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Pamarith User Manual(0)				       Pamarith	User Manual(0)

       pamarith	- perform arithmetic on	two Netpbm images

       pamarith	 -add |	-subtract | -multiply |	-divide	| -difference |	-mini-
       mum | -maximum |	-mean |	-compare | -and	| -or |	-nand |	-nor | -xor  |
       -shiftleft | -shiftright	pamfile1 pamfile2

       All  options  can  be abbreviated to their shortest unique prefix.  You
       may use two hyphens instead of one.  You	may separate  an  option  name
       and its value with white	space instead of an equals sign.

       This program is part of Netpbm(1).

       pamarith	 reads two PBM,	PGM, PPM, or PAM images	as input.  It performs
       the specified binary arithmetic operation on their  sample  values  and
       produces	an output of a format which is the more	general	of the two in-
       put formats.  The two input images  must	 be  of	 the  same  width  and
       height.	 The  arithmetic  is performed on each pair of identically lo-
       cated tuples to generate	the identically	located	tuple of the output.

       For the purpose of the calculation, it assumes any PBM, PGM, or PPM in-
       put  image  is  the  equivalent	PAM image of tuple type	BLACKANDWHITE,
       GRAYSCALE, or RGB, respectively,	and if it produces a PBM, PGM, or  PPM
       output, produces	the equivalent of the PAM image	which is the result of
       the calculation.

       The first pamfile argument identifies the "left"	 argument  image;  the
       second pamfile argument identifies the "right" one.

       If  the	output is PAM, the tuple type is the same as the tuple type of
       the left	input image.

       pamarith	performs the arithmetic	on each	pair  of  identically  located
       tuples in the two input images.

       The  arithmetic operation is in all cases fundamentally a function from
       two integers to an integer (but see below - the functions  are  defined
       in ways that you	can effectively	e.g. add real numbers).	 The operation
       is performed on two tuples as follows.  The two input images must  have
       the  same depth,	or one of them must have depth one.  pamarith fails if
       one of these is not the case.

       If they have the	same depth, pamarith simply carries out	the arithmetic
       one  sample at a	time.  I.e. if at a particular position	the left input
       image contains the tuple	(s1,s2,...,sN) and the right input image  con-
       tains  the  tuple (t1,t2,...tN),	and the	function is f, then the	output
       image contains the tuple	(f(s1,t1),f(s2,t2),...,f(sN,tN)).

       If one of the images has	depth 1, the arithmetic	is  performed  between
       the  one	 sample	 in  that  image and each of the samples in the	other.
       I.e. if at a particular position	the left input image contains the  tu-
       ple (s) and the right input image contains the tuple (t1,t2,...tN), and
       the  function  is  f,  then  the	 output	 image	contains   the	 tuple

       The meanings of the samples with	respect	to the maxval varies according
       to the function you select.

       In PAM images in	general, the most usual	meaning	of a sample  (the  one
       that  applies  when  a PAM image	represents a visual image), is that it
       represents a fraction of	some maximum.  The maxval of the image	corre-
       sponds  to some maximum value (in the case of a visual image, it	corre-
       sponds to "full intensity."), and a sample value	divided	by the	maxval
       gives the fraction.

       For  pamarith,  this  interpretation  applies to	the regular arithmetic
       functions: -add,	-subtract, -multiply, -divide, -difference,  -minimum,
       -maximum,  -mean, and -compare.	For those, you should think of the ar-
       guments and result as numbers in	the range [0,1).  For example, if  the
       maxval  of  the	left argument image is 100 and the maxval of the right
       argument	image is 200 and the maxval of the output image	 is  200,  and
       the left	sample value in	an -add	calculation is 50 and the right	sample
       is 60, the actual calculation is	50/100 + 60/200	 =  160/200,  and  the
       output sample value is 160.

       For these functions, pamarith makes the output image's maxval the maxi-
       mum of the two input maxvals, except with -compare, where pamarith uses
       an output maxval	of 2.  (Before Netpbm 10.14 (February 2003), there was
       no exception for	-compare; in 10.14, the	exception was  just  that  the
       maxval  was  at	least 2, and sometime between 10.18 and	10.26 (January
       2005), it changed to being exactly 2).

       If the result of	a calculation falls outside the	range [0, 1), pamarith
       clips it	-- i.e.	 considers it to be zero or 1-.

       In many cases, where both your input maxvals are	the same, you can just
       think of	the operation as taking	place between the  sample  values  di-
       rectly,	with  no  consideration	of the maxval except for the clipping.
       E.g. an -add of sample value 5 to sample	value 8	 yields	 sample	 value

       But  with -multiply, this doesn't work.	Say your two input images have
       maxval 255, which means the output image	also has maxval	255.  Consider
       a  location  in	the  image where the input sample values are 5 and 10.
       You might think the multiplicative product of those would yield	50  in
       the  output.   But pamarith carries out the arithmetic on the fractions
       5/255 and 10/255.  It multiplies	those together and  then  rescales  to
       the  output  maxval,  giving a sample value in the output PAM of	50/255
       rounded to the nearest integer: 0.

       With the	bit string operations, the maxval has a	whole different	 mean-
       ing.  The operations in question	are: -and, -or,	-nand, -nor, -xor, and
       -shiftleft, -shiftright.

       With these, each	sample value in	one or both input images, and  in  the
       output  image, represents a bit string, not a number.  The maxval tells
       how wide	the bit	string is.  The	maxval must be a full binary count  (a
       power  of  two minus one, such as 0xff) and the number of ones in it is
       the width of the	bit string.  For  the  dyadic  bit  string  operations
       (that's	everything  but	the shift functions), the maxvals of the input
       images must be the same and pamarith makes the maxval of	the output im-
       age the same.

       For the bit shift operations, the output	maxval is the same as the left
       input maxval.  The right	input image (which contains the	shift  counts)
       can  have any maxval and	the maxval is irrelevant to the	interpretation
       of the samples.	The sample value is the	actual shift count.  But  it's
       still required that no sample value exceed the maxval.

   The Operations
       Most of the operations are obvious from the option name.	 The following
       paragraphs cover	those that aren't.

       -subtract subtracts a value in the right	input image from  a  value  in
       the left	input image.

       -difference calculates the absolute value of the	difference.

       -multiply does an ordinary arithmetic multiplication, but tends to pro-
       duce nonobvious results because of the way pamarith  interprets	sample
       values.	See Maxval <#maxval> .

       -divide	divides	 a  value  in the left input image by the value	in the
       right input image.  But like -multiply, it tends	to produce  nonobvious
       results.	 Note that pamarith clipping behavior makes this of little use
       when the	left argument (dividend) is greater than  the  right  argument
       (divisor)  -- the result	in that	case is	always the maxval.  If the di-
       visor is	0, the result is the maxval.  This option was  new  in	Netpbm
       10.30 (October 2005).

       -compare	produces the value 0 when the value in the left	input image is
       less than the value in the right	input image, 1	when  the  values  are
       equal, and 2 when the left is greater than the right.

       If  the	maxvals	 of  the  input	images are not identical, pamarith may
       claim two values	are not	equal when in fact they	are,  because  of  the
       precision  with	which  it does the arithmetic.	However, it will never
       say A is	greater	than B if A is less than B.

       -compare	was new	in Netpbm 10.13	(December 2002).

       -and, -nand, -or, -nor, and -xor	consider the input and	output	images
       to  contain  bit	 strings; they compute bitwise logic operations.  Note
       that if the maxval is 1,	you can	also look at these as logic operations
       on boolean input	values.	 See section Maxval <#maxval>  for the special
       meaning of maxval with respect to bit string operations such as these.

       -shiftleft and -shiftright consider the left input image	and output im-
       age  to	contain	bit strings.  They compute a bit shift operation, with
       bits falling off	the left or right end and zeroes shifting in,  as  op-
       posed  to  bits off one end to the other.  The right input image	sample
       value is	the number of bit positions to shift.

       Note that the maxval (see Maxval	<#maxval> ) determines	the  width  of
       the frame within	which you are shifting.

       If you want to apply a unary function, e.g. "halve", to a single	image,
       use pamfunc.

       pamfunc(1), pamsummcol(1),  pamsumm(1),	pnminvert(1),  pambrighten(1),
       ppmdim(1), pnmconvol(1),	pamdepth(1), pnmpsnr(1), pnm(5), pam(5)

       pamarith	replaced pnmarith in Netpbm 10.3 (June 2002).

       In Netpbm 10.3 through 10.8, though, pamarith was not backward compati-
       ble because it required the input images	to be of the  same  depth,  so
       you  could  not	multiply  a PBM	by a PPM as is often done for masking.
       (It was not intended at the time	that pnmarith would  be	 removed  from
       Netpbm  --  the plan was	just to	rewrite	it to use pamarith; it was re-
       moved by	mistake).

       But starting with Netpbm	10.9 (September	2002), pamarith	allows the im-
       ages  to	 have different	depths as long as one of them has depth	1, and
       that made it backward compatible	with pnmarith.

       The original pnmarith did not have the -mean option.

       The -compare option was added in	Netpbm 10.13 (December 2002).

       The bit string operations were added in Netpbm 10.27 (March 2005).

       The -divide option was added in Netpbm 10.30 (October 2005).

       This manual page	was generated by the Netpbm tool 'makeman'  from  HTML
       source.	The master documentation is at

netpbm documentation		03 January 2015	       Pamarith	User Manual(0)


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