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PACMAN(8)			 Pacman	Manual			     PACMAN(8)

NAME
       pacman -	package	manager	utility

SYNOPSIS
       pacman <operation> [options] [targets]

DESCRIPTION
       Pacman is a package management utility that tracks installed packages
       on a Linux system. It features dependency support, package groups,
       install and uninstall scripts, and the ability to sync your local
       machine with a remote repository	to automatically upgrade packages.
       Pacman packages are a zipped tar	format.

       Since version 3.0.0, pacman has been the	front-end to libalpm(3), the
       "Arch Linux Package Management" library.	This library allows
       alternative front-ends to be written (for instance, a GUI front-end).

       Invoking	pacman involves	specifying an operation	with any potential
       options and targets to operate on. A target is usually a	package	name,
       file name, URL, or a search string. Targets can be provided as command
       line arguments. Additionally, if	stdin is not from a terminal and a
       single hyphen (-) is passed as an argument, targets will	be read	from
       stdin.

OPERATIONS
       -D, --database
	   Operate on the package database. This operation allows you to
	   modify certain attributes of	the installed packages in pacman's
	   database. It	also allows you	to check the databases for internal
	   consistency.	See Database Options below.

       -Q, --query
	   Query the package database. This operation allows you to view
	   installed packages and their	files, as well as meta-information
	   about individual packages (dependencies, conflicts, install date,
	   build date, size). This can be run against the local	package
	   database or can be used on individual package files.	In the first
	   case, if no package names are provided in the command line, all
	   installed packages will be queried. Additionally, various filters
	   can be applied on the package list. See Query Options below.

       -R, --remove
	   Remove package(s) from the system. Groups can also be specified to
	   be removed, in which	case every package in that group will be
	   removed. Files belonging to the specified package will be deleted,
	   and the database will be updated. Most configuration	files will be
	   saved with a	.pacsave extension unless the --nosave option is used.
	   See Remove Options below.

       -S, --sync
	   Synchronize packages. Packages are installed	directly from the
	   remote repositories,	including all dependencies required to run the
	   packages. For example, pacman -S qt will download and install qt
	   and all the packages	it depends on. If a package name exists	in
	   more	than one repository, the repository can	be explicitly
	   specified to	clarify	the package to install:	pacman -S testing/qt.
	   You can also	specify	version	requirements: pacman -S	"bash>=3.2".
	   Quotes are needed, otherwise	the shell interprets ">" as
	   redirection to a file.

	   In addition to packages, groups can be specified as well. For
	   example, if gnome is	a defined package group, then pacman -S	gnome
	   will	provide	a prompt allowing you to select	which packages to
	   install from	a numbered list. The package selection is specified
	   using a space- and/or comma-separated list of package numbers.
	   Sequential packages may be selected by specifying the first and
	   last	package	numbers	separated by a hyphen (-). Excluding packages
	   is achieved by prefixing a number or	range of numbers with a	caret
	   (^).

	   Packages that provide other packages	are also handled. For example,
	   pacman -S foo will first look for a foo package. If foo is not
	   found, packages that	provide	the same functionality as foo will be
	   searched for. If any	package	is found, it will be installed.	A
	   selection prompt is provided	if multiple packages providing foo are
	   found.

	   You can also	use pacman -Su to upgrade all packages that are
	   out-of-date.	See Sync Options below.	When upgrading,	pacman
	   performs version comparison to determine which packages need
	   upgrading. This behavior operates as	follows:

	       Alphanumeric:
		 1.0a <	1.0b < 1.0beta < 1.0p <	1.0pre < 1.0rc < 1.0 < 1.0.a < 1.0.1
	       Numeric:
		 1 < 1.0 < 1.1 < 1.1.1 < 1.2 < 2.0 < 3.0.0

	   Additionally, version strings can have an epoch value defined that
	   will	overrule any version comparison, unless	the epoch values are
	   equal. This is specified in an epoch:version-rel format. For
	   example, 2:1.0-1 is always greater than 1:3.6-1.

       -T, --deptest
	   Check dependencies; this is useful in scripts such as makepkg to
	   check installed packages. This operation will check each dependency
	   specified and return	a list of dependencies that are	not currently
	   satisfied on	the system. This operation accepts no other options.
	   Example usage: pacman -T qt "bash>=3.2".

       -U, --upgrade
	   Upgrade or add package(s) to	the system and install the required
	   dependencies	from sync repositories.	Either a URL or	file path can
	   be specified. This is a "remove-then-add" process. See Upgrade
	   Options below; also see Handling Config Files for an	explanation on
	   how pacman takes care of configuration files.

       -F, --files
	   Query the files database. This operation allows you to look for
	   packages owning certain files or display files owned	by certain
	   packages. Only packages that	are part of your sync databases	are
	   searched. See File Options below.

       -V, --version
	   Display version and exit.

       -h, --help
	   Display syntax for the given	operation. If no operation was
	   supplied, then the general syntax is	shown.

OPTIONS
       -b, --dbpath <path>
	   Specify an alternative database location (the default is
	   /var/lib/pacman). This should not be	used unless you	know what you
	   are doing.  NOTE: If	specified, this	is an absolute path, and the
	   root	path is	not automatically prepended.

       -r, --root <path>
	   Specify an alternative installation root (default is	/). This
	   should not be used as a way to install software into	/usr/local
	   instead of /usr.  NOTE: If database path or log file	are not
	   specified on	either the command line	or in pacman.conf(5), their
	   default location will be inside this	root path.  NOTE: This option
	   is not suitable for performing operations on	a mounted guest
	   system. See --sysroot instead.

       -v, --verbose
	   Output paths	such as	as the Root, Conf File,	DB Path, Cache Dirs,
	   etc.

       --arch <arch>
	   Specify an alternate	architecture.

       --cachedir <dir>
	   Specify an alternative package cache	location (the default is
	   /var/cache/pacman/pkg). Multiple cache directories can be
	   specified, and they are tried in the	order they are passed to
	   pacman.  NOTE: This is an absolute path, and	the root path is not
	   automatically prepended.

       --color <when>
	   Specify when	to enable coloring. Valid options are always, never,
	   or auto.  always forces colors on; never forces colors off; and
	   auto	only automatically enables colors when outputting onto a tty.

       --config	<file>
	   Specify an alternate	configuration file.

       --debug
	   Display debug messages. When	reporting bugs,	this option is
	   recommended to be used.

       --gpgdir	<dir>
	   Specify a directory of files	used by	GnuPG to verify	package
	   signatures (the default is /etc/pacman.d/gnupg). This directory
	   should contain two files: pubring.gpg and trustdb.gpg.  pubring.gpg
	   holds the public keys of all	packagers.  trustdb.gpg	contains a
	   so-called trust database, which specifies that the keys are
	   authentic and trusted.  NOTE: This is an absolute path, and the
	   root	path is	not automatically prepended.

       --hookdir <dir>
	   Specify a alternative directory containing hook files (the default
	   is /etc/pacman.d/hooks). Multiple hook directories can be specified
	   with	hooks in later directories taking precedence over hooks	in
	   earlier directories.	 NOTE: This is an absolute path, and the root
	   path	is not automatically prepended.

       --logfile <file>
	   Specify an alternate	log file. This is an absolute path, regardless
	   of the installation root setting.

       --noconfirm
	   Bypass any and all "Are you sure?" messages.	It's not a good	idea
	   to do this unless you want to run pacman from a script.

       --confirm
	   Cancels the effects of a previous --noconfirm.

       --disable-download-timeout
	   Disable defaults for	low speed limit	and timeout on downloads. Use
	   this	if you have issues downloading files with proxy	and/or
	   security gateway.

       --sysroot <dir>
	   Specify an alternative system root. Pacman will chroot and chdir
	   into	the system root	prior to running. This allows mounted guest
	   systems to be properly operated on. Any other paths given will be
	   interpreted as relative to the system root. Requires	root
	   privileges.

TRANSACTION OPTIONS (APPLY TO -S, -R AND -U)
       -d, --nodeps
	   Skips dependency version checks. Package names are still checked.
	   Normally, pacman will always	check a	package's dependency fields to
	   ensure that all dependencies	are installed and there	are no package
	   conflicts in	the system. Specify this option	twice to skip all
	   dependency checks.

       --assume-installed <package=version>
	   Add a virtual package "package" with	version	"version" to the
	   transaction to satisfy dependencies.	This allows to disable
	   specific dependency checks without affecting	all dependency checks.
	   To disable all dependency checking, see the --nodeps	option.

       --dbonly
	   Adds/removes	the database entry only, leaving all files in place.

       --noprogressbar
	   Do not show a progress bar when downloading files. This can be
	   useful for scripts that call	pacman and capture the output.

       --noscriptlet
	   If an install scriptlet exists, do not execute it. Do not use this
	   unless you know what	you are	doing.

       -p, --print
	   Only	print the targets instead of performing	the actual operation
	   (sync, remove or upgrade). Use --print-format to specify how
	   targets are displayed. The default format string is "%l", which
	   displays URLs with -S, file names with -U, and pkgname-pkgver with
	   -R.

       --print-format <format>
	   Specify a printf-like format	to control the output of the --print
	   operation. The possible attributes are: "%n"	for pkgname, "%v" for
	   pkgver, "%l"	for location, "%r" for repository, and "%s" for	size.
	   Implies --print.

UPGRADE	OPTIONS	(APPLY TO -S AND -U)
       --asdeps
	   Install packages non-explicitly; in other words, fake their install
	   reason to be	installed as a dependency. This	is useful for makepkg
	   and other build-from-source tools that need to install dependencies
	   before building the package.

       --asexplicit
	   Install packages explicitly;	in other words,	fake their install
	   reason to be	explicitly installed. This is useful if	you want to
	   mark	a dependency as	explicitly installed so	it will	not be removed
	   by the --recursive remove operation.

       --ignore	<package>
	   Directs pacman to ignore upgrades of	package	even if	there is one
	   available. Multiple packages	can be specified by separating them
	   with	a comma.

       --ignoregroup <group>
	   Directs pacman to ignore upgrades of	all packages in	group, even if
	   there is one	available. Multiple groups can be specified by
	   separating them with	a comma.

       --needed
	   Do not reinstall the	targets	that are already up-to-date.

       --overwrite <glob>
	   Bypass file conflict	checks and overwrite conflicting files.	If the
	   package that	is about to be installed contains files	that are
	   already installed and match glob, this option will cause all	those
	   files to be overwritten. Using --overwrite will not allow
	   overwriting a directory with	a file or installing packages with
	   conflicting files and directories. Multiple patterns	can be
	   specified by	separating them	with a comma. May be specified
	   multiple times. Patterns can	be negated, such that files matching
	   them	will not be overwritten, by prefixing them with	an exclamation
	   mark. Subsequent matches will override previous ones. A leading
	   literal exclamation mark or backslash needs to be escaped.

QUERY OPTIONS (APPLY TO	-Q)
       -c, --changelog
	   View	the ChangeLog of a package if it exists.

       -d, --deps
	   Restrict or filter output to	packages installed as dependencies.
	   This	option can be combined with -t for listing real	orphans	-
	   packages that were installed	as dependencies	but are	no longer
	   required by any installed package.

       -e, --explicit
	   Restrict or filter output to	explicitly installed packages. This
	   option can be combined with -t to list explicitly installed
	   packages that are not required by any other package.

       -g, --groups
	   Display all packages	that are members of a named group. If a	name
	   is not specified, list all grouped packages.

       -i, --info
	   Display information on a given package. The -p option can be	used
	   if querying a package file instead of the local database. Passing
	   two --info or -i flags will also display the	list of	backup files
	   and their modification states.

       -k, --check
	   Check that all files	owned by the given package(s) are present on
	   the system. If packages are not specified or	filter flags are not
	   provided, check all installed packages. Specifying this option
	   twice will perform more detailed file checking (including
	   permissions,	file sizes, and	modification times) for	packages that
	   contain the needed mtree file.

       -l, --list
	   List	all files owned	by a given package. Multiple packages can be
	   specified on	the command line.

       -m, --foreign
	   Restrict or filter output to	packages that were not found in	the
	   sync	database(s). Typically these are packages that were downloaded
	   manually and	installed with --upgrade.

       -n, --native
	   Restrict or filter output to	packages that are found	in the sync
	   database(s).	This is	the inverse filter of --foreign.

       -o, --owns <file>
	   Search for packages that own	the specified file(s). The path	can be
	   relative or absolute, and one or more files can be specified.

       -p, --file
	   Signifies that the package supplied on the command line is a	file
	   and not an entry in the database. The file will be decompressed and
	   queried. This is useful in combination with --info and --list.

       -q, --quiet
	   Show	less information for certain query operations. This is useful
	   when	pacman's output	is processed in	a script. Search will only
	   show	package	names and not version, group, and description
	   information;	owns will only show package names instead of "file is
	   owned by pkg" messages; group will only show	package	names and omit
	   group names;	list will only show files and omit package names;
	   check will only show	pairs of package names and missing files; a
	   bare	query will only	show package names rather than names and
	   versions.

       -s, --search <regexp>
	   Search each locally-installed package for names or descriptions
	   that	match regexp. When including multiple search terms, only
	   packages with descriptions matching ALL of those terms are
	   returned.

       -t, --unrequired
	   Restrict or filter output to	print only packages neither required
	   nor optionally required by any currently installed package. Specify
	   this	option twice to	include	packages which are optionally, but not
	   directly, required by another package.

       -u, --upgrades
	   Restrict or filter output to	packages that are out-of-date on the
	   local system. Only package versions are used	to find	outdated
	   packages; replacements are not checked here.	This option works best
	   if the sync database	is refreshed using -Sy.

REMOVE OPTIONS (APPLY TO -R)
       -c, --cascade
	   Remove all target packages, as well as all packages that depend on
	   one or more target packages.	This operation is recursive and	must
	   be used with	care, since it can remove many potentially needed
	   packages.

       -n, --nosave
	   Instructs pacman to ignore file backup designations.	Normally, when
	   a file is removed from the system, the database is checked to see
	   if the file should be renamed with a	.pacsave extension.

       -s, --recursive
	   Remove each target specified	including all of their dependencies,
	   provided that (A) they are not required by other packages; and (B)
	   they	were not explicitly installed by the user. This	operation is
	   recursive and analogous to a	backwards --sync operation, and	it
	   helps keep a	clean system without orphans. If you want to omit
	   condition (B), pass this option twice.

       -u, --unneeded
	   Removes targets that	are not	required by any	other packages.	This
	   is mostly useful when removing a group without using	the -c option,
	   to avoid breaking any dependencies.

SYNC OPTIONS (APPLY TO -S)
       -c, --clean
	   Remove packages that	are no longer installed	from the cache as well
	   as currently	unused sync databases to free up disk space. When
	   pacman downloads packages, it saves them in a cache directory. In
	   addition, databases are saved for every sync	DB you download	from
	   and are not deleted even if they are	removed	from the configuration
	   file	pacman.conf(5).	Use one	--clean	switch to only remove packages
	   that	are no longer installed; use two to remove all files from the
	   cache. In both cases, you will have a yes or	no option to remove
	   packages and/or unused downloaded databases.

	   If you use a	network	shared cache, see the CleanMethod option in
	   pacman.conf(5).

       -g, --groups
	   Display all the members for each package group specified. If	no
	   group names are provided, all groups	will be	listed;	pass the flag
	   twice to view all groups and	their members.

       -i, --info
	   Display information on a given sync database	package. Passing two
	   --info or -i	flags will also	display	those packages in all
	   repositories	that depend on this package.

       -l, --list
	   List	all packages in	the specified repositories. Multiple
	   repositories	can be specified on the	command	line.

       -q, --quiet
	   Show	less information for certain sync operations. This is useful
	   when	pacman's output	is processed in	a script. Search will only
	   show	package	names and not repository, version, group, and
	   description information; list will only show	package	names and omit
	   databases and versions; group will only show	package	names and omit
	   group names.

       -s, --search <regexp>
	   This	will search each package in the	sync databases for names or
	   descriptions	that match regexp. When	you include multiple search
	   terms, only packages	with descriptions matching ALL of those	terms
	   will	be returned.

       -u, --sysupgrade
	   Upgrades all	packages that are out-of-date. Each
	   currently-installed package will be examined	and upgraded if	a
	   newer package exists. A report of all packages to upgrade will be
	   presented, and the operation	will not proceed without user
	   confirmation. Dependencies are automatically	resolved at this level
	   and will be installed/upgraded if necessary.

	   Pass	this option twice to enable package downgrades;	in this	case,
	   pacman will select sync packages whose versions do not match	with
	   the local versions. This can	be useful when the user	switches from
	   a testing repository	to a stable one.

	   Additional targets can also be specified manually, so that -Su foo
	   will	do a system upgrade and	install/upgrade	the "foo" package in
	   the same operation.

       -w, --downloadonly
	   Retrieve all	packages from the server, but do not install/upgrade
	   anything.

       -y, --refresh
	   Download a fresh copy of the	master package database	from the
	   server(s) defined in	pacman.conf(5).	This should typically be used
	   each	time you use --sysupgrade or -u. Passing two --refresh or -y
	   flags will force a refresh of all package databases,	even if	they
	   appear to be	up-to-date.

DATABASE OPTIONS (APPLY	TO -D)
       --asdeps	<package>
	   Mark	a package as non-explicitly installed; in other	words, set
	   their install reason	to be installed	as a dependency.

       --asexplicit <package>
	   Mark	a package as explicitly	installed; in other words, set their
	   install reason to be	explicitly installed. This is useful it	you
	   want	to keep	a package installed even when it was initially
	   installed as	a dependency of	another	package.

       -k, --check
	   Check the local package database is internally consistent. This
	   will	check all required files are present and that installed
	   packages have the required dependencies, do not conflict and	that
	   multiple packages do	not own	the same file. Specifying this option
	   twice will perform a	check on the sync databases to ensure all
	   specified dependencies are available.

       -q, --quiet
	   Suppress messages on	successful completion of database operations.

FILE OPTIONS (APPLY TO -F)
       -y, --refresh
	   Download fresh package databases from the server. Use twice to
	   force a refresh even	if databases are up to date.

       -l, --list
	   List	the files owned	by the queried package.

       -s, --search
	   Search package file names for matching strings.

       -x, --regex
	   Treat arguments to --search as regular expressions.

       -o, --owns
	   Search for packages that own	a particular file.

       -q, --quiet
	   Show	less information for certain file operations. This is useful
	   when	pacman's output	is processed in	a script, however, you may
	   want	to use --machinereadable instead.

       --machinereadable
	   Use a machine readable output format	for --list, --search and
	   --owns. The format is repository\0pkgname\0pkgver\0path\n with \0
	   being the NULL character and	\n a linefeed.

HANDLING CONFIG	FILES
       Pacman uses the same logic as rpm to determine action against files
       that are	designated to be backed	up. During an upgrade, three MD5
       hashes are used for each	backup file to determine the required action:
       one for the original file installed, one	for the	new file that is about
       to be installed,	and one	for the	actual file existing on	the file
       system. After comparing these three hashes, the follow scenarios	can
       result:

       original=X, current=X, new=X
	   All three files are the same, so overwrites are not an issue.
	   Install the new file.

       original=X, current=X, new=Y
	   The current file is the same	as the original, but the new one
	   differs. Since the user did not ever	modify the file, and the new
	   one may contain improvements	or bug fixes, install the new file.

       original=X, current=Y, new=X
	   Both	package	versions contain the exact same	file, but the one on
	   the file system has been modified. Leave the	current	file in	place.

       original=X, current=Y, new=Y
	   The new file	is identical to	the current file. Install the new
	   file.

       original=X, current=Y, new=Z
	   All three files are different, so install the new file with a
	   .pacnew extension and warn the user.	The user must then manually
	   merge any necessary changes into the	original file.

       original=NULL, current=Y, new=Z
	   The package was not previously installed, and the file already
	   exists on the file system. Install the new file with	a .pacnew
	   extension and warn the user.	The user must then manually merge any
	   necessary changes into the original file.

EXAMPLES
       pacman -Ss ne.hack
	   Search for regexp "ne.hack" in package database.

       pacman -S gpm
	   Download and	install	gpm including dependencies.

       pacman -U /home/user/ceofhack-0.6-1-x86_64.pkg.tar.gz
	   Install ceofhack-0.6-1 package from a local file.

       pacman -Syu
	   Update package list and upgrade all packages	afterwards.

       pacman -Syu gpm
	   Update package list,	upgrade	all packages, and then install gpm if
	   it wasn't already installed.

CONFIGURATION
       See pacman.conf(5) for more details on configuring pacman using the
       pacman.conf file.

SEE ALSO
       alpm-hooks(5), libalpm(3), makepkg(8), pacman.conf(5)

       See the pacman website at https://www.archlinux.org/pacman/ for current
       information on pacman and its related tools.

BUGS
       Bugs? You must be kidding; there	are no bugs in this software. But if
       we happen to be wrong, send us an email with as much detail as possible
       to pacman-dev@archlinux.org.

AUTHORS
       Current maintainers:

       o   Allan McRae <allan@archlinux.org>

       o   Andrew Gregory <andrew.gregory.8@gmail.com>

       o   Dan McGee <dan@archlinux.org>

       o   Dave	Reisner	<dreisner@archlinux.org>

       Past major contributors:

       o   Judd	Vinet <jvinet@zeroflux.org>

       o   Aurelien Foret <aurelien@archlinux.org>

       o   Aaron Griffin <aaron@archlinux.org>

       o   Xavier Chantry <shiningxc@gmail.com>

       o   Nagy	Gabor <ngaba@bibl.u-szeged.hu>

       For additional contributors, use	git shortlog -s	on the pacman.git
       repository.

Pacman 5.1.3			  2019-03-01			     PACMAN(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPERATIONS | OPTIONS | TRANSACTION OPTIONS (APPLY TO -S, -R AND -U) | UPGRADE OPTIONS (APPLY TO -S AND -U) | QUERY OPTIONS (APPLY TO -Q) | REMOVE OPTIONS (APPLY TO -R) | SYNC OPTIONS (APPLY TO -S) | DATABASE OPTIONS (APPLY TO -D) | FILE OPTIONS (APPLY TO -F) | HANDLING CONFIG FILES | EXAMPLES | CONFIGURATION | SEE ALSO | BUGS | AUTHORS

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