internal
links  in	 HTML  and  DocBook output, and	to footnote numbers in
Markdown and Haddock output.  This is useful for preventing  du-
plicate  identifiers when	generating fragments to	be included in
other pages.

-T STRING, --title-prefix=STRING
Specify STRING as	a prefix at the	beginning of  the  title  that
appears  in  the HTML header (but	not in the title as it appears
at the beginning of the HTML body).  Implies --standalone.

-c URL, --css=URL
Link to a	CSS style sheet.  This option can be  used  repeatedly
to  include  multiple files.  They will be included in the order
specified.

A	stylesheet is required for generating EPUB.  If	none  is  pro-
vided  using  this  option  (or  the  css	or stylesheet metadata
fields), pandoc will look	for a file epub.css in the  user  data
defaults will be used.

--reference-doc=FILE
Use the specified	file as	a style	reference in producing a  docx
or ODT file.

Docx   For best results, the reference docx should be a modified
version of	a docx file produced using pandoc.   The  con-
tents   of	 the  reference	 docx  are  ignored,  but  its
stylesheets and document properties  (including  margins,
page  size, header, and footer) are used in the new docx.
If	no reference docx is specified on  the	command	 line,
pandoc  will  look	 for a file reference.docx in the user
data directory (see --data-dir).  If this	is  not	 found
either, sensible defaults will be used.

To	 produce  a custom reference.docx, first get a copy of
the  default  reference.docx:  pandoc  -o	 custom-refer-
ence.docx --print-default-data-file reference.docx.  Then
open custom-reference.docx	in Word, modify	the styles  as
you  wish,	 and  save the file.  For best results,	do not
make changes to this file other than modifying the	styles
used by pandoc:

Paragraph styles:

o Normal

o Body Text

o First Paragraph

o Compact

o Title

o Subtitle

o Author

o Date

o Abstract

o Bibliography

o Block Text

o Footnote	Text

o Definition Term

o Definition

o Caption

o Table Caption

o Image Caption

o Figure

o Captioned Figure

Character styles:

o Default Paragraph Font

o Body Text Char

o Verbatim	Char

o Footnote	Reference

o Section Number

Table style:

o Table

ODT    For  best results,	the reference ODT should be a modified
version of	an ODT produced	using pandoc.  The contents of
the  reference  ODT  are ignored, but its stylesheets are
used in the new ODT.  If no reference ODT is specified on
the  command  line,  pandoc  will	look for a file	refer-
ence.odt in the user data directory (see --data-dir).  If

To	 produce  a  custom reference.odt, first get a copy of
the default reference.odt:	pandoc -o custom-reference.odt
--print-default-data-file	reference.odt.	Then open cus-
tom-reference.odt in LibreOffice, modify  the  styles  as
you wish, and save	the file.

PowerPoint
Templates included	with Microsoft PowerPoint 2013 (either
with .pptx	or .potx extension) are	known to work, as  are
most templates derived from these.

The  specific requirement is that the template should be-
gin with the following first four layouts:

1.	Title Slide

2.	Title and Content

4.	Two Content

Point  will fit these criteria.  (You can click on	Layout
under the Home menu to check.)

You can also modify the default reference.pptx: first run
pandoc -o custom-reference.pptx --print-default-data-file
reference.pptx, and then modify custom-reference.pptx  in
MS	 PowerPoint  (pandoc  will  use	 the first four	layout
slides, as	mentioned above).

--epub-cover-image=FILE
Use the specified	image as the EPUB cover.   It  is  recommended
that  the	 image	be less	than 1000px in width and height.  Note
that in a	Markdown source	document you can also  specify	cover-

Look  in	the specified XML file for metadata for	the EPUB.  The
file should contain a series of Dublin Core elements.  For exam-
ple:

<dc:rights>Creative Commons</dc:rights>
<dc:language>es-AR</dc:language>

By default, pandoc will include the following metadata elements:
<dc:title> (from the document  title),  <dc:creator>  (from  the
document	authors),  <dc:date>  (from  the  document date, which
should be	in ISO 8601  format),  <dc:language>  (from  the  lang
variable,	 or,  if  is  not set, the locale), and	<dc:identifier
id="BookId"> (a randomly generated UUID).	 Any of	these  may  be
overridden by elements in	the metadata file.

Note:  if	the source document is Markdown, a YAML	metadata block
in the document can be used instead.  See	below under EPUB Meta-
data.

--epub-embed-font=FILE
Embed  the  specified  font in the EPUB.	This option can	be re-
peated to	embed multiple fonts.  Wildcards can also be used: for
example, DejaVuSans-*.ttf.  However, if you use wildcards	on the
command line, be sure to escape them or put the  whole  filename
in  single quotes, to prevent them from being interpreted	by the
shell.  To use the embedded fonts, you will need to add declara-
tions like the following to your CSS (see	--css):

@font-face	{
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: normal;
font-weight: normal;
src:url("DejaVuSans-Regular.ttf");
}
@font-face	{
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: normal;
font-weight: bold;
src:url("DejaVuSans-Bold.ttf");
}
@font-face	{
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: italic;
font-weight: normal;
src:url("DejaVuSans-Oblique.ttf");
}
@font-face	{
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: italic;
font-weight: bold;
src:url("DejaVuSans-BoldOblique.ttf");
}
body { font-family: "DejaVuSans"; }

--epub-chapter-level=NUMBER
Specify  the heading level at which to split the EPUB into sepa-
rate "chapter" files.  The default is to split into chapters  at
level-1  headings.  This option only affects the internal	compo-
sition of	the EPUB, not the way chapters and sections  are  dis-
played  to users.	 Some readers may be slow if the chapter files
are too large, so	for large documents with few level-1 headings,
one might	want to	use a chapter level of 2 or 3.

--epub-subdirectory=DIRNAME
Specify  the  subdirectory  in the OCF container that is to hold
the EPUB-specific	contents.  The default is EPUB.	  To  put  the
EPUB contents in the top level, use an empty string.

--ipynb-output=all|none|best
Determines  how  ipynb output cells are treated.	all means that
all of the data formats included in the original are  preserved.
none  means  that	 the contents of data cells are	omitted.  best
causes pandoc to try to pick the richest data block in each out-
put cell that is compatible with the output format.  The default
is best.

--pdf-engine=PROGRAM
Use the specified	engine when producing PDF output.  Valid  val-
ues  are pdflatex, lualatex, xelatex, latexmk, tectonic, wkhtml-
topdf, weasyprint, prince, context, and pdfroff.	If the	engine
is  not  in your PATH, the full path of the engine may be	speci-
fied here.  If this option is not	 specified,  pandoc  uses  the
following	 defaults depending on the output format specified us-
ing -t/--to:

o	-t latex or none: pdflatex (other options: xelatex,  lualatex,
tectonic, latexmk)

o	-t context: context

o	-t  html:  wkhtmltopdf (other options: prince, weasyprint; see
print-css.rocks	for a good introduction	to PDF generation from
HTML/CSS.)

o	-t ms: pdfroff

--pdf-engine-opt=STRING
Use  the	given string as	a command-line argument	to the pdf-en-
gine.  For example, to use a persistent directory	 foo  for  la-
texmk's auxiliary	files, use --pdf-engine-opt=-outdir=foo.  Note
that no check for	duplicate options is done.

Citation rendering
-C, --citeproc
Process the citations in the file, replacing them	with  rendered
citations	 and  adding a bibliography.  Citation processing will
not take place unless bibliographic  data	 is  supplied,	either
through  an external file	specified using	the --bibliography op-
tion or the bibliography field in	metadata, or via a  references
section  in  metadata containing a list of citations in CSL YAML
format with Markdown formatting.	The style is controlled	 by  a
CSL stylesheet specified using the --csl option or the csl field
in metadata.  (If	no stylesheet is  specified,  the  chicago-au-
thor-date	 style will be used by default.) The citation process-
ing transformation may be	applied	before or after	filters	or Lua
filters  (see --filter, --lua-filter): these transformations are
applied in the order they	appear on the command line.  For  more
information, see the section on Citations.

--bibliography=FILE
Set  the	bibliography field in the document's metadata to FILE,
overriding any value set in the metadata.	 If  you  supply  this
argument	multiple  times, each FILE will	be added to bibliogra-
phy.  If FILE is a URL, it will be fetched via HTTP.  If FILE is
not  found  relative to the working directory, it	will be	sought
in the resource path (see	--resource-path).

--csl=FILE
Set the csl field	in the document's metadata to FILE, overriding
ta csl=FILE.) If FILE is a URL, it will be fetched via HTTP.  If
FILE  is not found relative to the working directory, it will be
sought in	the resource path (see --resource-path)	and finally in
the csl subdirectory of the pandoc user data directory.

--citation-abbreviations=FILE
Set  the citation-abbreviations field in the document's metadata
to FILE, overriding any value set	in  the	 metadata.   (This  is
equivalent  to  --metadata citation-abbreviations=FILE.) If FILE
is a URL,	it will	be fetched via HTTP.  If  FILE	is  not	 found
relative	to the working directory, it will be sought in the re-
source path (see --resource-path)	and finally in the csl	subdi-
rectory of the pandoc user data directory.

--natbib
Use  natbib  for	citations in LaTeX output.  This option	is not
for use with the --citeproc option or with PDF  output.	It  is
intended for use in producing a LaTeX file that can be processed
with bibtex.

--biblatex
Use biblatex for citations in LaTeX output.  This	option is  not
for  use	with  the --citeproc option or with PDF	output.	 It is
intended for use in producing a LaTeX file that can be processed
with bibtex or biber.

Math	rendering in HTML
The  default  is	 to  render  TeX math as far as	possible using Unicode
characters.  Formulas are put inside a span with	class="math", so  that
they  may  be  styled  differently from the surrounding text if needed.
However,	this gives acceptable results only for basic math, usually you
will want to use	--mathjax or another of	the following options.

--mathjax[=URL]
Use  MathJax  to	display	embedded TeX math in HTML output.  TeX
math will	be put between $$...$$ (for inline  math)  or  $...$
(for  display  math) and wrapped in <span> tags with class math.
Then the MathJax JavaScript will	render	it.   The  URL	should
point  to	the MathJax.js load script.  If	a URL is not provided,
a	link to	the Cloudflare CDN will	be inserted.

--mathml
Convert TeX math to MathML (in epub3, docbook4, docbook5,	 jats,
html4 and	html5).	 This is the default in	odt output.  Note that
currently	only Firefox and Safari	(and  select  e-book  readers)
natively support MathML.

--webtex[=URL]
Convert  TeX  formulas  to  <img>	 tags that link	to an external
script that converts formulas to images.	The  formula  will  be
URL-encoded and concatenated with	the URL	provided.  For SVG im-
ages   you   can	 for   example	 use   --webtex	   https://la-
tex.codecogs.com/svg.latex?.    If  no  URL  is  specified,  the
CodeCogs	URL  generating	 PNGs  will   be   used	  (https://la-
tex.codecogs.com/png.latex?).   Note:  the  --webtex option will
affect Markdown output as	well  as  HTML,	 which	is  useful  if
you're  targeting	a version of Markdown without native math sup-
port.

--katex[=URL]
Use KaTeX	to display embedded TeX	math in	HTML output.  The  URL
is  the  base  URL for the KaTeX library.	 That directory	should
contain a	katex.min.js and a katex.min.css file.	If  a  URL  is
not provided, a link to the KaTeX	CDN will be inserted.

Enclose  TeX  math  in  <eq> tags	in HTML	output.	 The resulting
HTML can then be processed by GladTeX to produce images  of  the
typeset  formulas	 and  an HTML file with	links to these images.
So, the procedure	is:

pandoc -s --gladtex input.md -o myfile.htex
# produces	myfile.html and	images in myfile-images

Options for wrapper scripts
--dump-args
Print information	about command-line arguments to	 stdout,  then
exit.   This  option  is	intended  primarily for	use in wrapper
scripts.	The first line of output contains the name of the out-
put  file	 specified with	the -o option, or - (for stdout) if no
output file was specified.  The remaining	lines contain the com-
mand-line	 arguments,  one  per  line, in	the order they appear.
These do not include regular pandoc options and their arguments,
but do include any options appearing after a -- separator	at the
end of the line.

--ignore-args
Ignore command-line arguments  (for  use	in  wrapper  scripts).
Regular pandoc options are not ignored.  Thus, for example,

pandoc --ignore-args -o foo.html -s foo.txt -- -e latin1

is equivalent to

pandoc -o foo.html	-s

EXIT CODES
If  pandoc completes successfully, it will return exit code 0.  Nonzero
exit codes have the following meanings:

Code   Error
---------------------------------
3   PandocFailOnWarningError
4   PandocAppError
5   PandocTemplateError
6   PandocOptionError
22   PandocUnknownWriterError
23   PandocUnsupportedExten-
sionError
24   PandocCiteprocError
31   PandocEpubSubdirectoryEr-
ror
43   PandocPDFError
47   PandocPDFProgramNot-
FoundError
61   PandocHttpError

62   PandocShouldNeverHappen-
Error
63   PandocSomeError
64   PandocParseError
65   PandocParsecError
66   PandocMakePDFError
67   PandocSyntaxMapError
83   PandocFilterError
91   PandocMacroLoop
92   PandocUTF8DecodingError
93   PandocIpynbDecodingError
97   PandocCouldNotFind-
DataFileError
99   PandocResourceNotFound

DEFAULT	FILES
The  --defaults	option	may  be	 used to specify a package of options.
Here is a sample	defaults file demonstrating all	of the fields that may
be used:

from: markdown+emoji
to: html5
#	writer:	may be used instead of to:

#	leave blank for	output to stdout:
output-file:
#	leave blank for	input from stdin, use [] for no	input:
input-files:
-	preface.md
-	content.md
#	or you may use input-file: with	a single value

#	Include	options	from the specified defaults files.
#	The files will be searched for first in	the working directory
#	and then in the	defaults subdirectory of the user data directory.
#	The files are included in the same order in which they appear in
#	the list. Options specified in this defaults file always have
#	priority over the included ones.
defaults:
-	defsA
-	defsB

template:	letter
standalone: true
self-contained: false

#	note that structured variables may be specified:
variables:
documentclass: book
classoption:
- twosides
- draft

#	metadata values	specified here are parsed as literal
#	string text, not markdown:
author:
- Sam Smith
- Julie	Liu
-	boilerplate.yaml
#	or you may use metadata-file: with a single value

#	Note that these	take files, not	their contents:
include-before-body: []
include-after-body: []
resource-path: ["."]

#	turn on	built-in citation processing.  Note that if you	need
#	control	over when the citeproc processing is done relative
#	to other filters, you should instead use citeproc in the
#	list of	filters (see below).
citeproc:	true
csl: ieee
bibliography:
-	foobar.bib
-	barbaz.json
citation-abbreviations: abbrevs.json

#	Filters	will be	assumed	to be Lua filters if they have
#	the .lua extension, and	json filters otherwise.	 But
#	the filter type	can also be specified explicitly, as shown.
#	Filters	are run	in the order specified.
#	To include the built-in	citeproc filter, use either citeproc
#	or {type: citeproc}.
filters:
-	wordcount.lua
-	type: json
path: foo.lua

file-scope: false

data-dir:

#	ERROR, WARNING,	or INFO
verbosity: INFO
log-file:	log.json

#	citeproc, natbib, or biblatex
cite-method: citeproc
#	part, chapter, section,	or default:
top-level-division: chapter
abbreviations:

pdf-engine: pdflatex
pdf-engine-opts:
-	"-shell-escape"
#	you may	also use pdf-engine-opt: with a	single option
#	pdf-engine-opt:	"-shell-escape"

#	auto, preserve,	or none
wrap: auto
columns: 78
dpi: 72

table-of-contents: true
toc-depth: 2
number-sections: false
#	a list of offsets at each heading level
number-offset: [0,0,0,0,0,0]
#	toc: may also be used instead of table-of-contents:
section-divs: true
identifier-prefix: foo
title-prefix: ""
strip-empty-paragraphs: true
#	lf, crlf, or native
eol: lf
indented-code-classes: []
ascii: true
default-image-extension: ".jpg"

#	either a style name of a style definition file:
highlight-style: pygments
syntax-definitions:
-	c.xml
#	or you may use syntax-definition: with a single	value
listings:	false

reference-doc: myref.docx

#	method is plain, webtex, gladtex, mathml, mathjax, katex
#	you may	specify	a url with webtex, mathjax, katex
html-math-method:
method:	mathjax
url: "https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/mathjax@3/es5/tex-mml-chtml.js"
#	none, references, or javascript
email-obfuscation: javascript

tab-stop:	8
preserve-tabs: true

incremental: false
slide-level: 2

epub-subdirectory: EPUB
epub-fonts:
-	foobar.otf
epub-chapter-level: 1
epub-cover-image:	cover.jpg

#	block, section,	or document
reference-location: block

#	accept,	reject,	or all
track-changes: accept

html-q-tags: false
css:
-	site.css

#	none, all, or best
ipynb-output: best

#	A list of two-element lists
-	["User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0"]

fail-if-warnings:	false
dump-args: false
ignore-args: false
trace: false

Fields  that  are  omitted will just have their regular default values.
So a defaults file can be as simple as one line:

verbosity: INFO

Default files can be placed in the defaults subdirectory	 of  the  user
data  directory	and  used  from	any directory.	For example, one could
create a	file specifying	defaults for writing letters, save it as  let-
ter.yaml	 in  the defaults subdirectory of the user data	directory, and
then invoke these defaults from any directory using  pandoc  --defaults
letter or pandoc	-dletter.

When multiple defaults are used,	their contents will be combined.

Note  that,  where  command-line	arguments may be repeated (--metadata-
ter-body,  --variable,  --metadata,  --syntax-definition),  the	values
specified on the	command	line will combine with values specified	in the
defaults	file, rather than replacing them.

TEMPLATES
When  the -s/--standalone option	is used, pandoc	uses a template	to add
header and footer material that is needed for a self-standing document.
To see the default template that	is used, just type

pandoc -D	*FORMAT*

where  FORMAT  is the name of the output	format.	 A custom template can
be specified using the --template option.  You can  also	 override  the
system  default templates for a given output format FORMAT by putting a
file templates/default.*FORMAT* in the user data	directory (see --data-
dir, above).  Exceptions:

o For odt output, customize the default.opendocument template.

o For  pdf  output,  customize  the  default.latex template (or the de-
fault.context template, if you	use -t context,	or the default.ms tem-
plate,	 if you	use -t ms, or the default.html template, if you	use -t
html).

o docx and pptx have no template	(however, you can use  --reference-doc
to customize the output).

Templates contain variables, which allow	for the	inclusion of arbitrary
information at any point	in the file.  They may be set at  the  command
line  using the -V/--variable option.  If a variable is not set,	pandoc
will look for the key in	the document's metadata, which can be set  us-
addition, some variables	are given default values by pandoc.  See Vari-
ables below for a list of variables used	in pandoc's default templates.

If  you	use  custom  templates,	 you may need to revise	them as	pandoc
changes.	 We recommend tracking the changes in the  default  templates,
and  modifying  your  custom  templates accordingly.  An	easy way to do
this is to fork the pandoc-templates repository and  merge  in  changes
after each pandoc release.

Template syntax
Anything	 between  the  sequence	 $-- and the end of the line will be treated as a comment and omitted from the output. Delimiters To mark variables and control structures in the template, either$...$or${...}  may be used as delimiters.  The styles may also be mixed in
the same	template, but the opening and closing delimiter	must match  in
each case.  The opening delimiter may be	followed by one	or more	spaces
or tabs,	which will be ignored.	The closing delimiter may be  followed
by one or more spaces or	tabs, which will be ignored.

To include a literal $in the document, use $$. Interpolated variables A slot for an interpolated variable is a variable name surrounded by matched delimiters. Variable names must begin with a letter and can contain letters, numbers, _, -, and .. The keywords it, if, else, en- dif, for, sep, and endfor may not be used as variable names. Examples: foo foo.bar.baz foo_bar.baz-bim foo {foo} {foo.bar.baz} {foo_bar.baz-bim} { foo } Variable names with periods are used to get at structured variable val- ues. So, for example, employee.salary will return the value of the salary field of the object that is the value of the employee field. o If the value of the variable is simple value, it will be rendered verbatim. (Note that no escaping is done; the assumption is that the calling program will escape the strings appropriately for the output format.) o If the value is a list, the values will be concatenated. o If the value is a map, the string true will be rendered. o Every other value will be rendered as the empty string. Conditionals A conditional begins with if(variable) (enclosed in matched delimiters) and ends with endif (enclosed in matched delimiters). It may optional- ly contain an else (enclosed in matched delimiters). The if section is used if variable has a non-empty value, otherwise the else section is used (if present). Examples: if(foo)barendif if(foo) foo endif if(foo) part one else part two endif {if(foo)}bar{endif} {if(foo)} {foo} {endif} {if(foo)} { foo.bar } {else} no foo! {endif} The keyword elseif may be used to simplify complex nested conditionals: if(foo) XXX elseif(bar) YYY else ZZZ endif For loops A for loop begins with for(variable) (enclosed in matched delimiters) and ends with endfor (enclosed in matched delimiters. o If variable is an array, the material inside the loop will be evalu- ated repeatedly, with variable being set to each value of the array in turn, and concatenated. o If variable is a map, the material inside will be set to the map. o If the value of the associated variable is not an array or a map, a single iteration will be performed on its value. Examples: for(foo)$$foo$$sep, endfor for(foo) - foo.last, foo.first endfor { for(foo.bar) } - { foo.bar.last }, { foo.bar.first } { endfor } for(mymap) it.name: it.office endfor You may optionally specify a separator between consecutive values using sep (enclosed in matched delimiters). The material between sep and the endfor is the separator. { for(foo) }{ foo }{ sep }, { endfor } Instead of using variable inside the loop, the special anaphoric key- word it may be used. { for(foo.bar) } - { it.last }, { it.first } { endfor } Partials Partials (subtemplates stored in different files) may be included by using the name of the partial, followed by (), for example: { styles() } Partials will be sought in the directory containing the main template. The file name will be assumed to have the same extension as the main template if it lacks an extension. When calling the partial, the full name including file extension can also be used: { styles.html() } (If a partial is not found in the directory of the template, it will also be sought in the templates subdirectory of the user data directo- ry.) Partials may optionally be applied to variables using a colon: { date:fancy() } { articles:bibentry() } If articles is an array, this will iterate over its values, applying the partial bibentry() to each one. So the second example above is equivalent to { for(articles) } { it:bibentry() } { endfor } Note that the anaphoric keyword it must be used when iterating over partials. In the above examples, the bibentry partial should contain it.title (and so on) instead of articles.title. Final newlines are omitted from included partials. Partials may include other partials. A separator between values of an array may be specified in square brackets, immediately after the variable name or partial: {months[, ]} {articles:bibentry()[; ] The separator in this case is literal and (unlike with sep in an ex- plicit for loop) cannot contain interpolated variables or other tem- plate directives. Nesting To ensure that content is "nested," that is, subsequent lines indented, use the ^ directive: item.number ^$$item.description$ ($item.price$)

In this example,	if item.description has	multiple lines,	they will  all
be indented to line up with the first line:

00123  A fine bottle of 18-year old
Oban whiskey. (148) To nest multiple lines to the same level, align them with the ^ direc- tive in the template. For example:item.number^$$item.description (item.price) (Available til item.sellby.) will produce 00123 A fine bottle of 18-year old Oban whiskey. (148) (Available til March 30, 2020.) If a variable occurs by itself on a line, preceded by whitespace and not followed by further text or directives on the same line, and the variable's value contains multiple lines, it will be nested automati- cally. Breakable spaces Normally, spaces in the template itself (as opposed to values of the interpolated variables) are not breakable, but they can be made break- able in part of the template by using the ~ keyword (ended with another ~). ~This long line may break if the document is rendered with a short line length.~ Pipes A pipe transforms the value of a variable or partial. Pipes are speci- fied using a slash (/) between the variable name (or partial) and the pipe name. Example: for(name) name/uppercase endfor for(metadata/pairs) - it.key: it.value endfor employee:name()/uppercase Pipes may be chained: for(employees/pairs) it.key/alpha/uppercase. it.name endfor Some pipes take parameters: |----------------------|------------| for(employee) it.name.first/uppercase/left 20 "| "$$it.name.salary/right 10 " | " " |"endfor|----------------------|------------| Currently the following pipes are predefined: o pairs: Converts a map or array to an array of maps, each with key and value fields. If the original value was an array, the key will be the array index, starting with 1. o uppercase: Converts text to uppercase. o lowercase: Converts text to lowercase. o length: Returns the length of the value: number of characters for a textual value, number of elements for a map or array. o reverse: Reverses a textual value or array, and has no effect on oth- er values. o first: Returns the first value of an array, if applied to a non-empty array; otherwise returns the original value. o last: Returns the last value of an array, if applied to a non-empty array; otherwise returns the original value. o rest: Returns all but the first value of an array, if applied to a non-empty array; otherwise returns the original value. o allbutlast: Returns all but the last value of an array, if applied to a non-empty array; otherwise returns the original value. o chomp: Removes trailing newlines (and breakable space). o nowrap: Disables line wrapping on breakable spaces. o alpha: Converts textual values that can be read as an integer into lowercase alphabetic characters a..z (mod 26). This can be used to get lettered enumeration from array indices. To get uppercase let- ters, chain with uppercase. o roman: Converts textual values that can be read as an integer into lowercase roman numerials. This can be used to get lettered enumera- tion from array indices. To get uppercase roman, chain with upper- case. o left n "leftborder" "rightborder": Renders a textual value in a block of width n, aligned to the left, with an optional left and right bor- der. Has no effect on other values. This can be used to align mate- rial in tables. Widths are positive integers indicating the number of characters. Borders are strings inside double quotes; literal " and \ characters must be backslash-escaped. o right n "leftborder" "rightborder": Renders a textual value in a block of width n, aligned to the right, and has no effect on other values. o center n "leftborder" "rightborder": Renders a textual value in a block of width n, aligned to the center, and has no effect on other values. Variables Metadata variables title, author, date allow identification of basic aspects of the document. Included in PDF metadata through LaTeX and ConTeXt. These can be set through a pandoc title block, which allows for multiple authors, or through a YAML metadata block: --- author: - Aristotle - Peter Abelard ... Note that if you just want to set PDF or HTML metadata, without including a title block in the document itself, you can set the title-meta, author-meta, and date-meta variables. (By default these are set automatically, based on title, author, and date.) The page title in HTML is set by pagetitle, which is equal to title by default. subtitle document subtitle, included in HTML, EPUB, LaTeX, ConTeXt, and docx documents abstract document summary, included in LaTeX, ConTeXt, AsciiDoc, and docx documents keywords list of keywords to be included in HTML, PDF, ODT, pptx, docx and AsciiDoc metadata; repeat as for author, above subject document subject, included in ODT, PDF, docx and pptx metadata description document description, included in ODT, docx and pptx metadata. Some applications show this as Comments metadata. category document category, included in docx and pptx metadata Additionally, any root-level string metadata, not included in ODT, docx or pptx metadata is added as a custom property. The following YAML metadata block for instance: --- title: 'This is the title' subtitle: "This is the subtitle" author: - Author One - Author Two description: | This is a long description. It consists of two paragraphs ... will include title, author and description as standard document proper- ties and subtitle as a custom property when converting to docx, ODT or pptx. Language variables lang identifies the main language of the document using IETF language tags (following the BCP 47 standard), such as en or en-GB. The Language subtag lookup tool can look up or verify these tags. This affects most formats, and controls hyphenation in PDF out- put when using LaTeX (through babel and polyglossia) or ConTeXt. Use native pandoc Divs and Spans with the lang attribute to switch the language: --- lang: en-GB ... Text in the main document language (British English). ::: {lang=fr-CA} > Cette citation est ecrite en francais canadien. ::: More text in English. ['Zitat auf Deutsch.']{lang=de} dir the base script direction, either rtl (right-to-left) or ltr (left-to-right). For bidirectional documents, native pandoc spans and divs with the dir attribute (value rtl or ltr) can be used to override the base direction in some output formats. This may not always be necessary if the final renderer (e.g. the browser, when generat- ing HTML) supports the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm. When using LaTeX for bidirectional documents, only the xelatex engine is fully supported (use --pdf-engine=xelatex). Variables for HTML document-css Enables inclusion of most of the CSS in the styles.html partial (have a look with pandoc --print-default-data-file=tem- plates/styles.html). Unless you use --css, this variable is set to true by default. You can disable it with e.g. pandoc -M doc- ument-css=false. mainfont sets the CSS font-family property on the html element. fontsize sets the base CSS font-size, which you'd usually set to e.g. 20px, but it also accepts pt (12pt = 16px in most browsers). fontcolor sets the CSS color property on the html element. linkcolor sets the CSS color property on all links. monofont sets the CSS font-family property on code elements. monobackgroundcolor sets the CSS background-color property on code elements and adds extra padding. linestretch sets the CSS line-height property on the html element, which is preferred to be unitless. backgroundcolor sets the CSS background-color property on the html element. margin-left, margin-right, margin-top, margin-bottom sets the corresponding CSS padding properties on the body ele- ment. To override or extend some CSS for just one document, include for exam- ple: --- header-includes: | <style> blockquote { font-style: italic; } tr.even { background-color: #f0f0f0; } td, th { padding: 0.5em 2em 0.5em 0.5em; } tbody { border-bottom: none; } </style> --- Variables for HTML math classoption when using KaTeX, you can render display math equations flush left using YAML metadata or with -M classoption=fleqn. Variables for HTML slides These affect HTML output when [producing slide shows with pandoc]. All reveal.js configuration options are available as variables. To turn off boolean flags that default to true in reveal.js, use 0. revealjs-url base URL for reveal.js documents (defaults to https://unpkg.com/reveal.js@^4/) s5-url base URL for S5 documents (defaults to s5/default) slidy-url base URL for Slidy documents (defaults to https://www.w3.org/Talks/Tools/Slidy2) slideous-url base URL for Slideous documents (defaults to slideous) title-slide-attributes additional attributes for the title slide of reveal.js slide shows. See background in reveal.js and beamer for an example. Variables for Beamer slides These variables change the appearance of PDF slides using beamer. aspectratio slide aspect ratio (43 for 4:3 [default], 169 for 16:9, 1610 for 16:10, 149 for 14:9, 141 for 1.41:1, 54 for 5:4, 32 for 3:2) beamerarticle produce an article from Beamer slides beameroption add extra beamer option with \setbeameroption{} institute author affiliations: can be a list when there are multiple au- thors logo logo image for slides navigation controls navigation symbols (default is empty for no navigation symbols; other valid values are frame, vertical, and horizontal) section-titles enables "title pages" for new sections (default is true) theme, colortheme, fonttheme, innertheme, outertheme beamer themes themeoptions options for LaTeX beamer themes (a list). titlegraphic image for title slide Variables for PowerPoint These variables control the visual aspects of a slide show that are not easily controlled via templates. monofont font to use for code. Variables for LaTeX Pandoc uses these variables when creating a PDF with a LaTeX engine. Layout block-headings make \paragraph and \subparagraph (fourth- and fifth-level head- ings, or fifth- and sixth-level with book classes) free-standing rather than run-in; requires further formatting to distinguish from \subsubsection (third- or fourth-level headings). Instead of using this option, KOMA-Script can adjust headings more ex- tensively: --- documentclass: scrartcl header-includes: | \RedeclareSectionCommand[ beforeskip=-10pt plus -2pt minus -1pt, afterskip=1sp plus -1sp minus 1sp, font=\normalfont\itshape]{paragraph} \RedeclareSectionCommand[ beforeskip=-10pt plus -2pt minus -1pt, afterskip=1sp plus -1sp minus 1sp, font=\normalfont\scshape, indent=0pt]{subparagraph} ... classoption option for document class, e.g. oneside; repeat for multiple op- tions: --- classoption: - twocolumn - landscape ... documentclass document class: usually one of the standard classes, article, book, and report; the KOMA-Script equivalents, scrartcl, scr- book, and scrreprt, which default to smaller margins; or memoir geometry option for geometry package, e.g. margin=1in; repeat for multi- ple options: --- geometry: - top=30mm - left=20mm - heightrounded ... hyperrefoptions option for hyperref package, e.g. linktoc=all; repeat for multi- ple options: --- hyperrefoptions: - linktoc=all - pdfwindowui - pdfpagemode=FullScreen ... indent if true, pandoc will use document class settings for indentation (the default LaTeX template otherwise removes indentation and adds space between paragraphs) linestretch adjusts line spacing using the setspace package, e.g. 1.25, 1.5 margin-left, margin-right, margin-top, margin-bottom sets margins if geometry is not used (otherwise geometry over- rides these) pagestyle control \pagestyle{}: the default article class supports plain (default), empty (no running heads or page numbers), and head- ings (section titles in running heads) papersize paper size, e.g. letter, a4 secnumdepth numbering depth for sections (with --number-sections option or numbersections variable) Fonts fontenc allows font encoding to be specified through fontenc package (with pdflatex); default is T1 (see LaTeX font encodings guide) fontfamily font package for use with pdflatex: TeX Live includes many op- tions, documented in the LaTeX Font Catalogue. The default is Latin Modern. fontfamilyoptions options for package used as fontfamily; repeat for multiple op- tions. For example, to use the Libertine font with proportional lowercase (old-style) figures through the libertinus package: --- fontfamily: libertinus fontfamilyoptions: - osf - p ... fontsize font size for body text. The standard classes allow 10pt, 11pt, and 12pt. To use another size, set documentclass to one of the KOMA-Script classes, such as scrartcl or scrbook. mainfont, sansfont, monofont, mathfont, CJKmainfont font families for use with xelatex or lualatex: take the name of any system font, using the fontspec package. CJKmainfont uses the xecjk package. mainfontoptions, sansfontoptions, monofontoptions, mathfontoptions, CJKoptions options to use with mainfont, sansfont, monofont, mathfont, CJK- mainfont in xelatex and lualatex. Allow for any choices avail- able through fontspec; repeat for multiple options. For exam- ple, to use the TeX Gyre version of Palatino with lowercase fig- ures: --- mainfont: TeX Gyre Pagella mainfontoptions: - Numbers=Lowercase - Numbers=Proportional ... microtypeoptions options to pass to the microtype package Links colorlinks add color to link text; automatically enabled if any of linkcol- or, filecolor, citecolor, urlcolor, or toccolor are set linkcolor, filecolor, citecolor, urlcolor, toccolor color for internal links, external links, citation links, linked URLs, and links in table of contents, respectively: uses options allowed by xcolor, including the dvipsnames, svgnames, and x11names lists links-as-notes causes links to be printed as footnotes Front matter lof, lot include list of figures, list of tables thanks contents of acknowledgments footnote after document title toc include table of contents (can also be set using --toc/--table- of-contents) toc-depth level of section to include in table of contents BibLaTeX Bibliographies These variables function when using BibLaTeX for citation rendering. biblatexoptions list of options for biblatex biblio-style bibliography style, when used with --natbib and --biblatex. biblio-title bibliography title, when used with --natbib and --biblatex. bibliography bibliography to use for resolving references natbiboptions list of options for natbib Variables for ConTeXt Pandoc uses these variables when creating a PDF with ConTeXt. fontsize font size for body text (e.g. 10pt, 12pt) headertext, footertext text to be placed in running header or footer (see ConTeXt Head- ers and Footers); repeat up to four times for different place- ment indenting controls indentation of paragraphs, e.g. yes,small,next (see ConTeXt Indentation); repeat for multiple options interlinespace adjusts line spacing, e.g. 4ex (using setupinterlinespace); re- peat for multiple options layout options for page margins and text arrangement (see ConTeXt Lay- out); repeat for multiple options linkcolor, contrastcolor color for links outside and inside a page, e.g. red, blue (see ConTeXt Color) linkstyle typeface style for links, e.g. normal, bold, slanted, boldslant- ed, type, cap, small lof, lot include list of figures, list of tables mainfont, sansfont, monofont, mathfont font families: take the name of any system font (see ConTeXt Font Switching) margin-left, margin-right, margin-top, margin-bottom sets margins, if layout is not used (otherwise layout overrides these) pagenumbering page number style and location (using setuppagenumbering); re- peat for multiple options papersize paper size, e.g. letter, A4, landscape (see ConTeXt Paper Set- up); repeat for multiple options pdfa adds to the preamble the setup necessary to generate PDF/A of the type specified, e.g. 1a:2005, 2a. If no type is specified (i.e. the value is set to True, by e.g. --metadata=pdfa or pdfa: true in a YAML metadata block), 1b:2005 will be used as default, for reasons of backwards compatibility. Using --vari- able=pdfa without specified value is not supported. To success- fully generate PDF/A the required ICC color profiles have to be available and the content and all included files (such as im- ages) have to be standard conforming. The ICC profiles and out- put intent may be specified using the variables pdfaiccprofile and pdfaintent. See also ConTeXt PDFA for more details. pdfaiccprofile when used in conjunction with pdfa, specifies the ICC profile to use in the PDF, e.g. default.cmyk. If left unspecified, sRGB.icc is used as default. May be repeated to include multi- ple profiles. Note that the profiles have to be available on the system. They can be obtained from ConTeXt ICC Profiles. pdfaintent when used in conjunction with pdfa, specifies the output intent for the colors, e.g. ISO coated v2 300\letterpercent\space (ECI) If left unspecified, sRGB IEC61966-2.1 is used as default. toc include table of contents (can also be set using --toc/--table- of-contents) whitespace spacing between paragraphs, e.g. none, small (using setupwhites- pace) includesource include all source documents as file attachments in the PDF file Variables for wkhtmltopdf Pandoc uses these variables when creating a PDF with wkhtmltopdf. The --css option also affects the output. footer-html, header-html add information to the header and footer margin-left, margin-right, margin-top, margin-bottom set the page margins papersize sets the PDF paper size Variables for man pages adjusting adjusts text to left (l), right (r), center (c), or both (b) margins footer footer in man pages header header in man pages hyphenate if true (the default), hyphenation will be used section section number in man pages Variables for ms fontfamily font family (e.g. T or P) indent paragraph indent (e.g. 2m) lineheight line height (e.g. 12p) pointsize point size (e.g. 10p) Variables set automatically Pandoc sets these variables automatically in response to options or document contents; users can also modify them. These vary depending on the output format, and include the following: body body of document date-meta the date variable converted to ISO 8601 YYYY-MM-DD, included in all HTML based formats (dzslides, epub, html, html4, html5, re- vealjs, s5, slideous, slidy). The recognized formats for date are: mm/dd/yyyy, mm/dd/yy, yyyy-mm-dd (ISO 8601), dd MM yyyy (e.g. either 02 Apr 2018 or 02 April 2018), MM dd, yyyy (e.g. Apr. 02, 2018 or April 02, 2018),yyyy[mm[dd]]](e.g.20180402, 201804 or 2018). header-includes contents specified by -H/--include-in-header (may have multiple values) include-before contents specified by -B/--include-before-body (may have multi- ple values) include-after contents specified by -A/--include-after-body (may have multiple values) meta-json JSON representation of all of the document's metadata. Field values are transformed to the selected output format. numbersections non-null value if -N/--number-sections was specified sourcefile, outputfile source and destination filenames, as given on the command line. sourcefile can also be a list if input comes from multiple files, or empty if input is from stdin. You can use the follow- ing snippet in your template to distinguish them:if(sourcefile)for(sourcefile)sourcefileendforelse$(stdin)$endif$Similarly, outputfile can be - if output goes to the terminal. If you need absolute paths, use e.g.$curdir$/$sourcefile. curdir working directory from which pandoc is run. toc non-null value if --toc/--table-of-contents was specified toc-title title of table of contents (works only with EPUB, HTML, opendoc- ument, odt, docx, pptx, beamer, LaTeX) EXTENSIONS The behavior of some of the readers and writers can be adjusted by en- abling or disabling various extensions. An extension can be enabled by adding +EXTENSION to the format name and disabled by adding -EXTENSION. For example, --from mark- down_strict+footnotes is strict Markdown with footnotes enabled, while --from markdown-footnotes-pipe_tables is pandoc's Markdown without footnotes or pipe tables. The markdown reader and writer make by far the most use of extensions. Extensions only used by them are therefore covered in the section Pan- doc's Markdown below (See Markdown variants for commonmark and gfm.) In the following, extensions that also work for other formats are covered. Note that markdown extensions added to the ipynb format affect Markdown cells in Jupyter notebooks (as do command-line options like --atx-head- ers). Typography Extension: smart Interpret straight quotes as curly quotes, --- as em-dashes, -- as en- dashes, and ... as ellipses. Nonbreaking spaces are inserted after certain abbreviations, such as "Mr." This extension can be enabled/disabled for the following formats: input formats markdown, commonmark, latex, mediawiki, org, rst, twiki output formats markdown, latex, context, rst enabled by default in markdown, latex, context (both input and output) Note: If you are writing Markdown, then the smart extension has the re- verse effect: what would have been curly quotes comes out straight. In LaTeX, smart means to use the standard TeX ligatures for quotation marks ( and '' for double quotes,  and ' for single quotes) and dashes (-- for en-dash and --- for em-dash). If smart is disabled, then in reading LaTeX pandoc will parse these characters literally. In writing LaTeX, enabling smart tells pandoc to use the ligatures when possible; if smart is disabled pandoc will use unicode quotation mark and dash characters. Headings and sections Extension: auto_identifiers A heading without an explicitly specified identifier will be automati- cally assigned a unique identifier based on the heading text. This extension can be enabled/disabled for the following formats: input formats markdown, latex, rst, mediawiki, textile output formats markdown, muse enabled by default in markdown, muse The default algorithm used to derive the identifier from the heading text is: o Remove all formatting, links, etc. o Remove all footnotes. o Remove all non-alphanumeric characters, except underscores, hyphens, and periods. o Replace all spaces and newlines with hyphens. o Convert all alphabetic characters to lowercase. o Remove everything up to the first letter (identifiers may not begin with a number or punctuation mark). o If nothing is left after this, use the identifier section. Thus, for example, Heading Identifier ----------------------------------------------------- Heading identifiers in heading-identifiers-in- HTML html Maitre d'hotel maitre-dhotel *Dogs*?--in *my* house? dogs--in-my-house [HTML], [S5], or [RTF]? html-s5-or-rtf 3. Applications applications 33 section These rules should, in most cases, allow one to determine the identifi- er from the heading text. The exception is when several headings have the same text; in this case, the first will get an identifier as de- scribed above; the second will get the same identifier with -1 append- ed; the third with -2; and so on. (However, a different algorithm is used if gfm_auto_identifiers is en- abled; see below.) These identifiers are used to provide link targets in the table of con- tents generated by the --toc|--table-of-contents option. They also make it easy to provide links from one section of a document to anoth- er. A link to this section, for example, might look like this: See the section on [heading identifiers](#heading-identifiers-in-html-latex-and-context). Note, however, that this method of providing links to sections works only in HTML, LaTeX, and ConTeXt formats. If the --section-divs option is specified, then each section will be wrapped in a section (or a div, if html4 was specified), and the iden- tifier will be attached to the enclosing <section> (or <div>) tag rather than the heading itself. This allows entire sections to be ma- nipulated using JavaScript or treated differently in CSS. Extension: ascii_identifiers Causes the identifiers produced by auto_identifiers to be pure ASCII. Accents are stripped off of accented Latin letters, and non-Latin let- ters are omitted. Extension: gfm_auto_identifiers Changes the algorithm used by auto_identifiers to conform to GitHub's method. Spaces are converted to dashes (-), uppercase characters to lowercase characters, and punctuation characters other than - and _ are removed. Emojis are replaced by their names. Math Input The extensions tex_math_dollars, tex_math_single_backslash, and tex_math_double_backslash are described in the section about Pandoc's Markdown. However, they can also be used with HTML input. This is handy for reading web pages formatted using MathJax, for example. Raw HTML/TeX The following extensions are described in more detail in their respec- tive sections of Pandoc's Markdown: o raw_html allows HTML elements which are not representable in pandoc's AST to be parsed as raw HTML. By default, this is disabled for HTML input. o raw_tex allows raw LaTeX, TeX, and ConTeXt to be included in a docu- ment. This extension can be enabled/disabled for the following for- mats (in addition to markdown): input formats latex, textile, html (environments, \ref, and \eqref only), ipynb output formats textile, commonmark Note: as applied to ipynb, raw_html and raw_tex affect not only raw TeX in markdown cells, but data with mime type text/html in output cells. Since the ipynb reader attempts to preserve the richest pos- sible outputs when several options are given, you will get best re- sults if you disable raw_html and raw_tex when converting to formats like docx which don't allow raw html or tex. o native_divs causes HTML div elements to be parsed as native pandoc Div blocks. If you want them to be parsed as raw HTML, use -f html- native_divs+raw_html. o native_spans causes HTML span elements to be parsed as native pandoc Span inlines. If you want them to be parsed as raw HTML, use -f html-native_spans+raw_html. If you want to drop all divs and spans when converting HTML to Markdown, you can use pandoc -f html-na- tive_divs-native_spans -t markdown. Literate Haskell support Extension: literate_haskell Treat the document as literate Haskell source. This extension can be enabled/disabled for the following formats: input formats markdown, rst, latex output formats markdown, rst, latex, html If you append +lhs (or +literate_haskell) to one of the formats above, pandoc will treat the document as literate Haskell source. This means that o In Markdown input, "bird track" sections will be parsed as Haskell code rather than block quotations. Text between \begin{code} and \end{code} will also be treated as Haskell code. For ATX-style head- ings the character =' will be used instead of #'. o In Markdown output, code blocks with classes haskell and literate will be rendered using bird tracks, and block quotations will be in- dented one space, so they will not be treated as Haskell code. In addition, headings will be rendered setext-style (with underlines) rather than ATX-style (with #' characters). (This is because ghc treats #' characters in column 1 as introducing line numbers.) o In restructured text input, "bird track" sections will be parsed as Haskell code. o In restructured text output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered using bird tracks. o In LaTeX input, text in code environments will be parsed as Haskell code. o In LaTeX output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered in- side code environments. o In HTML output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered with class literatehaskell and bird tracks. Examples: pandoc -f markdown+lhs -t html reads literate Haskell source formatted with Markdown conventions and writes ordinary HTML (without bird tracks). pandoc -f markdown+lhs -t html+lhs writes HTML with the Haskell code in bird tracks, so it can be copied and pasted as literate Haskell source. Note that GHC expects the bird tracks in the first column, so indented literate code blocks (e.g. inside an itemized environment) will not be picked up by the Haskell compiler. Other extensions Extension: empty_paragraphs Allows empty paragraphs. By default empty paragraphs are omitted. This extension can be enabled/disabled for the following formats: input formats docx, html output formats docx, odt, opendocument, html Extension: native_numbering Enables native numbering of figures and tables. Enumeration starts at 1. This extension can be enabled/disabled for the following formats: output formats odt, opendocument Extension: xrefs_name Links to headings, figures and tables inside the document are substi- tuted with cross-references that will use the name or caption of the referenced item. The original link text is replaced once the generated document is refreshed. This extension can be combined with xrefs_num- ber in which case numbers will appear before the name. Text in cross-references is only made consistent with the referenced item once the document has been refreshed. This extension can be enabled/disabled for the following formats: output formats odt, opendocument Extension: xrefs_number Links to headings, figures and tables inside the document are substi- tuted with cross-references that will use the number of the referenced item. The original link text is discarded. This extension can be com- bined with xrefs_name in which case the name or caption numbers will appear after the number. For the xrefs_number to be useful heading numbers must be enabled in the generated document, also table and figure captions must be enabled using for example the native_numbering extension. Numbers in cross-references are only visible in the final document once it has been refreshed. This extension can be enabled/disabled for the following formats: output formats odt, opendocument Extension: styles When converting from docx, read all docx styles as divs (for paragraph styles) and spans (for character styles) regardless of whether pandoc understands the meaning of these styles. This can be used with docx custom styles. Disabled by default. input formats docx Extension: amuse In the muse input format, this enables Text::Amuse extensions to Emacs Muse markup. Extension: raw_markdown In the ipynb input format, this causes Markdown cells to be included as raw Markdown blocks (allowing lossless round-tripping) rather than be- ing parsed. Use this only when you are targeting ipynb or a markdown- based output format. Extension: citations Some aspects of Pandoc's Markdown citation syntax are also accepted in org input. Extension: element_citations In the jats output formats, this causes reference items to be replaced with <element-citation> elements. These elements are not influenced by CSL styles, but all information on the item is included in tags. Extension: ntb In the context output format this enables the use of Natural Tables (TABLE) instead of the default Extreme Tables (xtables). Natural ta- bles allow more fine-grained global customization but come at a perfor- mance penalty compared to extreme tables. PANDOC'S MARKDOWN Pandoc understands an extended and slightly revised version of John Gruber's Markdown syntax. This document explains the syntax, noting differences from standard Markdown. Except where noted, these differ- ences can be suppressed by using the markdown_strict format instead of markdown. Extensions can be enabled or disabled to specify the behav- ior more granularly. They are described in the following. See also Extensions above, for extensions that work also on other formats. Philosophy Markdown is designed to be easy to write, and, even more importantly, easy to read: A Markdown-formatted document should be publishable as-is, as plain text, without looking like it's been marked up with tags or formatting instructions. - John Gruber This principle has guided pandoc's decisions in finding syntax for ta- bles, footnotes, and other extensions. There is, however, one respect in which pandoc's aims are different from the original aims of Markdown. Whereas Markdown was originally designed with HTML generation in mind, pandoc is designed for multiple output formats. Thus, while pandoc allows the embedding of raw HTML, it discourages it, and provides other, non-HTMLish ways of representing important document elements like definition lists, tables, mathematics, and footnotes. Paragraphs A paragraph is one or more lines of text followed by one or more blank lines. Newlines are treated as spaces, so you can reflow your para- graphs as you like. If you need a hard line break, put two or more spaces at the end of a line. Extension: escaped_line_breaks A backslash followed by a newline is also a hard line break. Note: in multiline and grid table cells, this is the only way to create a hard line break, since trailing spaces in the cells are ignored. Headings There are two kinds of headings: Setext and ATX. Setext-style headings A setext-style heading is a line of text "underlined" with a row of = signs (for a level-one heading) or - signs (for a level-two heading): A level-one heading =================== A level-two heading ------------------- The heading text can contain inline formatting, such as emphasis (see Inline formatting, below). ATX-style headings An ATX-style heading consists of one to six # signs and a line of text, optionally followed by any number of # signs. The number of # signs at the beginning of the line is the heading level: ## A level-two heading ### A level-three heading ### As with setext-style headings, the heading text can contain formatting: # A level-one heading with a [link](/url) and *emphasis* Extension: blank_before_header Standard Markdown syntax does not require a blank line before a head- ing. Pandoc does require this (except, of course, at the beginning of the document). The reason for the requirement is that it is all too easy for a # to end up at the beginning of a line by accident (perhaps through line wrapping). Consider, for example: I like several of their flavors of ice cream: #22, for example, and #5. Extension: space_in_atx_header Many Markdown implementations do not require a space between the open- ing #s of an ATX heading and the heading text, so that #5 bolt and #hashtag count as headings. With this extension, pandoc does require the space. Heading identifiers See also the auto_identifiers extension above. Extension: header_attributes Headings can be assigned attributes using this syntax at the end of the line containing the heading text: {#identifier .class .class key=value key=value} Thus, for example, the following headings will all be assigned the identifier foo: # My heading {#foo} ## My heading ## {#foo} My other heading {#foo} --------------- (This syntax is compatible with PHP Markdown Extra.) Note that although this syntax allows assignment of classes and key/value attributes, writers generally don't use all of this informa- tion. Identifiers, classes, and key/value attributes are used in HTML and HTML-based formats such as EPUB and slidy. Identifiers are used for labels and link anchors in the LaTeX, ConTeXt, Textile, Jira markup, and AsciiDoc writers. Headings with the class unnumbered will not be numbered, even if --num- ber-sections is specified. A single hyphen (-) in an attribute context is equivalent to .unnumbered, and preferable in non-English documents. So, # My heading {-} is just the same as # My heading {.unnumbered} If the unlisted class is present in addition to unnumbered, the heading will not be included in a table of contents. (Currently this feature is only implemented for certain formats: those based on LaTeX and HTML, PowerPoint, and RTF.) Extension: implicit_header_references Pandoc behaves as if reference links have been defined for each head- ing. So, to link to a heading # Heading identifiers in HTML you can simply write [Heading identifiers in HTML] or [Heading identifiers in HTML][] or [the section on heading identifiers][heading identifiers in HTML] instead of giving the identifier explicitly: [Heading identifiers in HTML](#heading-identifiers-in-html) If there are multiple headings with identical text, the corresponding reference will link to the first one only, and you will need to use ex- plicit links to link to the others, as described above. Like regular reference links, these references are case-insensitive. Explicit link reference definitions always take priority over implicit heading references. So, in the following example, the link will point to bar, not to #foo: # Foo [foo]: bar See [foo] Block quotations Markdown uses email conventions for quoting blocks of text. A block quotation is one or more paragraphs or other block elements (such as lists or headings), with each line preceded by a > character and an op- tional space. (The > need not start at the left margin, but it should not be indented more than three spaces.) > This is a block quote. This > paragraph has two lines. > > 1. This is a list inside a block quote. > 2. Second item. A "lazy" form, which requires the > character only on the first line of each block, is also allowed: > This is a block quote. This paragraph has two lines. > 1. This is a list inside a block quote. 2. Second item. Among the block elements that can be contained in a block quote are other block quotes. That is, block quotes can be nested: > This is a block quote. > > > A block quote within a block quote. If the > character is followed by an optional space, that space will be considered part of the block quote marker and not part of the indenta- tion of the contents. Thus, to put an indented code block in a block quote, you need five spaces after the >: > code Extension: blank_before_blockquote Standard Markdown syntax does not require a blank line before a block quote. Pandoc does require this (except, of course, at the beginning of the document). The reason for the requirement is that it is all too easy for a > to end up at the beginning of a line by accident (perhaps through line wrapping). So, unless the markdown_strict format is used, the following does not produce a nested block quote in pandoc: > This is a block quote. >> Nested. Verbatim (code) blocks Indented code blocks A block of text indented four spaces (or one tab) is treated as verba- tim text: that is, special characters do not trigger special format- ting, and all spaces and line breaks are preserved. For example, if (a > 3) { moveShip(5 * gravity, DOWN); } The initial (four space or one tab) indentation is not considered part of the verbatim text, and is removed in the output. Note: blank lines in the verbatim text need not begin with four spaces. Fenced code blocks Extension: fenced_code_blocks In addition to standard indented code blocks, pandoc supports fenced code blocks. These begin with a row of three or more tildes (~) and end with a row of tildes that must be at least as long as the starting row. Everything between these lines is treated as code. No indenta- tion is necessary: ~~~~~~~ if (a > 3) { moveShip(5 * gravity, DOWN); } ~~~~~~~ Like regular code blocks, fenced code blocks must be separated from surrounding text by blank lines. If the code itself contains a row of tildes or backticks, just use a longer row of tildes or backticks at the start and end: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ code including tildes ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Extension: backtick_code_blocks Same as fenced_code_blocks, but uses backticks () instead of tildes (~). Extension: fenced_code_attributes Optionally, you may attach attributes to fenced or backtick code block using this syntax: ~~~~ {#mycode .haskell .numberLines startFrom="100"} qsort [] = [] qsort (x:xs) = qsort (filter (< x) xs) ++ [x] ++ qsort (filter (>= x) xs) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Here mycode is an identifier, haskell and numberLines are classes, and startFrom is an attribute with value 100. Some output formats can use this information to do syntax highlighting. Currently, the only output formats that uses this information are HTML, LaTeX, Docx, Ms, and Pow- erPoint. If highlighting is supported for your output format and lan- guage, then the code block above will appear highlighted, with numbered lines. (To see which languages are supported, type pandoc --list-high- light-languages.) Otherwise, the code block above will appear as fol- lows: <pre id="mycode" class="haskell numberLines" startFrom="100"> <code> ... </code> </pre> The numberLines (or number-lines) class will cause the lines of the code block to be numbered, starting with 1 or the value of the start- From attribute. The lineAnchors (or line-anchors) class will cause the lines to be clickable anchors in HTML output. A shortcut form can also be used for specifying the language of the code block: haskell qsort [] = []  This is equivalent to:  {.haskell} qsort [] = []  If the fenced_code_attributes extension is disabled, but input contains class attribute(s) for the code block, the first class attribute will be printed after the opening fence as a bare word. To prevent all highlighting, use the --no-highlight flag. To set the highlighting style, use --highlight-style. For more information on highlighting, see Syntax highlighting, below. Line blocks Extension: line_blocks A line block is a sequence of lines beginning with a vertical bar (|) followed by a space. The division into lines will be preserved in the output, as will any leading spaces; otherwise, the lines will be for- matted as Markdown. This is useful for verse and addresses: | The limerick packs laughs anatomical | In space that is quite economical. | But the good ones I've seen | So seldom are clean | And the clean ones so seldom are comical | 200 Main St. | Berkeley, CA 94718 The lines can be hard-wrapped if needed, but the continuation line must begin with a space. | The Right Honorable Most Venerable and Righteous Samuel L. Constable, Jr. | 200 Main St. | Berkeley, CA 94718 This syntax is borrowed from reStructuredText. Lists Bullet lists A bullet list is a list of bulleted list items. A bulleted list item begins with a bullet (*, +, or -). Here is a simple example: * one * two * three This will produce a "compact" list. If you want a "loose" list, in which each item is formatted as a paragraph, put spaces between the items: * one * two * three The bullets need not be flush with the left margin; they may be indent- ed one, two, or three spaces. The bullet must be followed by white- space. List items look best if subsequent lines are flush with the first line (after the bullet): * here is my first list item. * and my second. But Markdown also allows a "lazy" format: * here is my first list item. * and my second. Block content in list items A list item may contain multiple paragraphs and other block-level con- tent. However, subsequent paragraphs must be preceded by a blank line and indented to line up with the first non-space content after the list marker. * First paragraph. Continued. * Second paragraph. With a code block, which must be indented eight spaces: { code } Exception: if the list marker is followed by an indented code block, which must begin 5 spaces after the list marker, then subsequent para- graphs must begin two columns after the last character of the list marker: * code continuation paragraph List items may include other lists. In this case the preceding blank line is optional. The nested list must be indented to line up with the first non-space character after the list marker of the containing list item. * fruits + apples - macintosh - red delicious + pears + peaches * vegetables + broccoli + chard As noted above, Markdown allows you to write list items "lazily," in- stead of indenting continuation lines. However, if there are multiple paragraphs or other blocks in a list item, the first line of each must be indented. + A lazy, lazy, list item. + Another one; this looks bad but is legal. Second paragraph of second list item. Ordered lists Ordered lists work just like bulleted lists, except that the items be- gin with enumerators rather than bullets. In standard Markdown, enumerators are decimal numbers followed by a pe- riod and a space. The numbers themselves are ignored, so there is no difference between this list: 1. one 2. two 3. three and this one: 5. one 7. two 1. three Extension: fancy_lists Unlike standard Markdown, pandoc allows ordered list items to be marked with uppercase and lowercase letters and roman numerals, in addition to Arabic numerals. List markers may be enclosed in parentheses or fol- lowed by a single right-parentheses or period. They must be separated from the text that follows by at least one space, and, if the list marker is a capital letter with a period, by at least two spaces. The fancy_lists extension also allows #' to be used as an ordered list marker in place of a numeral: #. one #. two Extension: startnum Pandoc also pays attention to the type of list marker used, and to the starting number, and both of these are preserved where possible in the output format. Thus, the following yields a list with numbers followed by a single parenthesis, starting with 9, and a sublist with lowercase roman numerals: 9) Ninth 10) Tenth 11) Eleventh i. subone ii. subtwo iii. subthree Pandoc will start a new list each time a different type of list marker is used. So, the following will create three lists: (2) Two (5) Three 1. Four * Five If default list markers are desired, use #.: #. one #. two #. three Extension: task_lists Pandoc supports task lists, using the syntax of GitHub-Flavored Mark- down. - [ ] an unchecked task list item - [x] checked item Definition lists Extension: definition_lists Pandoc supports definition lists, using the syntax of PHP Markdown Ex- tra with some extensions. Term 1 : Definition 1 Term 2 with *inline markup* : Definition 2 { some code, part of Definition 2 } Third paragraph of definition 2. Each term must fit on one line, which may optionally be followed by a blank line, and must be followed by one or more definitions. A defini- tion begins with a colon or tilde, which may be indented one or two spaces. A term may have multiple definitions, and each definition may consist of one or more block elements (paragraph, code block, list, etc.), each indented four spaces or one tab stop. The body of the definition (in- cluding the first line, aside from the colon or tilde) should be in- dented four spaces. However, as with other Markdown lists, you can "lazily" omit indentation except at the beginning of a paragraph or other block element: Term 1 : Definition with lazy continuation. Second paragraph of the definition. If you leave space before the definition (as in the example above), the text of the definition will be treated as a paragraph. In some output formats, this will mean greater spacing between term/definition pairs. For a more compact definition list, omit the space before the defini- tion: Term 1 ~ Definition 1 Term 2 ~ Definition 2a ~ Definition 2b Note that space between items in a definition list is required. (A variant that loosens this requirement, but disallows "lazy" hard wrap- ping, can be activated with compact_definition_lists: see Non-pandoc extensions, below.) Numbered example lists Extension: example_lists The special list marker @ can be used for sequentially numbered exam- ples. The first list item with a @ marker will be numbered 1', the next 2', and so on, throughout the document. The numbered examples need not occur in a single list; each new list using @ will take up where the last stopped. So, for example: (@) My first example will be numbered (1). (@) My second example will be numbered (2). Explanation of examples. (@) My third example will be numbered (3). Numbered examples can be labeled and referred to elsewhere in the docu- ment: (@good) This is a good example. As (@good) illustrates, ... The label can be any string of alphanumeric characters, underscores, or hyphens. Note: continuation paragraphs in example lists must always be indented four spaces, regardless of the length of the list marker. That is, ex- ample lists always behave as if the four_space_rule extension is set. This is because example labels tend to be long, and indenting content to the first non-space character after the label would be awkward. Ending a list What if you want to put an indented code block after a list? - item one - item two { my code block } Trouble! Here pandoc (like other Markdown implementations) will treat { my code block } as the second paragraph of item two, and not as a code block. To "cut off" the list after item two, you can insert some non-indented content, like an HTML comment, which won't produce visible output in any format: - item one - item two <!-- end of list --> { my code block } You can use the same trick if you want two consecutive lists instead of one big list: 1. one 2. two 3. three <!-- --> 1. uno 2. dos 3. tres Horizontal rules A line containing a row of three or more *, -, or _ characters (option- ally separated by spaces) produces a horizontal rule: * * * * --------------- Tables Four kinds of tables may be used. The first three kinds presuppose the use of a fixed-width font, such as Courier. The fourth kind can be used with proportionally spaced fonts, as it does not require lining up columns. Extension: table_captions A caption may optionally be provided with all 4 kinds of tables (as il- lustrated in the examples below). A caption is a paragraph beginning with the string Table: (or just :), which will be stripped off. It may appear either before or after the table. Extension: simple_tables Simple tables look like this: Right Left Center Default ------- ------ ---------- ------- 12 12 12 12 123 123 123 123 1 1 1 1 Table: Demonstration of simple table syntax. The header and table rows must each fit on one line. Column alignments are determined by the position of the header text relative to the dashed line below it: o If the dashed line is flush with the header text on the right side but extends beyond it on the left, the column is right-aligned. o If the dashed line is flush with the header text on the left side but extends beyond it on the right, the column is left-aligned. o If the dashed line extends beyond the header text on both sides, the column is centered. o If the dashed line is flush with the header text on both sides, the default alignment is used (in most cases, this will be left). The table must end with a blank line, or a line of dashes followed by a blank line. The column header row may be omitted, provided a dashed line is used to end the table. For example: ------- ------ ---------- ------- 12 12 12 12 123 123 123 123 1 1 1 1 ------- ------ ---------- ------- When the header row is omitted, column alignments are determined on the basis of the first line of the table body. So, in the tables above, the columns would be right, left, center, and right aligned, respec- tively. Extension: multiline_tables Multiline tables allow header and table rows to span multiple lines of text (but cells that span multiple columns or rows of the table are not supported). Here is an example: ------------------------------------------------------------- Centered Default Right Left Header Aligned Aligned Aligned ----------- ------- --------------- ------------------------- First row 12.0 Example of a row that spans multiple lines. Second row 5.0 Here's another one. Note the blank line between rows. ------------------------------------------------------------- Table: Here's the caption. It, too, may span multiple lines. These work like simple tables, but with the following differences: o They must begin with a row of dashes, before the header text (unless the header row is omitted). o They must end with a row of dashes, then a blank line. o The rows must be separated by blank lines. In multiline tables, the table parser pays attention to the widths of the columns, and the writers try to reproduce these relative widths in the output. So, if you find that one of the columns is too narrow in the output, try widening it in the Markdown source. The header may be omitted in multiline tables as well as simple tables: ----------- ------- --------------- ------------------------- First row 12.0 Example of a row that spans multiple lines. Second row 5.0 Here's another one. Note the blank line between rows. ----------- ------- --------------- ------------------------- : Here's a multiline table without a header. It is possible for a multiline table to have just one row, but the row should be followed by a blank line (and then the row of dashes that ends the table), or the table may be interpreted as a simple table. Extension: grid_tables Grid tables look like this: : Sample grid table. +---------------+---------------+--------------------+ | Fruit | Price | Advantages | +===============+===============+====================+ | Bananas |1.34	      |	- built-in wrapper |
|		      |		      |	- bright color	   |
+---------------+---------------+--------------------+
|	Oranges	      |	$2.10 | - cures scurvy | | | | - tasty | +---------------+---------------+--------------------+ The row of =s separates the header from the table body, and can be omitted for a headerless table. The cells of grid tables may contain arbitrary block elements (multiple paragraphs, code blocks, lists, etc.). Cells that span multiple columns or rows are not supported. Grid tables can be created easily using Emacs' table-mode (M-x table- insert). Alignments can be specified as with pipe tables, by putting colons at the boundaries of the separator line after the header: +---------------+---------------+--------------------+ | Right | Left | Centered | +==============:+:==============+:==================:+ | Bananas |$1.34	      |	built-in wrapper   |
+---------------+---------------+--------------------+

+--------------:+:--------------+:------------------:+
|	Right	      |	Left	      |	Centered	   |
+---------------+---------------+--------------------+

Grid	Table Limitations
Pandoc  does  not  support  grid	tables with row	spans or column	spans.
This means that neither variable	numbers	of  columns  across  rows  nor
variable	 numbers  of rows across columns are supported by Pandoc.  All
grid tables must	have the same number of	columns	in each	row,  and  the
same  number  of	rows in	each column.  For example, the Docutils	sample
grid tables will	not render as expected with Pandoc.

Extension: pipe_tables
Pipe tables look	like this:

|	Right |	Left | Default | Center	|
|------:|:-----|---------|:------:|
|	  12  |	 12  |	  12   |    12	|
|	 123  |	 123 |	 123   |   123	|
|	   1  |	   1 |	   1   |     1	|

: Demonstration	of pipe	table syntax.

The syntax is identical to PHP Markdown Extra  tables.	The  beginning
and ending pipe characters are optional,	but pipes are required between
all columns.  The colons	indicate column	alignment as shown.  The head-
er cannot be omitted.  To simulate a headerless table, include a	header
with blank cells.

Since the pipes indicate	column boundaries, columns need	not be	verti-
cally  aligned,	as  they are in	the above example.  So,	this is	a per-
fectly legal (though ugly) pipe table:

fruit| price
-----|-----:
apple|2.05
pear|1.37
orange|3.09

The cells of pipe tables	cannot contain block elements like  paragraphs
and  lists, and cannot span multiple lines.  If a pipe table contains a
row whose Markdown content is wider than	the column width  (see	--col-
umns),  then  the  table	 will take up the full text width and the cell
contents	will wrap, with	the relative cell  widths  determined  by  the
number of dashes	in the line separating the table header	from the table
body.  (For example ---|- would make the	first column 3/4 and the  sec-
ond  column 1/4 of the full text	width.)	On the other hand, if no lines
are wider than column width, then cell contents will  not  be  wrapped,
and the cells will be sized to their contents.

Note:  pandoc also recognizes pipe tables of the	following form,	as can
be produced by Emacs' orgtbl-mode:

|	One | Two   |
|-----+-------|
|	my  | table |
|	is  | nice  |

The difference is that +	is used	instead	of |.  Other  orgtbl  features
are not supported.  In particular, to get non-default column alignment,
you'll need to add colons as above.

Extension: pandoc_title_block
If the file begins with a title block

%	title
%	author(s) (separated by	semicolons)
%	date

it will be parsed as bibliographic information, not regular text.   (It
will  be	 used,	for  example, in the title of standalone LaTeX or HTML
output.)	The block may contain just a title, a title and	an author,  or
all  three elements.  If	you want to include an author but no title, or
a title and a date but no author, you need a blank line:

%
%	Author

%	My title
%
%	June 15, 2006

The title may occupy multiple lines, but	continuation lines must	 begin

%	My title
on multiple lines

If  a document has multiple authors, the	authors	may be put on separate
lines with leading space, or separated by semicolons, or	both.  So, all
of the following	are equivalent:

%	Author One
Author Two

%	Author One; Author Two

%	Author One;
Author Two

The date	must fit on one	line.

All three metadata fields may contain standard inline formatting	(ital-

Title blocks will always	be parsed, but they will affect	the output on-
ly when the --standalone	(-s) option is chosen.	In HTML	output,	titles
will appear twice: once in the document head - this is the  title  that
will appear at the top of the window in a browser - and once at the be-
ginning of the document body.  The title	in the document	head can  have
an  optional  prefix attached (--title-prefix or	-T option).  The title
in the body appears as an H1 element with class "title",	so it  can  be
suppressed  or  reformatted  with  CSS.	If a title prefix is specified
with -T and no title block appears in the document,  the	 title	prefix
will be used by itself as the HTML title.

The man page writer extracts a title, man page section number, and oth-
er header and footer information	from the title line.  The title	is as-
sumed  to be the	first word on the title	line, which may	optionally end
with a (single-digit) section number in parentheses.  (There should  be
no  space  between the title and	the parentheses.)  Anything after this
is assumed to be	additional footer and  header  text.   A  single  pipe
character (|) should be used to separate	the footer text	from the head-
er text.	 Thus,

%	PANDOC(1)

will yield a man	page with the title PANDOC and section 1.

%	PANDOC(1) Pandoc User Manuals

will also have "Pandoc User Manuals" in the footer.

%	PANDOC(1) Pandoc User Manuals |	Version	4.0

will also have "Version 4.0" in the header.

A YAML metadata block is	a valid	YAML object, delimited by  a  line  of
three  hyphens  (---)  at  the top and a	line of	three hyphens (---) or
three dots (...)	at the bottom.	A YAML metadata	block may  occur  any-
where  in  the  document, but if	it is not at the beginning, it must be
preceded	by a blank line.  (Note	that, because of the way  pandoc  con-
catenates  input	files when several are provided, you may also keep the
metadata	in a separate YAML file	and pass it to pandoc as an  argument,

pandoc chap1.md chap2.md chap3.md	metadata.yaml -s -o book.html

Just  be	 sure  that the	YAML file begins with --- and ends with	--- or
....) Alternatively, you	can use	 the  --metadata-file  option.	 Using
that  approach  however,	 you cannot reference content (like footnotes)
from the	main markdown input document.

Metadata	will be	taken from the fields of the YAML object and added  to
(nested arbitrarily), but all string scalars  will  be  interpreted  as
Markdown.  Fields with names ending in an underscore will be ignored by
pandoc.	(They may be given a role by external processors.) Field names
must  not  be  interpretable as YAML numbers or boolean values (so, for
example,	yes, True, and 15 cannot be used as field names).

blocks  attempt	to set the same	field, the value from the second block
will be taken.

When pandoc is used with	-t markdown to create a	Markdown  document,  a
YAML metadata block will	be produced only if the	-s/--standalone	option
is used.	 All of	the metadata will appear in a single block at the  be-
ginning of the document.

Note  that YAML escaping	rules must be followed.	 Thus, for example, if
a title contains	a colon, it must be quoted.  The  pipe	character  (|)
can  be used to begin an	indented block that will be interpreted	liter-
ally, without need for escaping.	 This form is necessary	when the field
contains	blank lines or block-level formatting:

---
title:  'This is the title: it contains a	colon'
author:
-	Author One
-	Author Two
keywords:	[nothing, nothingness]
abstract:	|
This is	the abstract.

It consists of two paragraphs.
...

Template	 variables will	be set automatically from the metadata.	 Thus,
for example, in writing HTML, the variable abstract will	be set to  the
HTML equivalent of the Markdown in the abstract field:

<p>This is the abstract.</p>
<p>It consists of	two paragraphs.</p>

Variables  can contain arbitrary	YAML structures, but the template must
match this structure.  The author variable in the default templates ex-
pects  a	simple list or string, but can be changed to support more com-
plicated	structures.  The following combination,	for example, would add
an affiliation to the author if one is given:

---
title: The document title
author:
-	name: Author One
affiliation: University	of Somewhere
-	name: Author Two
affiliation: University	of Nowhere
...

To  use	the  structured	authors	in the example above, you would	need a
custom template:

$for(author)$
$if(author.name)$
$author.name$$if(author.affiliation) (author.affiliation)endif else author endif endfor Raw content to include in the document's header may be specified using header-includes; however, it is important to mark up this content as raw code for a particular output format, using the raw_attribute exten- sion), or it will be interpreted as markdown. For example: header-includes: - | {=latex} \let\oldsection\section \renewcommand{\section}[1]{\clearpage\oldsection{#1}}  Backslash escapes Extension: all_symbols_escapable Except inside a code block or inline code, any punctuation or space character preceded by a backslash will be treated literally, even if it would normally indicate formatting. Thus, for example, if one writes *\*hello\** one will get <em>*hello*</em> instead of <strong>hello</strong> This rule is easier to remember than standard Markdown's rule, which allows only the following characters to be backslash-escaped: \*_{}[]()>#+-.! (However, if the markdown_strict format is used, the standard Markdown rule will be used.) A backslash-escaped space is parsed as a nonbreaking space. In TeX output, it will appear as ~. In HTML and XML output, it will appear as a literal unicode nonbreaking space character (note that it will thus actually look "invisible" in the generated HTML source; you can still use the --ascii command-line option to make it appear as an explicit entity). A backslash-escaped newline (i.e. a backslash occurring at the end of a line) is parsed as a hard line break. It will appear in TeX output as \\ and in HTML as <br />. This is a nice alternative to Markdown's "invisible" way of indicating hard line breaks using two trailing spa- ces on a line. Backslash escapes do not work in verbatim contexts. Inline formatting Emphasis To emphasize some text, surround it with *s or _, like this: This text is _emphasized with underscores_, and this is *emphasized with asterisks*. Double * or _ produces strong emphasis: This is **strong emphasis** and __with underscores__. A * or _ character surrounded by spaces, or backslash-escaped, will not trigger emphasis: This is * not emphasized *, and \*neither is this\*. Extension: intraword_underscores Because _ is sometimes used inside words and identifiers, pandoc does not interpret a _ surrounded by alphanumeric characters as an emphasis marker. If you want to emphasize just part of a word, use *: feas*ible*, not feas*able*. Strikeout Extension: strikeout To strikeout a section of text with a horizontal line, begin and end it with ~~. Thus, for example, This ~~is deleted text.~~ Superscripts and subscripts Extension: superscript, subscript Superscripts may be written by surrounding the superscripted text by ^ characters; subscripts may be written by surrounding the subscripted text by ~ characters. Thus, for example, H~2~O is a liquid. 2^10^ is 1024. The text between ^...^ or ~...~ may not contain spaces or newlines. If the superscripted or subscripted text contains spaces, these spaces must be escaped with backslashes. (This is to prevent accidental su- perscripting and subscripting through the ordinary use of ~ and ^, and also bad interactions with footnotes.) Thus, if you want the letter P with a cat' in subscripts, use P~a\ cat~, not P~a cat~. Verbatim To make a short span of text verbatim, put it inside backticks: What is the difference between >>= and >>? If the verbatim text includes a backtick, use double backticks: Here is a literal backtick   . (The spaces after the opening backticks and before the closing back- ticks will be ignored.) The general rule is that a verbatim span starts with a string of con- secutive backticks (optionally followed by a space) and ends with a string of the same number of backticks (optionally preceded by a space). Note that backslash-escapes (and other Markdown constructs) do not work in verbatim contexts: This is a backslash followed by an asterisk: \*. Extension: inline_code_attributes Attributes can be attached to verbatim text, just as with fenced code blocks: <>{.haskell} Small caps To write small caps, use the smallcaps class: [Small caps]{.smallcaps} Or, without the bracketed_spans extension: <span class="smallcaps">Small caps</span> For compatibility with other Markdown flavors, CSS is also supported: <span style="font-variant:small-caps;">Small caps</span> This will work in all output formats that support small caps. Math Extension: tex_math_dollars Anything between two characters will be treated as TeX math. The opening must have a non-space character immediately to its right, while the closing must have a non-space character immediately to its left, and must not be followed immediately by a digit. Thus, 20,000 and 30,000 won't parse as math. If for some reason you need to en- close text in literal characters, backslash-escape them and they won't be treated as math delimiters. For display math, use$$ delimiters. (In this case, the delimiters may be separated from the formula by whitespace.) TeX math will be printed in all output formats. How it is rendered de- pends on the output format: LaTeX It will appear verbatim surrounded by $$...$$ (for inline math) or $...$ (for display math). Markdown, Emacs Org mode, ConTeXt, ZimWiki It will appear verbatim surrounded by$...$(for inline math) or $$...$$ (for display math). XWiki It will appear verbatim surrounded by {{formula}}..{{/formula}}. reStructuredText It will be rendered using an interpreted text role :math:. AsciiDoc For AsciiDoc output format (-t asciidoc) it will appear verbatim surrounded by latexmath:[$...$] (for inline math) or [latex- math]++++$...$+++ (for display math). For AsciiDoctor output format (-t asciidoctor) the LaTex delimiters ($..$and $..$) are omitted. Texinfo It will be rendered inside a @math command. roff man, Jira markup It will be rendered verbatim without$'s.

MediaWiki, DokuWiki
It will be rendered inside [itex]	tags.

Textile
It will be rendered inside <span class="math"> tags.

RTF, OpenDocument
It  will be rendered, if possible, using Unicode characters, and
will otherwise appear verbatim.

ODT    It will be rendered, if possible,	using MathML.

DocBook
If the --mathml flag is used, it will be rendered	 using	MathML
in an inlineequation or informalequation tag.  Otherwise it will
be rendered, if possible,	using Unicode characters.

Docx   It will be rendered using	OMML math markup.

FictionBook2
If the --webtex option is	used, formulas are rendered as	images
embedded in the e-book.  Otherwise, they will appear verbatim.

HTML, Slidy, DZSlides, S5, EPUB
The way math is rendered in HTML will depend on the command-line
options selected.	 Therefore see Math rendering in HTML above.

Raw HTML
Extension: raw_html
Markdown	allows you to insert raw HTML (or DocBook) anywhere in a docu-
ment (except verbatim contexts, where <,	>, and & are interpreted  lit-
erally).	  (Technically	this is	not an extension, since	standard Mark-
down allows it, but it has been made an extension so  that  it  can  be
disabled	if desired.)

The  raw	HTML is	passed through unchanged in HTML, S5, Slidy, Slideous,
DZSlides, EPUB, Markdown, CommonMark, Emacs Org mode, and Textile  out-
put, and	suppressed in other formats.

For  a  more explicit way of including raw HTML in a Markdown document,
see the raw_attribute extension.

In the CommonMark format, if raw_html is	 enabled,  superscripts,  sub-
scripts,	 strikeouts  and  small	 capitals will be represented as HTML.
Otherwise, plain-text fallbacks	will  be  used.	  Note	that  even  if
raw_html	 is disabled, tables will be rendered with HTML	syntax if they
cannot use pipe syntax.

Extension: markdown_in_html_blocks
Standard	Markdown allows	you to include HTML "blocks": blocks  of  HTML
between balanced	tags that are separated	from the surrounding text with
blank lines, and	start and  end	at  the	 left  margin.	 Within	 these
blocks,	everything is interpreted as HTML, not Markdown; so (for exam-
ple), * does not	signify	emphasis.

Pandoc behaves this way when the	markdown_strict	format is used;	but by
default,	 pandoc	 interprets  material between HTML block tags as Mark-
down.  Thus, for	example, pandoc	will turn

<table>
<tr>
<td>*one*</td>
</tr>
</table>

into

<table>
<tr>
<td><em>one</em></td>
</tr>
</table>

whereas Markdown.pl will	preserve it as is.

There is	one exception to this rule: text  between  <script>,  <style>,
and <textarea> tags is not interpreted as Markdown.

This  departure	from  standard	Markdown  should make it easier	to mix
Markdown	with HTML block	elements.  For example,	 one  can  surround  a
block of	Markdown text with <div> tags without preventing it from being
interpreted as Markdown.

Extension: native_divs
Use native pandoc Div blocks for	content	inside <div>  tags.   For  the
most  part this should give the same output as markdown_in_html_blocks,
but it makes it easier to write pandoc filters to manipulate groups  of
blocks.

Extension: native_spans
Use  native pandoc Span blocks for content inside <span>	tags.  For the
most part this should give the same output as raw_html, but it makes it
easier to write pandoc filters to manipulate groups of inlines.

Extension: raw_tex
In  addition  to	raw HTML, pandoc allows	raw LaTeX, TeX,	and ConTeXt to
be included in a	document.  Inline TeX commands will be	preserved  and
passed  unchanged to the	LaTeX and ConTeXt writers.  Thus, for example,
you can use LaTeX to include BibTeX citations:

This result was proved in	\cite{jones.1967}.

Note that in LaTeX environments,	like

\begin{tabular}{|l|l|}\hline
Age & Frequency \\ \hline
18--25  &	15 \\
26--35  &	33 \\
36--45  &	22 \\ \hline
\end{tabular}

the material between the	begin and end tags will	be interpreted as  raw
LaTeX, not as Markdown.

For a more explicit and flexible	way of including raw TeX in a Markdown
document, see the raw_attribute extension.

Inline LaTeX is ignored in output formats other than  Markdown,	LaTeX,
Emacs Org mode, and ConTeXt.

Generic raw attribute
Extension: raw_attribute
Inline  spans  and  fenced code blocks with a special kind of attribute
will be parsed as raw content with the designated format.  For example,
the following produces a	raw roff ms block:

{=ms}
.MYMACRO
blah blah


And the following produces a raw	html inline element:

This is <a>html</a>{=html}

This can	be useful to insert raw	xml into docx documents, e.g.  a page-
break:

{=openxml}
<w:p>
<w:r>
<w:br	w:type="page"/>
</w:r>
</w:p>


The format name should match  the  target  format  name	(see  -t/--to,
above,  for  a list, or use pandoc --list-output-formats).  Use openxml
for docx	output,	opendocument for odt output, html5 for	epub3  output,
html4  for epub2	output,	and latex, beamer, ms, or html5	for pdf	output
(depending on what you use for --pdf-engine).

This extension presupposes that the relevant kind  of  inline  code  or
fenced  code  block is enabled.	Thus, for example, to use a raw	attri-
bute with a backtick code block,	backtick_code_blocks must be enabled.

The raw attribute cannot	be combined with regular attributes.

LaTeX macros
Extension: latex_macros
When this extension is enabled, pandoc will parse LaTeX	macro  defini-
tions  and  apply the resulting macros to all LaTeX math	and raw	LaTeX.
So, for example,	the following will work	in  all	 output	 formats,  not
just LaTeX:

\newcommand{\tuple}[1]{\langle #1	\rangle}

$\tuple{a, b, c}$

Note  that  LaTeX macros	will not be applied if they occur inside a raw
span or block marked with the raw_attribute extension.

When latex_macros is disabled, the raw LaTeX and	 math  will  not  have
macros applied.	This is	usually	a better approach when you are target-
ing LaTeX or PDF.

Macro definitions in LaTeX will be passed through as raw	LaTeX only  if
latex_macros  is	not enabled.  Macro definitions	in Markdown source (or
other formats allowing raw_tex) will be passed  through	regardless  of
whether latex_macros is enabled.

Markdown	allows links to	be specified in	several	ways.

If  you	enclose	a URL or email address in pointy brackets, it will be-

<sam@green.eggs.ham>

An inline link consists of the link text	in square  brackets,  followed
by  the	URL in parentheses.  (Optionally, the URL can be followed by a

This is an [inline link](/url), and here's [one with

There can be no space between the bracketed part	and the	 parenthesized
part.  The link text can	contain	formatting (such as emphasis), but the
title cannot.

Email addresses in inline links are not autodetected, so	they  have  to
be prefixed with	mailto:

[Write me!](mailto:sam@green.eggs.ham)

definition, which may occur elsewhere in	the document (either before or

The  link consists of link text in square brackets, followed by a label
in square brackets.  (There cannot be space between the two unless  the
sists of	the bracketed label, followed by a colon and a space, followed
by  the	URL,  and  optionally  (after  a space)	a link title either in
quotes or in parentheses.  The label must not be	parseable as  a	 cita-
tion  (assuming	the  citations	extension  is enabled):	citations take

Here are	some examples:

[my label	1]: /foo/bar.html  "My title, optional"
[my label	2]: /foo
[my label	3]: https://fsf.org (The free software foundation)
[my label	4]: /bar#special  'A title in single quotes'

The URL may optionally be surrounded by angle brackets:

[my label	5]: <http://foo.bar.baz>

The title may go	on the next line:

[my label	3]: https://fsf.org
"The free software foundation"

Note that link labels are not case sensitive.  So, this will work:

[Foo]: /bar/baz

In an implicit reference	link, the second pair of brackets is empty:

See [my website][].

[my website]: http://foo.bar.baz

Note: In	Markdown.pl and	most other Markdown implementations, reference
link  definitions  cannot  occur	 in  nested constructions such as list
items or	block quotes.  Pandoc lifts this  arbitrary  seeming  restric-
tion.  So the following is fine in pandoc, though not in	most other im-
plementations:

>	My block [quote].
>
>	[quote]: /foo

In a shortcut reference link, the second	pair of	brackets may be	 omit-
ted entirely:

See [my website].

[my website]: http://foo.bar.baz

To  link	to another section of the same document, use the automatically
generated identifier (see Heading identifiers).	For example:

See the [Introduction](#introduction).

or

See the [Introduction].

[Introduction]: #introduction

Internal	links are currently supported for HTML formats (including HTML
slide shows and EPUB), LaTeX, and ConTeXt.

Images
A  link	immediately  preceded by a ! will be treated as	an image.  The
link text will be used as the image's alt text:

![la lune](lalune.jpg "Voyage to the moon")

![movie reel]

[movie reel]: movie.gif

Extension: implicit_figures
An image	with nonempty alt text,	occurring by itself  in	 a  paragraph,
will be rendered	as a figure with a caption.  The image's alt text will
be used as the caption.

![This is	the caption](/url/of/image.png)

How this	is rendered depends on the output format.  Some	output formats
(e.g. RTF)  do  not yet support figures.	 In those formats, you'll just
get an image in a paragraph by itself, with no caption.

If you just want	a regular inline image,	just make sure it is  not  the
only  thing  in	the paragraph.	One way	to do this is to insert	a non-
breaking	space after the	image:

![This image won't be a figure](/url/of/image.png)\

Note that in reveal.js slide shows, an image in a paragraph  by	itself
that  has  the  stretch class will fill the screen, and the caption and
figure tags will	be omitted.

Attributes can be set on	links and images:

An inline	![image](foo.jpg){#id .class width=30 height=20px}
and a reference ![image][ref] with attributes.

[ref]: foo.jpg "optional title" {#id .class key=val key2="val 2"}

(This syntax is compatible with PHP Markdown Extra when	only  #id  and
.class are used.)

For  HTML  and EPUB, all	known HTML5 attributes except width and	height
(but including srcset and sizes)	are passed through as is.  Unknown at-
tributes	are passed through as custom attributes, with data- prepended.
The other writers ignore	attributes that	are not	specifically supported
by their	output format.

The  width and height attributes	on images are treated specially.  When
used without a unit, the	unit is	assumed	to be pixels.  However,	any of
the following unit identifiers can be used: px, cm, mm, in, inch	and %.
There must not be any spaces between the	number and the unit.  For  ex-
ample:

![](file.jpg){ width=50% }

o Dimensions  may  be  converted	 to a form that	is compatible with the
output	format (for example, dimensions	given in pixels	will  be  con-
verted	 to inches when	converting HTML	to LaTeX).  Conversion between
pixels	and physical measurements is affected by the --dpi option  (by
default,  96 dpi is assumed, unless the image itself contains dpi in-
formation).

o The % unit is generally relative to some available space.  For	 exam-
ple the above example will render to the following.

o HTML: <img href="file.jpg" style="width: 50%;" />

o LaTeX:	    \includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth,height=\text-
height]{file.jpg} (If you're	using a	custom template, you  need  to
configure graphicx as in the	default	template.)

o ConTeXt: \externalfigure[file.jpg][width=0.5\textwidth]

o Some  output  formats	have a notion of a class (ConTeXt) or a	unique
identifier (LaTeX \caption), or both (HTML).

o When no width or height attributes are	specified, the fallback	is  to
look at the image resolution and the dpi metadata embedded in the im-
age file.

Divs	and Spans
Using the native_divs and native_spans  extensions  (see	 above),  HTML
syntax  can  be	used as	part of	markdown to create native Div and Span
elements	in the pandoc AST (as opposed to raw HTML).  However, there is
also nicer syntax available:

Extension: fenced_divs
Allow special fenced syntax for native Div blocks.  A Div starts	with a
fence containing	at  least  three  consecutive  colons  plus  some  at-
tributes.   The attributes may optionally be followed by	another	string
of consecutive colons.  The attribute syntax is exactly	as  in	fenced
code  blocks  (see  Extension: fenced_code_attributes).	As with	fenced
code blocks, one	can use	either attributes in curly braces or a	single
unbraced	 word,	which  will  be	treated	as a class name.  The Div ends
with another line containing a string of	 at  least  three  consecutive
colons.	The fenced Div should be separated by blank lines from preced-
ing and following blocks.

Example:

::::: {#special .sidebar}
Here is a	paragraph.

And another.
:::::

Fenced divs can be nested.  Opening fences  are	distinguished  because
they must have attributes:

::: Warning ::::::
This is a	warning.

::: Danger
This is a	warning	within a warning.
:::
::::::::::::::::::

Fences  without	attributes  are	 always	 closing  fences.  Unlike with
fenced code blocks, the number of colons	in the closing fence need  not
match  the number in the	opening	fence.	However, it can	be helpful for
visual clarity to use fences of different lengths to distinguish	nested
divs from their parents.

Extension: bracketed_spans
A bracketed sequence of inlines,	as one would use to begin a link, will
be treated as a Span with attributes if it is followed  immediately  by
attributes:

[This is *some text*]{.class key="val"}

Footnotes
Extension: footnotes
Pandoc's	Markdown allows	footnotes, using the following syntax:

Here is a	footnote reference,[^1]	and another.[^longnote]

[^1]: Here is the	footnote.

[^longnote]: Here's one with multiple blocks.

Subsequent paragraphs	are indented to	show that they
belong to	the previous footnote.

{	some.code }

The whole paragraph can be indented, or just the first
line.	 In this way, multi-paragraph footnotes	work like
multi-paragraph list items.

This paragraph won't be part of the note,	because	it
isn't indented.

The identifiers in footnote references may not contain spaces, tabs, or
newlines.  These	identifiers are	used only to  correlate	 the  footnote
reference  with	the note itself; in the	output,	footnotes will be num-
bered sequentially.

The footnotes themselves	need not be placed at the end of the document.
They  may  appear  anywhere  except inside other	block elements (lists,
block quotes, tables, etc.).  Each footnote should  be  separated  from
surrounding content (including other footnotes) by blank	lines.

Extension: inline_notes
Inline  footnotes  are also allowed (though, unlike regular notes, they
cannot contain multiple paragraphs).  The syntax	is as follows:

Here is an inline	note.^[Inlines notes are easier	to write, since
you don't	have to	pick an	identifier and move down to type the
note.]

Inline and regular footnotes may	be mixed freely.

Citation syntax
Extension: citations
Markdown	citations go inside square brackets and	are separated by semi-
colons.	 Each citation must have a key,	composed of @'	+ the citation
identifier from the database, and may optionally	have a prefix, a loca-
tor,  and  a suffix.  The citation key must begin with a	letter,	digit,
or _, and may contain alphanumerics, _, and internal punctuation	 char-
acters (:.#$%&-+?<>~/). Here are some examples: Blah blah [see @doe99, pp. 33-35; also @smith04, chap. 1]. Blah blah [@doe99, pp. 33-35, 38-39 and *passim*]. Blah blah [@smith04; @doe99]. pandoc detects locator terms in the CSL locale files. Either abbrevi- ated or unabbreviated forms are accepted. In the en-US locale, locator terms can be written in either singular or plural forms, as book, bk./bks.; chapter, chap./chaps.; column, col./cols.; figure, fig./figs.; folio, fol./fols.; number, no./nos.; line, l./ll.; note, n./nn.; opus, op./opp.; page, p./pp.; paragraph, para./paras.; part, pt./pts.; section, sec./secs.; sub verbo, s.v./s.vv.; verse, v./vv.; volume, vol./vols.; <paragraph>/<paragraph><paragraph>; <section>/<section><section>. If no locator term is used, "page" is assumed. pandoc will use heuristics to distinguish the locator from the suffix. In complex cases, the locator can be enclosed in curly braces: [@smith{ii, A, D-Z}, with a suffix] [@smith, {pp. iv, vi-xi, (xv)-(xvii)} with suffix here] A minus sign (-) before the @ will suppress mention of the author in the citation. This can be useful when the author is already mentioned in the text: Smith says blah [-@smith04]. You can also write an in-text citation, as follows: @smith04 says blah. @smith04 [p. 33] says blah. Non-pandoc extensions The following Markdown syntax extensions are not enabled by default in pandoc, but may be enabled by adding +EXTENSION to the format name, where EXTENSION is the name of the extension. Thus, for example, mark- down+hard_line_breaks is Markdown with hard line breaks. Extension: attributes Allows attributes to be attached to any inline or block-level element. The syntax for the attributes is the same as that used in header_at- tributes. o Attributes that occur immediately after an inline element affect that element. If they follow a space, then they belong to the space. (Hence, this option subsumes inline_code_attributes and link_at- tributes.) o Attributes that occur immediately before a block element, on a line by themselves, affect that element. o Consecutive attribute specifiers may be used, either for blocks or for inlines. Their attributes will be combined. o Attributes that occur at the end of the text of a Setext or ATX head- ing (separated by whitespace from the text) affect the heading ele- ment. (Hence, this option subsumes header_attributes.) o Attributes that occur after the opening fence in a fenced code block affect the code block element. (Hence, this option subsumes fenced_code_attributes.) o Attributes that occur at the end of a reference link definition af- fect links that refer to that definition. Note that pandoc's AST does not currently allow attributes to be at- tached to arbitrary elements. Hence a Span or Div container will be added if needed. Extension: old_dashes Selects the pandoc <= 1.8.2.1 behavior for parsing smart dashes: - be- fore a numeral is an en-dash, and -- is an em-dash. This option only has an effect if smart is enabled. It is selected automatically for textile input. Extension: angle_brackets_escapable Allow < and > to be backslash-escaped, as they can be in GitHub fla- vored Markdown but not original Markdown. This is implied by pandoc's default all_symbols_escapable. Extension: lists_without_preceding_blankline Allow a list to occur right after a paragraph, with no intervening blank space. Extension: four_space_rule Selects the pandoc <= 2.0 behavior for parsing lists, so that four spa- ces indent are needed for list item continuation paragraphs. Extension: spaced_reference_links Allow whitespace between the two components of a reference link, for example, [foo] [bar]. Extension: hard_line_breaks Causes all newlines within a paragraph to be interpreted as hard line breaks instead of spaces. Extension: ignore_line_breaks Causes newlines within a paragraph to be ignored, rather than being treated as spaces or as hard line breaks. This option is intended for use with East Asian languages where spaces are not used between words, but text is divided into lines for readability. Extension: east_asian_line_breaks Causes newlines within a paragraph to be ignored, rather than being treated as spaces or as hard line breaks, when they occur between two East Asian wide characters. This is a better choice than ig- nore_line_breaks for texts that include a mix of East Asian wide char- acters and other characters. Extension: emoji Parses textual emojis like :smile: as Unicode emoticons. Extension: tex_math_single_backslash Causes anything between $$and$$ to be interpreted as inline TeX math, and anything between $and$ to be interpreted as display TeX math. Note: a drawback of this extension is that it precludes escaping ( and [. Extension: tex_math_double_backslash Causes anything between \$$and \$$ to be interpreted as inline TeX math, and anything between \$and \$ to be interpreted as display TeX math. Extension: markdown_attribute By default, pandoc interprets material inside block-level tags as Mark- down. This extension changes the behavior so that Markdown is only parsed inside block-level tags if the tags have the attribute mark- down=1. Extension: mmd_title_block Enables a MultiMarkdown style title block at the top of the document, for example: Title: My title Author: John Doe Date: September 1, 2008 Comment: This is a sample mmd title block, with a field spanning multiple lines. See the MultiMarkdown documentation for details. If pandoc_title_block or yaml_metadata_block is enabled, it will take precedence over mmd_ti- tle_block. Extension: abbreviations Parses PHP Markdown Extra abbreviation keys, like *[HTML]: Hypertext Markup Language Note that the pandoc document model does not support abbreviations, so if this extension is enabled, abbreviation keys are simply skipped (as opposed to being parsed as paragraphs). Extension: autolink_bare_uris Makes all absolute URIs into links, even when not surrounded by pointy braces <...>. Extension: mmd_link_attributes Parses multimarkdown style key-value attributes on link and image ref- erences. This extension should not be confused with the link_at- tributes extension. This is a reference ![image][ref] with multimarkdown attributes. [ref]: https://path.to/image "Image title" width=20px height=30px id=myId class="myClass1 myClass2" Extension: mmd_header_identifiers Parses multimarkdown style heading identifiers (in square brackets, af- ter the heading but before any trailing #s in an ATX heading). Extension: compact_definition_lists Activates the definition list syntax of pandoc 1.12.x and earlier. This syntax differs from the one described above under Definition lists in several respects: o No blank line is required between consecutive items of the definition list. o To get a "tight" or "compact" list, omit space between consecutive items; the space between a term and its definition does not affect anything. o Lazy wrapping of paragraphs is not allowed: the entire definition must be indented four spaces. Extension: gutenberg Use Project Gutenberg conventions for plain output: all-caps for strong emphasis, surround by underscores for regular emphasis, add extra blank space around headings. Extension: sourcepos Include source position attributes when parsing commonmark. For ele- ments that accept attributes, a data-pos attribute is added; other ele- ments are placed in a surrounding Div or Span elemnet with a data-pos attribute. Markdown variants In addition to pandoc's extended Markdown, the following Markdown vari- ants are supported: o markdown_phpextra (PHP Markdown Extra) o markdown_github (deprecated GitHub-Flavored Markdown) o markdown_mmd (MultiMarkdown) o markdown_strict (Markdown.pl) o commonmark (CommonMark) o gfm (Github-Flavored Markdown) o commonmark_x (CommonMark with many pandoc extensions) To see which extensions are supported for a given format, and which are enabled by default, you can use the command pandoc --list-extensions=FORMAT where FORMAT is replaced with the name of the format. Note that the list of extensions for commonmark, gfm, and commonmark_x are defined relative to default commonmark. So, for example, back- tick_code_blocks does not appear as an extension, since it is enabled by default and cannot be disabled. CITATIONS When the --citeproc option is used, pandoc can automatically generate citations and a bibliography in a number of styles. Basic usage is pandoc --citeproc myinput.txt To use this feature, you will need to have o a document containing citations (see Extension: citations); o a source of bibliographic data: either an external bibliography file or a list of references in the document's YAML metadata o optionally, a CSL citation style. Specifying bibliographic data You can specify an external bibliography using the bibliography metada- ta field in a YAML metadata section or the --bibliography command line argument. If you want to use multiple bibliography files, you can sup- ply multiple --bibliography arguments or set bibliography metadata field to YAML array. A bibliography may have any of these formats: Format File extension -------------------------- BibLaTeX .bib BibTeX .bibtex CSL JSON .json CSL YAML .yaml Note that .bib can be used with both BibTeX and BibLaTeX files; use the extension .bibtex to force interpretation as BibTeX. In BibTeX and BibLaTeX databases, pandoc parses LaTeX markup inside fields such as title; in CSL YAML databases, pandoc Markdown; and in CSL JSON databases, an HTML-like markup: <i>...</i> italics <b>...</b> bold <span style="font-variant:small-caps;">...</span> or <sc>...</sc> small capitals <sub>...</sub> subscript <sup>...</sup> superscript <span class="nocase">...</span> prevent a phrase from being capitalized as title case As an alternative to specifying a bibliography file using --bibliogra- phy or the YAML metadata field bibliography, you can include the cita- tion data directly in the references field of the document's YAML meta- data. The field should contain an array of YAML-encoded references, for example: --- references: - type: article-journal id: WatsonCrick1953 author: - family: Watson given: J. D. - family: Crick given: F. H. C. issued: date-parts: - - 1953 - 4 - 25 title: 'Molecular structure of nucleic acids: a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid' title-short: Molecular structure of nucleic acids container-title: Nature volume: 171 issue: 4356 page: 737-738 DOI: 10.1038/171737a0 URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/171737a0 language: en-GB ... If both an external bibliography and inline (YAML metadata) references are provided, both will be used. In case of conflicting ids, the in- line references will take precedence. Note that pandoc can be used to produce such a YAML metadata section from a BibTeX, BibLaTeX, or CSL JSON bibliography: pandoc chem.bib -s -f biblatex -t markdown pandoc chem.json -s -f csljson -t markdown Indeed, pandoc can convert between any of these citation formats: pandoc chem.bib -s -f biblatex -t csljson pandoc chem.yaml -s -f markdown -t biblatex Running pandoc on a bibliography file with the --citeproc option will create a formatted bibliography in the format of your choice: pandoc chem.bib -s --citeproc -o chem.html pandoc chem.bib -s --citeproc -o chem.pdf Capitalization in titles If you are using a bibtex or biblatex bibliography, then observe the following rules: o English titles should be in title case. Non-English titles should be in sentence case, and the langid field in biblatex should be set to the relevant language. (The following values are treated as English: american, british, canadian, english, australian, newzealand, USen- glish, or UKenglish.) o As is standard with bibtex/biblatex, proper names should be protected with curly braces so that they won't be lowercased in styles that call for sentence case. For example: title = {My Dinner with {Andre}} o In addition, words that should remain lowercase (or camelCase) should be protected: title = {Spin Wave Dispersion on the {nm} Scale} Though this is not necessary in bibtex/biblatex, it is necessary with citeproc, which stores titles internally in sentence case, and con- verts to title case in styles that require it. Here we protect "nm" so that it doesn't get converted to "Nm" at this stage. If you are using a CSL bibliography (either JSON or YAML), then observe the following rules: o All titles should be in sentence case. o Use the language field for non-English titles to prevent their con- version to title case in styles that call for this. (Conversion hap- pens only if language begins with en or is left empty.) o Protect words that should not be converted to title case using this syntax: Spin wave dispersion on the <span class="nocase">nm</span> scale Conference Papers, Published vs. Unpublished For a formally published conference paper, use the biblatex entry type inproceedings (which will be mapped to CSL paper-conference). For an unpublished manuscript, use the biblatex entry type unpublished without an eventtitle field (this entry type will be mapped to CSL man- uscript). For a talk, an unpublished conference paper, or a poster presentation, use the biblatex entry type unpublished with an eventtitle field (this entry type will be mapped to CSL speech). Use the biblatex type field to indicate the type, e.g. "Paper", or "Poster". venue and eventdate may be useful too, though eventdate will not be rendered by most CSL styles. Note that venue is for the event's venue, unlike location which describes the publisher's location; do not use the latter for an unpublished conference paper. Specifying a citation style Citations and references can be formatted using any style supported by the Citation Style Language, listed in the Zotero Style Repository. These files are specified using the --csl option or the csl (or cita- tion-style) metadata field. By default, pandoc will use the Chicago Manual of Style author-date format. (You can override this default by copying a CSL style of your choice to default.csl in your user data di- rectory.) The CSL project provides further information on finding and editing styles. The --citation-abbreviations option (or the citation-abbreviations metadata field) may be used to specify a JSON file containing abbrevia- tions of journals that should be used in formatted bibliographies when form="short" is specified. The format of the file can be illustrated with an example: { "default": { "container-title": { "Lloyd's Law Reports": "Lloyd's Rep", "Estates Gazette": "EG", "Scots Law Times": "SLT" } } } Citations in note styles Pandoc's citation processing is designed to allow you to move between author-date, numerical, and note styles without modifying the markdown source. When you're using a note style, avoid inserting footnotes man- ually. Instead, insert citations just as you would in an author-date style--for example, Blah blah [@foo, p. 33]. The footnote will be created automatically. Pandoc will take care of removing the space and moving the note before or after the period, de- pending on the setting of notes-after-punctuation, as described below in Other relevant metadata fields. In some cases you may need to put a citation inside a regular footnote. Normal citations in footnotes (such as [@foo, p. 33]) will be rendered in parentheses. In-text citations (such as @foo [p. 33]) will be ren- dered without parentheses. (A comma will be added if appropriate.) Thus: [^1]: Some studies [@foo; @bar, p. 33] show that frubulicious zoosnaps are quantical. For a survey of the literature, see @baz [chap. 1]. Raw content in a style To include raw content in a prefix, suffix, delimiter, or term, sur- round it with these tags indicating the format: {{jats}}&lt;ref&gt;{{/jats}} Without the tags, the string will be interpreted as a string and es- caped in the output, rather than being passed through raw. This feature allows stylesheets to be customized to give different out- put for different output formats. However, stylesheets customized in this way will not be usable by other CSL implementations. Placement of the bibliography If the style calls for a list of works cited, it will be placed in a div with id refs, if one exists: ::: {#refs} ::: Otherwise, it will be placed at the end of the document. Generation of the bibliography can be suppressed by setting suppress-bibliography: true in the YAML metadata. If you wish the bibliography to have a section heading, you can set reference-section-title in the metadata, or put the heading at the be- ginning of the div with id refs (if you are using it) or at the end of your document: last paragraph... # References The bibliography will be inserted after this heading. Note that the unnumbered class will be added to this heading, so that the section will not be numbered. Including uncited items in the bibliography If you want to include items in the bibliography without actually cit- ing them in the body text, you can define a dummy nocite metadata field and put the citations there: --- nocite: | @item1, @item2 ... @item3 In this example, the document will contain a citation for item3 only, but the bibliography will contain entries for item1, item2, and item3. It is possible to create a bibliography with all the citations, whether or not they appear in the document, by using a wildcard: --- nocite: | @* ... For LaTeX output, you can also use natbib or biblatex to render the bibliography. In order to do so, specify bibliography files as out- lined above, and add --natbib or --biblatex argument to pandoc invoca- tion. Bear in mind that bibliography files have to be in either BibTeX (for --natbib) or BibLaTeX (for --biblatex) format. Other relevant metadata fields A few other metadata fields affect bibliography formatting: link-citations If true, citations will be hyperlinked to the corresponding bib- liography entries (for author-date and numerical styles only). lang The lang field will affect how the style is localized, for exam- ple in the translation of labels and the use of quotation marks. (For backwards compatibility, locale may be used instead of lang, but this use is deprecated.) notes-after-punctuation If true (the default), pandoc will put footnote citations after following punctuation. For example, if the source contains blah blah [@jones99]., the result will look like blah blah.[^1], with the note moved after the period and the space collapsed. If false, the space will still be collapsed, but the footnote will not be moved after the punctuation. SLIDE SHOWS You can use pandoc to produce an HTML + JavaScript slide presentation that can be viewed via a web browser. There are five ways to do this, using S5, DZSlides, Slidy, Slideous, or reveal.js. You can also pro- duce a PDF slide show using LaTeX beamer, or slides shows in Microsoft PowerPoint format. Here's the Markdown source for a simple slide show, habits.txt: % Habits % John Doe % March 22, 2005 # In the morning ## Getting up - Turn off alarm - Get out of bed ## Breakfast - Eat eggs - Drink coffee # In the evening ## Dinner - Eat spaghetti - Drink wine ------------------ ![picture of spaghetti](images/spaghetti.jpg) ## Going to sleep - Get in bed - Count sheep To produce an HTML/JavaScript slide show, simply type pandoc -t FORMAT -s habits.txt -o habits.html where FORMAT is either s5, slidy, slideous, dzslides, or revealjs. For Slidy, Slideous, reveal.js, and S5, the file produced by pandoc with the -s/--standalone option embeds a link to JavaScript and CSS files, which are assumed to be available at the relative path s5/de- fault (for S5), slideous (for Slideous), reveal.js (for reveal.js), or at the Slidy website at w3.org (for Slidy). (These paths can be changed by setting the slidy-url, slideous-url, revealjs-url, or s5-url variables; see Variables for HTML slides, above.) For DZSlides, the (relatively short) JavaScript and CSS are included in the file by de- fault. With all HTML slide formats, the --self-contained option can be used to produce a single file that contains all of the data necessary to dis- play the slide show, including linked scripts, stylesheets, images, and videos. To produce a PDF slide show using beamer, type pandoc -t beamer habits.txt -o habits.pdf Note that a reveal.js slide show can also be converted to a PDF by printing it to a file from the browser. To produce a Powerpoint slide show, type pandoc habits.txt -o habits.pptx Structuring the slide show By default, the slide level is the highest heading level in the hierar- chy that is followed immediately by content, and not another heading, somewhere in the document. In the example above, level-1 headings are always followed by level-2 headings, which are followed by content, so the slide level is 2. This default can be overridden using the --slide-level option. The document is carved up into slides according to the following rules: o A horizontal rule always starts a new slide. o A heading at the slide level always starts a new slide. o Headings below the slide level in the hierarchy create headings with- in a slide. o Headings above the slide level in the hierarchy create "title slides," which just contain the section title and help to break the slide show into sections. Non-slide content under these headings will be included on the title slide (for HTML slide shows) or in a subsequent slide with the same title (for beamer). o A title page is constructed automatically from the document's title block, if present. (In the case of beamer, this can be disabled by commenting out some lines in the default template.) These rules are designed to support many different styles of slide show. If you don't care about structuring your slides into sections and subsections, you can just use level-1 headings for all each slide. (In that case, level-1 will be the slide level.) But you can also structure the slide show into sections, as in the example above. Note: in reveal.js slide shows, if slide level is 2, a two-dimensional layout will be produced, with level-1 headings building horizontally and level-2 headings building vertically. It is not recommended that you use deeper nesting of section levels with reveal.js. Incremental lists By default, these writers produce lists that display "all at once." If you want your lists to display incrementally (one item at a time), use the -i option. If you want a particular list to depart from the de- fault, put it in a div block with class incremental or nonincremental. So, for example, using the fenced div syntax, the following would be incremental regardless of the document default: ::: incremental - Eat spaghetti - Drink wine ::: or ::: nonincremental - Eat spaghetti - Drink wine ::: While using incremental and nonincremental divs are the recommended method of setting incremental lists on a per-case basis, an older meth- od is also supported: putting lists inside a blockquote will depart from the document default (that is, it will display incrementally with- out the -i option and all at once with the -i option): > - Eat spaghetti > - Drink wine Both methods allow incremental and nonincremental lists to be mixed in a single document. Note: Neither the -i/--incremental option nor any of the methods de- scribed here currently works for PowerPoint output. Inserting pauses You can add "pauses" within a slide by including a paragraph containing three dots, separated by spaces: # Slide with a pause content before the pause . . . content after the pause Note: this feature is not yet implemented for PowerPoint output. Styling the slides You can change the style of HTML slides by putting customized CSS files in$DATADIR/s5/default	(for  S5),  $DATADIR/slidy (for Slidy), or$DATADIR/slideous  (for	Slideous), where $DATADIR is the user data di- rectory (see --data-dir, above). The originals may be found in pan- doc's system data directory (generally$CABALDIR/pandoc-VERSION/s5/de-
fault).	Pandoc will look there for any files it	does not find  in  the
user data directory.

For  dzslides,  the CSS is included in the HTML file itself, and	may be
modified	there.

All reveal.js configuration options can be set through variables.   For
example,	themes can be used by setting the theme	variable:

-V theme=moon

Or you can specify a custom stylesheet using the	--css option.

To style	beamer slides, you can specify a theme,	colortheme, fonttheme,
innertheme, and outertheme, using the -V	option:

pandoc -t	beamer habits.txt -V theme:Warsaw -o habits.pdf

Note that heading attributes will turn  into  slide  attributes	(on  a
<div>  or <section>) in HTML slide formats, allowing you	to style indi-
vidual slides.  In beamer, the  only  heading  attribute	 that  affects
slides  is  the allowframebreaks	class, which sets the allowframebreaks
option, causing multiple	slides to be created if	the content  overfills
the frame.  This	is recommended especially for bibliographies:

#	References {.allowframebreaks}

Speaker notes
Speaker	notes are supported in reveal.js and PowerPoint	(pptx) output.

::: notes

This is my note.

-	It can contain Markdown
-	like this list

:::

To show the notes window	in reveal.js, press s while viewing  the  pre-
sentation.  Speaker notes in PowerPoint will be available, as usual, in
handouts	and presenter view.

Notes are not yet supported for other slide formats, but	the notes will
not appear on the slides	themselves.

Columns
To  put material	in side	by side	columns, you can use a native div con-
tainer with class columns, containing two or more div  containers  with
class column and	a width	attribute:

:::::::::::::: {.columns}
::: {.column width="40%"}
contents...
:::
::: {.column width="60%"}
contents...
:::
::::::::::::::

The  div	containers with	classes	columns	and column can optionally have
an align	attribute.  The	class columns can optionally have a totalwidth
attribute or an onlytextwidth class.

:::::::::::::: {.columns align=center totalwidth=8em}
::: {.column width="40%"}
contents...
:::
::: {.column width="60%" align=bottom}
contents...
:::
::::::::::::::

The  align attributes on	columns	and column can be used with the	values
top, top-baseline, center and bottom to vertically align	 the  columns.
It defaults to top in columns.

The  totalwidth	attribute limits the width of the columns to the given
value.

:::::::::::::: {.columns align=top .onlytextwidth}
::: {.column width="40%" align=center}
contents...
:::
::: {.column width="60%"}
contents...
:::
::::::::::::::

The class onlytextwidth sets the	totalwidth to \textwidth.

See Section 12.7	of the Beamer User's Guide for more details.

Frame attributes in beamer
Sometimes it is necessary to add	the LaTeX [fragile] option to a	 frame
in  beamer  (for	example, when using the	minted environment).  This can
be forced by adding the fragile class to	the  heading  introducing  the
slide:

#	Fragile	slide {.fragile}

All of the other	frame attributes described in Section 8.1 of the Beam-
er User's Guide may also	be used: allowdisplaybreaks, allowframebreaks,
b, c, t,	environment, label, plain, shrink, standout, noframenumbering.

Background in reveal.js and beamer
Background  images  can be added	to self-contained reveal.js slideshows
and to beamer slideshows.

For the same image on every slide, use the configuration	 option	 back-
ground-image  either  in	 the  YAML metadata block or as	a command-line
variable.  (There are no	other options in beamer	and the	rest  of  this
section concerns	reveal.js slideshows.)

For  reveal.js,	you can	instead	use the	reveal.js-native option	paral-
laxBackgroundImage.  You	can also set parallaxBackgroundHorizontal  and
parallaxBackgroundVertical the same way and must	also set parallaxBack-
groundSize to have your values take effect.

To set an image for a particular	reveal.js slide, add {data-background-
image="/path/to/image"}	to  the	first slide-level heading on the slide
(which may even be empty).

In reveal.js's overview mode, the parallaxBackgroundImage will show  up
only on the first slide.

Other reveal.js background settings also	work on	individual slides, in-
cluding data-background-size, data-background-repeat,  data-background-
color, data-transition, and data-transition-speed.

To  add	a background image to the automatically	generated title	slide,
use the title-slide-attributes variable in the YAML metadata block.  It
must contain a map of attribute names and values.

See the reveal.js documentation for more	details.

For example in reveal.js:

---
title: My	Slideshow
parallaxBackgroundImage: /path/to/my/background_image.png
title-slide-attributes:
data-background-image: /path/to/title_image.png
data-background-size:	contain
---

## Slide One

Slide 1 has background_image.png as its background.

## {data-background-image="/path/to/special_image.jpg"}

Slide 2 has a special image for its background, even though the heading has no content.

EPUBS
the source document is Markdown,	it is better to	use  a	YAML  metadata
block.  Here is an example:

---
title:
-	type: main
text: My Book
-	type: subtitle
creator:
-	role: author
text: John Smith
-	role: editor
text: Sarah Jones
identifier:
-	scheme:	DOI
text: doi:10.234234.234/33
publisher:  My Press
rights: (C) 2007 John Smith, CC BY-NC
ibooks:
version: 1.3.4
...

The following fields are	recognized:

identifier
Either  a	string value or	an object with fields text and scheme.
Valid values for scheme are ISBN-10, GTIN-13, UPC, ISMN-10, DOI,
LCCN,   GTIN-14,	ISBN-13,  Legal	 deposit  number,  URN,	 OCLC,
ISMN-13, ISBN-A, JP, OLCC.

title  Either a string value, or	an  object  with  fields  file-as  and
type,  or	 a  list  of  such objects.  Valid values for type are
main, subtitle, short, collection, edition, extended.

creator
Either a string value, or	an object with fields  role,  file-as,
and  text, or a list of such objects.  Valid values for role are
MARC relators, but pandoc	will attempt to	translate  the	human-
readable	versions (like "author"	and "editor") to the appropri-
ate marc relators.

contributor
Same format as creator.

date   A	string value in	YYYY-MM-DD format.  (Only the year  is	neces-
sary.) Pandoc will attempt to convert other common date formats.

lang (or	legacy:	language)
A	string value in	BCP 47 format.	Pandoc will default to the lo-
cal language if nothing is specified.

subject
A	string value or	a list of such values.

description
A	string value.

type   A	string value.

format A	string value.

relation
A	string value.

coverage
A	string value.

rights A	string value.

cover-image
A	string value (path to cover image).

css (or legacy: stylesheet)
A	string value (path to CSS stylesheet).

page-progression-direction
Either ltr or rtl.  Specifies the	page-progression-direction at-
tribute for the spine element.

ibooks iBooks-specific metadata,	with the following fields:

o	version: (string)

o	specified-fonts: true|false (default false)

o	iphone-orientation-lock: portrait-only|landscape-only

o	binding: true|false (default true)

o	scroll-axis: vertical|horizontal|default

The epub:type attribute
For  epub3  output,  you	can mark up the	heading	that corresponds to an
EPUB chapter using the epub:type	attribute.  For	example,  to  set  the
attribute to the	value prologue,	use this markdown:

#	My chapter {epub:type=prologue}

Which will result in:

<body epub:type="frontmatter">
<section epub:type="prologue">
<h1>My chapter</h1>

Pandoc will output <body	epub:type="bodymatter">, unless	you use	one of
the following values, in	which case either  frontmatter	or  backmatter
will be output.

epub:type of first section   epub:type of body
-----------------------------------------------
prologue			    frontmatter
abstract			    frontmatter
acknowledgments		    frontmatter
dedication		    frontmatter
credits			    frontmatter
keywords			    frontmatter
imprint			    frontmatter
contributors		    frontmatter
other-credits		    frontmatter
errata			    frontmatter
revision-history		    frontmatter
titlepage		    frontmatter
halftitlepage		    frontmatter
seriespage		    frontmatter
foreword			    frontmatter
preface			    frontmatter
appendix			    backmatter
colophon			    backmatter
bibliography		    backmatter
index			    backmatter

dio>, <video> or	<source> element present in the	 generated  EPUB,  and
include	it in the EPUB container, yielding a completely	self-contained
EPUB.  If you want to link to external media resources instead, use raw
HTML  in	 your source and add data-external="1" to the tag with the src
attribute.  For example:

<audio controls="1">
<source	src="https://example.com/music/toccata.mp3"
data-external="1" type="audio/mpeg">
</source>
</audio>

JUPYTER	NOTEBOOKS
When creating a Jupyter notebook, pandoc	will try to infer the notebook
structure.   Code  blocks  with	the  class  code will be taken as code
cells, and intervening content will be taken as	Markdown  cells.   At-
tachments  will	automatically be created for images in Markdown	cells.

---
title: My	notebook
jupyter:
nbformat: 4
nbformat_minor:	5
kernelspec:
display_name: Python	2
language: python
name: python2
language_info:
codemirror_mode:
name: ipython
version: 2
file_extension: ".py"
mimetype: "text/x-python"
name: "python"
nbconvert_exporter: "python"
pygments_lexer: "ipython2"
version: "2.7.15"
---

#	Lorem ipsum

**Lorem ipsum** dolor sit	amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nunc	luctus
bibendum felis dictum sodales.

 code
print("hello")


## Pyout

 code
from IPython.display import HTML
HTML("""
<script>
console.log("hello");
</script>
<b>HTML</b>
""")


## Image

This image ![image](myimage.png) will be
included as a cell attachment.

If you want to add cell attributes, group  cells	 differently,  or  add
output  to  code	 cells,	 then you need to include divs to indicate the
structure.  You can use either fenced divs or  native  divs  for	 this.
Here is an example:

:::::: {.cell .markdown}
#	Lorem

**Lorem ipsum** dolor sit	amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nunc	luctus
bibendum felis dictum sodales.
::::::

:::::: {.cell .code execution_count=1}
 {.python}
print("hello")


::: {.output .stream .stdout}

hello

:::
::::::

:::::: {.cell .code execution_count=2}
 {.python}
from IPython.display import HTML
HTML("""
<script>
console.log("hello");
</script>
<b>HTML</b>
""")


::: {.output .execute_result execution_count=2}
{=html}
<script>
console.log("hello");
</script>
<b>HTML</b>
hello

:::
::::::

If  you	include	raw HTML or TeX	in an output cell, use the [raw	attri-
bute][Extension:	fenced_attribute], as shown in the last	 cell  of  the
example	above.	 Although  pandoc can process "bare" raw HTML and TeX,
the result is often interspersed	raw elements and normal	 textual  ele-
ments,  and  in	an  output cell	pandoc expects a single, connected raw
block.  To avoid	using raw HTML or TeX except  when  marked  explicitly
using raw attributes, we	recommend specifying the extensions -raw_html-
raw_tex+raw_attribute when translating between Markdown and ipynb note-
books.

Note  that  options  and	 extensions that affect	reading	and writing of
Markdown	will also affect Markdown cells	in ipynb notebooks.  For exam-
ple,  --wrap=preserve will preserve soft	line breaks in Markdown	cells;
tabs will prevent tabs from being turned	to spaces.

SYNTAX HIGHLIGHTING
Pandoc  will  automatically highlight syntax in fenced code blocks that
are marked with a language name.	 The Haskell  library  skylighting  is
used  for  highlighting.	  Currently highlighting is supported only for
HTML, EPUB, Docx, Ms, and LaTeX/PDF output.  To see a list of  language
names  that  pandoc  will  recognize, type pandoc --list-highlight-lan-
guages.

The color scheme	can be selected	using  the  --highlight-style  option.
The  default color scheme is pygments, which imitates the default color
scheme used by the Python library pygments (though pygments is not  ac-
tually  used  to	 do  the  highlighting).   To  see a list of highlight
styles, type pandoc --list-highlight-styles.

If you are not satisfied	 with  the  predefined	styles,	 you  can  use
--print-highlight-style	to  generate  a	 JSON .theme file which	can be
modified	and used as the	argument to --highlight-style.	To get a  JSON
version of the pygments style, for example:

pandoc --print-highlight-style pygments >	my.theme

Then edit my.theme and use it like this:

pandoc --highlight-style my.theme

If  you	are  not satisfied with	the built-in highlighting, or you want
highlight a language that isn't supported, you can  use	the  --syntax-
definition  option to load a KDE-style XML syntax definition file.  Be-
fore writing your own, have a look at KDE's repository of syntax	 defi-
nitions.

To disable highlighting,	use the	--no-highlight option.

CUSTOM STYLES
Custom styles can be used in the	docx and ICML formats.

Output
By  default,  pandoc's docx and ICML output applies a predefined	set of
styles for blocks such as paragraphs and	block quotes, and uses largely
default	formatting  (italics,  bold)  for inlines.  This will work for
most purposes, especially alongside a reference.docx file.  However, if
you need	to apply your own styles to blocks, or match a preexisting set
of styles, pandoc allows	you to define custom  styles  for  blocks  and
text using divs and spans, respectively.

If  you	define	a  div or span with the	attribute custom-style,	pandoc
will apply your specified style to the contained	elements (with the ex-
ception	of  elements whose function depends on a style,	like headings,
code blocks, block quotes, or  links).	So,  for  example,  using  the
bracketed_spans syntax,

[Get out]{custom-style="Emphatically"}, he said.

would  produce  a  docx file with "Get out" styled with character style
Emphatically.  Similarly, using the fenced_divs syntax,

Dickinson	starts the poem	simply:

::: {custom-style="Poetry"}
|	A Bird came down the Walk---
|	He did not know	I saw---
:::

would style the two contained lines with	the Poetry paragraph style.

For docx	output,	styles will be defined in the output file as  inherit-
ing from	normal text, if	the styles are not yet in your reference.docx.
If they are already defined, pandoc will	not alter the definition.

This feature allows for greatest	customization in conjunction with pan-
doc  filters.   If you want all paragraphs after	block quotes to	be in-
dented, you can write a filter to apply the styles necessary.   If  you
want  all  italics  to  be  transformed to the Emphasis character style
(perhaps	to change their	color),	you can	 write	a  filter  which  will
transform  all italicized inlines to inlines within an Emphasis custom-
style span.

For docx	output,	you don't need to enable  any  extensions  for	custom
styles to work.

Input
The  docx  reader, by default, only reads those styles that it can con-
vert into pandoc	elements, either by direct conversion or  interpreting
the derivation of the input document's styles.

By  enabling  the styles	extension in the docx reader (-f docx+styles),
you can produce output that maintains the styles	of the input document,
using  the custom-style class.  Paragraph styles	are interpreted	as di-
vs, while character styles are interpreted as spans.

For example, using the custom-style-reference.docx file in the test di-
rectory,	we have	the following different	outputs:

Without the +styles extension:

$pandoc test/docx/custom-style-reference.docx -f docx -t markdown This is some text. This is text with an *emphasized* text style. And this is text with a **strengthened** text style. > Here is a styled paragraph that inherits from Block Text. And with the extension:$	pandoc test/docx/custom-style-reference.docx -f	docx+styles -t markdown

::: {custom-style="First Paragraph"}
This is some text.
:::

::: {custom-style="Body Text"}
This is text with	an [emphasized]{custom-style="Emphatic"} text style.
And this is text with a [strengthened]{custom-style="Strengthened"}
text style.
:::

::: {custom-style="My Block Style"}
>	Here is	a styled paragraph that	inherits from Block Text.
:::

With  these  custom styles, you can use your input document as a	refer-
ence-doc	while creating docx output (see	below),	and maintain the  same
styles in your input and	output files.

CUSTOM WRITERS
Pandoc can be extended with custom writers written in Lua.  (Pandoc in-
cludes a	Lua interpreter, so Lua	need not be installed separately.)

To use a	custom writer, simply specify the path to the  Lua  script  in
place of	the output format.  For	example:

pandoc -t	data/sample.lua

Creating	 a custom writer requires writing a Lua	function for each pos-
sible element in	a pandoc document.  To get a documented	example	 which
you can modify according	to your	needs, do

pandoc --print-default-data-file sample.lua

Note  that custom writers have no default template.  If you want	to use
--standalone with a custom writer, you will need	to specify a  template
manually	 using	--template or add a new	default	template with the name
default.NAME_OF_CUSTOM_WRITER.lua to the	templates subdirectory of your
user data directory (see	Templates).

A NOTE ON SECURITY
If you use pandoc to convert user-contributed content in	a web applica-
tion, here are some things to keep in mind:

1. Although pandoc itself will not create or  modify  any  files	 other
than	those you explicitly ask it create (with the exception of tem-
porary files used in producing PDFs),	 a  filter  or	custom	writer
filters and custom writers very carefully before using them.

2. If your application uses pandoc as a Haskell	library	 (rather  than
shelling  out	to the executable), it is possible to use it in	a mode
that fully isolates pandoc from your file  system,  by  running  the
pandoc  operations  in the PandocPure	monad.	See the	document Using
the pandoc API for more details.

3. Pandoc's parsers can exhibit pathological performance	on some	corner
cases.   It is wise to put any pandoc	operations under a timeout, to
avoid	DOS attacks that exploit these issues.	If you are  using  the
pandoc  executable, you can add the command line options +RTS	-M512M
-RTS (for example) to	limit the heap size to 512MB.

4. The HTML generated by	pandoc is  not	guaranteed  to	be  safe.   If
raw_html  is	enabled	for the	Markdown input,	users can inject arbi-
trary	HTML.  Even if raw_html	is disabled, users can include danger-
ous  content in attributes for headings, spans, and code blocks.  To
be safe, you should run all the generated HTML through an HTML sani-
tizer.

AUTHORS
Copyright 2006-2021 John	MacFarlane (jgm@berkeley.edu).	Released under
the GPL,	version	2 or greater.  This software carries  no  warranty  of
`