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ORPIE(1)		a console-based	RPN calculator		      ORPIE(1)

NAME
       orpie  is  a  console-based  RPN	 calculator with an interactive	visual
       stack.

SYNOPSIS
       orpie

QUICK START
       CAUTION:	while this manpage should be suitable as a quick reference, it
       may be subject to miscellaneous shortcomings in typesetting. The	defin-
       itive documentation is the user manual provided with Orpie in PDF  for-
       mat.

       This  section  describes	how to use Orpie in its	default	configuration.
       After familiarizing yourself with the basic operations as  outlined  in
       this section, you may wish to consult the orpierc(5) manpage to see how
       Orpie can be configured to better fit your needs.

   OVERVIEW
       The interface has two panels. The left panel combines  status  informa-
       tion with context-sensitive help; the right panel represents the	calcu-
       lator's stack. (Note that the left panel	will be	hidden if Orpie	is run
       in a terminal with less than 80 columns.)

       In  general,  you perform calculations by first entering	data on	to the
       stack, then executing functions that operate on the stack data.	As  an
       example,	you can	hit 1<enter>2<enter>+ in order to add 1	and 2.

   ENTERING REAL NUMBERS
       To enter	a real number, just type the desired digits and	hit enter. The
       space bar will begin entry of a scientific notation exponent.  The  'n'
       key is used for negation. Here are some examples:

       --------------------------------------------
       Keypresses		 Resulting Entry
       --------------------------------------------
       1.23<enter>		 1.23
       1.23<space>23n<enter>	 1.23e-23
       1.23n<space>23<enter>	 -1.23e23
       --------------------------------------------

   ENTERING COMPLEX NUMBERS
       Orpie  can  represent complex numbers using either cartesian (rectangu-
       lar) or polar coordinates. See PERFORMING BASIC COMMAND	OPERATIONS  to
       see how to change the complex number display mode.

       A  complex  number  is entered by first pressing	'(', then entering the
       real part, then pressing	',' followed by	the imaginary  part.  Alterna-
       tively,	you can	press '(' followed by the magnitude, then '<' followed
       by the phase angle. The angle will be interpreted in degrees  or	 radi-
       ans, depending on the current setting of	the angle mode (see PERFORMING
       BASIC COMMAND OPERATIONS).  Examples:

       --------------------------------------------------------------------
       Keypresses		       Resulting Entry
       --------------------------------------------------------------------
       (1.23, 4.56<enter>	       (1.23, 4.56)
       (0.7072<45<enter>	       (0.500065915655126, 0.50006591...
       (1.23n,4.56<space>10<enter>     (-1.23, 45600000000)
       --------------------------------------------------------------------

   ENTERING MATRICES
       You can enter matrices by pressing '['. The elements of the matrix  may
       then  be	 entered  as described in the previous sections, and should be
       separated using ','. To start a new row of the matrix, press '['	again.
       On  the stack, each row of the matrix is	enclosed in a set of brackets;
       for example, the	matrix

       1     2
       3     4

       would appear on the stack as [[1, 2][3, 4]].

       Examples	of matrix entry:

       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       Keypresses			Resulting Entry
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------
       [1,2[3,4<enter>			[[1, 2][3, 4]]
       [1.2<space>10,0[3n,5n<enter>	[[ 12000000000,	0 ][ -3, -5 ]]
       [(1,2,3,4[5,6,7,8<enter>		[[ (1, 2), (3, 4) ][ (5, 6), (...
       ---------------------------------------------------------------------

   ENTERING DATA WITH UNITS
       Real and	complex	scalars	and matrices can optionally  be	 labeled  with
       units.  After typing in the numeric portion of the data,	press '_' fol-
       lowed by	a units	string.	The format of units strings  is	 described  in
       the UNITS FORMATTING section.

       Examples	of entering dimensioned	data:

       -------------------------------------------------------
       Keypresses		  Resulting Entry
       -------------------------------------------------------
       1.234_N*mm^2/s<enter>	  1.234_N*mm^2*s^-1
       (2.3,5_s^-4<enter>	  (2.3,	5)_s^-4
       [1,2[3,4_lbf*in<enter>	  [[ 1,	2 ][ 3,	4 ]]_lbf*in
       _nm<enter>		  1_nm
       -------------------------------------------------------

   ENTERING EXACT INTEGERS
       An exact	integer	may be entered by pressing '#' followed	by the desired
       digits. The base	of the integer will be assumed to be the same  as  the
       current	calculator  base mode (see PERFORMING BASIC COMMAND OPERATIONS
       to see how to set this mode).  Alternatively, the desired base  may  be
       specified  by pressing space and	appending one of {b, o,	d, h}, to rep-
       resent binary, octal, decimal, or  hexadecimal,	respectively.  On  the
       stack,  the  representation of the integer will be changed to match the
       current base mode. Examples:

       ---------------------------------------------
       Keypresses		  Resulting Entry
       ---------------------------------------------
       #123456<enter>		  # 123456`d
       #ffff<space>h<enter>	  # 65535`d
       #10101n<space>b<enter>	  # -21`d
       ---------------------------------------------

       Note that exact integers	may  have  unlimited  length,  and  the	 basic
       arithmetic operations (addition,	subtraction, multiplication, division)
       will be performed using exact arithmetic	when both arguments are	 inte-
       gers.

   ENTERING VARIABLE NAMES
       A  variable name	may be entered by pressing '@' followed	by the desired
       variable	name string. The string	may contain  alphanumeric  characters,
       dashes, and underscores.	Example:

       ---------------------------------
       Keypresses     Resulting	Entry
       ---------------------------------

       @myvar	      @	myvar
       ---------------------------------

       Orpie  also  supports  autocompletion of	variable names.	The help panel
       displays	a list of pre-existing variables that partially	match the name
       currently  being	entered.  You can press	'<tab>'	to iterate through the
       list of matching	variables.

       As a shortcut, keys <f1>-<f4> will enter	the variables  (``registers'')
       @ r01 through @ r04.

   ENTERING PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
       Orpie  includes	definitions  for a number of fundamental physical con-
       stants. To enter	a constant, press 'C', followed	by the first few  let-
       ters/digits  of	the constant's symbol, then hit	enter. Orpie offers an
       autocompletion feature for physical constants, so you only need to type
       enough of the constant to identify it uniquely. A list of matching con-
       stants will appear in the left panel of the display, to assist  you  in
       finding the desired choice.

       The following is	a list of Orpie's physical constant symbols:

       ----------------------------------------------
       Symbol	  Physical Constant
       ----------------------------------------------
       NA	  Avagadro's number
       k	  Boltzmann constant
       Vm	  molar	volume
       R	  universal gas	constant
       stdT	  standard temperature
       stdP	  standard pressure
       sigma	  Stefan-Boltzmann constant
       c	  speed	of light
       eps0	  permittivity of free space
       u0	  permeability of free space
       g	  acceleration of gravity
       G	  Newtonian gravitational constant
       h	  Planck's constant
       hbar	  Dirac's constant
       e	  electron charge
       me	  electron mass
       mp	  proton mass
       alpha	  fine structure constant
       phi	  magnetic flux	quantum
       F	  Faraday's constant
       Rinf	  ``infinity'' Rydberg constant
       a0	  Bohr radius
       uB	  Bohr magneton
       uN	  nuclear magneton
       lam0	  wavelength of	a 1eV photon
       f0	  frequency of a 1eV photon
       lamc	  Compton wavelength
       c3	  Wien's constant
       ----------------------------------------------

       All physical constants are defined in the Orpie run-configuration file;
       consult the orpierc(5) manpage if you wish to define your own constants
       or change the existing definitions.

   ENTERING DATA WITH AN EXTERNAL EDITOR
       Orpie can also parse input entered via an external editor. You may find
       this to be a convenient method for entering  large  matrices.  Pressing
       'E'  will launch	the external editor, and the various data types	may be
       entered as illustrated by the examples below:

       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Data Type					      Sample Input String
       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       exact integer					      #12345678`d, where the trailing
       letter is one of	the base characters {b,	o, d, h}
       real number					      -123.45e67
       complex number					      (1e10, 2)	or (1 <90)
       real matrix					      [[1, 2][3.1, 4.5e10]]
       complex matrix					      [[(1, 0),	5][1e10, (2 <90)]]
       variable						      @myvar
       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       Real and	complex	numbers	and matrices may have units appended; just add
       a  units	 string	 such  as ``_N*m/s'' immediately following the numeric
       portion of the expression.

       Notice that the complex matrix input parser is quite flexible; real and
       complex	matrix	elements may be	mixed, and cartesian and polar complex
       formats may be mixed as well.

       Multiple	stack entries may be specified in the same file, if  they  are
       separated by whitespace.	For example, entering (1, 2) 1.5 into the edi-
       tor will	cause the complex value	(1, 2) to be placed on the stack, fol-
       lowed by	the real value 1.5.

       The  input  parser will discard whitespace where	possible, so feel free
       to add any form of whitespace between  matrix  rows,  matrix  elements,
       real and	complex	components, etc.

   EXECUTING BASIC FUNCTION OPERATIONS
       Once  some data has been	entered	on the stack, you can apply operations
       to that data. For example, '+' will add the last	two  elements  on  the
       stack.  By  default,  the following keys	have been bound	to such	opera-
       tions:

       -----------------------------------------------------
       Keys	Operations
       -----------------------------------------------------
       +	add last two stack elements
       -	subtract element 1 from	element	2
       *	multiply last two stack	elements
       /	divide element 2 by element 1
       ^	raise element 2	to the power of	element	1
       n	negate last element
       i	invert last element
       s	square root function
       a	absolute value function
       e	exponential function
       l	natural	logarithm function
       c	complex	conjugate function
       !	factorial function
       %	element	2 mod element 1
       S	store element 2	in (variable) element 1
       ;	evaluate variable to obtain contents
       -----------------------------------------------------

       As a shortcut, function operators will  automatically  enter  any  data
       that  you  were	in the process of entering. So instead of the sequence
       2<enter>2<enter>+, you could type simply	2<enter>2+ and the second num-
       ber would be entered before the addition	operation is applied.

       As  an  additional  shortcut, any variable names	used as	function argu-
       ments will be evaluated before application of the  function.  In	 other
       words,  it  is  not  necessary  to evaluate variables before performing
       arithmetic operations on	them.

   EXECUTING FUNCTION ABBREVIATIONS
       One could bind nearly all calculator operations to specific keypresses,
       but  this  would	rapidly	get confusing since the	PC keyboard is not la-
       beled as	nicely as a calculator keyboard	is. For	this reason, Orpie in-
       cludes an abbreviation syntax.

       To  activate  an	 abbreviation,	press ''' (quote key), followed	by the
       first few letters/digits	of the abbreviation, then hit enter. Orpie of-
       fers  an	 autocompletion	feature	for abbreviations, so you only need to
       type enough of the operation to identify	it uniquely. The matching  ab-
       breviations will	appear in the left panel of the	display, to assist you
       in finding the appropriate operation.

       To avoid	interface conflicts, abbreviations may be  entered  only  when
       the entry buffer	(the bottom line of the	screen)	is empty.

       The following functions are available as	abbreviations:

       -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Abbreviations	 Functions
       -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       inv		 inverse function
       pow		 raise element 2 to the	power of element 1
       sq		 square	last element
       sqrt		 square	root function
       abs		 absolute value	function
       exp		 exponential function
       ln		 natural logarithm function
       10^		 base 10 exponential function
       log10		 base 10 logarithm function
       conj		 complex conjugate function
       sin		 sine function
       cos		 cosine	function
       tan		 tangent function
       sinh		 hyperbolic sine function
       cosh		 hyperbolic cosine function
       tanh		 hyperbolic tangent function
       asin		 arcsine function
       acos		 arccosine function
       atan		 arctangent function
       asinh		 inverse hyperbolic sine function
       acosh		 inverse hyperbolic cosine function
       atanh		 inverse hyperbolic tangent function
       re		 real part of complex number
       im		 imaginary part	of complex number
       gamma		 Euler gamma function
       lngamma		 natural log of	Euler gamma function
       erf		 error function
       erfc		 complementary error function
       fact		 factorial function
       gcd		 greatest common divisor function
       lcm		 least common multiple function
       binom		 binomial coefficient function
       perm		 permutation function
       trans		 matrix	transpose
       trace		 trace of a matrix
       solvelin		 solve a linear	system of the form Ax =	b
       mod		 element 2 mod element 1
       floor		 floor function
       ceil		 ceiling function
       toint		 convert a real	number to an integer type
       toreal		 convert an integer type to a real number
       add		 add last two elements
       sub		 subtract element 1 from element 2
       mult		 multiply last two elements
       div		 divide	element	2 by element 1
       neg		 negate	last element
       store		 store element 2 in (variable) element 1
       eval		 evaluate variable to obtain contents
       purge		 delete	a variable
       total		 sum the columns of a real matrix
       mean		 compute the sample means of the columns of a real matrix

       sumsq		 sum the squares of the	columns	of a real matrix
       var		 compute the unbiased sample variances of the columns of a real	matrix
       varbias		 compute the biased (population) sample	variances of the columns of a real matrix
       stdev		 compute the unbiased sample standard deviations of the	columns	of a real matrix
       stdevbias	 compute the biased (pop.) sample standard deviations of the columns of	a matrix
       min		 find the minima of the	columns	of a real matrix
       max		 find the maxima of the	columns	of a real matrix
       utpn		 compute the upper tail	probability of a normal	distribution
       uconvert		 convert element 2 to an equivalent expression with units matching element 1
       ustand		 convert to equivalent expression using	SI standard base units
       uvalue		 drop the units	of the last element
       -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       Entering	 abbreviations	can  become tedious when performing repetitive
       calculations.  To save some keystrokes, Orpie will  automatically  bind
       recently-used operations	with no	prexisting binding to keys <f5>-<f12>.
       The current autobindings	can be viewed by pressing 'h' to cycle between
       the various pages of the	help panel.

   EXECUTING BASIC COMMAND OPERATIONS
       In  addition to the function operations listed in the section EXECUTING
       BASIC FUNCTION OPERATIONS, a number of basic calculator	commands  have
       been bound to single keypresses:

       -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Keys	      Operations
       -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       \	      drop last	element
       |	      clear all	stack elements
       <pagedown>     swap last	two elements
       <enter>	      duplicate	last element (when entry buffer	is empty)
       u	      undo last	operation
       r	      toggle angle mode	between	degrees	and radians
       p	      toggle complex display mode between rectangular and polar
       b	      cycle base display mode between binary, octal, decimal, hex
       h	      cycle through multiple help windows
       v	      view last	stack element in a fullscreen editor
       E	      create a new stack element using an external editor
       P	      enter 3.14159265 on the stack
       C-L	      refresh the display
       <up>	      begin stack browsing mode
       Q	      quit Orpie
       -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

   EXECUTING COMMAND ABBREVIATIONS
       In  addition to the function operations listed in the section EXECUTING
       FUNCTION	ABBREVIATIONS, there are a large number	of calculator commands
       that have been implemented using	the abbreviation syntax:

       -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Abbreviations	 Calculator Operation
       -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       drop		 drop last element
       clear		 clear all stack elements
       swap		 swap last two elements
       dup		 duplicate last	element
       undo		 undo last operation
       rad		 set angle mode	to radians
       deg		 set angle mode	to degrees
       rect		 set complex display mode to rectangular
       polar		 set complex display mode to polar
       bin		 set base display mode to binary
       oct		 set base display mode to octal
       dec		 set base display mode to decimal
       hex		 set base display mode to hexidecimal
       view		 view last stack element in a fullscreen editor
       edit		 create	a new stack element using an external editor

       pi		 enter 3.14159265 on the stack
       rand		 generate a random number between 0 and	1 (uniformly distributed)
       refresh		 refresh the display
       about		 display a nifty ``About Orpie'' screen
       quit		 quit Orpie
       -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

   BROWSING THE	STACK
       Orpie  offers a stack browsing mode to assist in	viewing	and manipulat-
       ing stack data. Press <up> to enter stack browsing  mode;  this	should
       highlight  the  last  stack  element. You can use the up	and down arrow
       keys to select different	stack elements.	The following keys are	useful
       in stack	browsing mode:

       --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Keys	   Operations
       --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       q	   quit	stack browsing mode
       <left>	   scroll selected entry to the	left
       <right>	   scroll selected entry to the	right
       r	   cyclically ``roll'' stack elements downward,	below the selected element (inclusive)
       R	   cyclically ``roll'' stack elements upward, below the	selected element (inclusive)
       v	   view	the currently selected element in a fullscreen editor
       E	   edit	the currently selected element with an external	editor
       <enter>	   duplicate the currently selected element
       --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       The  left  and right scrolling option may prove useful for viewing very
       lengthy stack entries, such as large matrices. The edit option provides
       a  convenient  way  to  correct	data  after it has been	entered	on the
       stack.

   UNITS FORMATTING
       A units string is a list	of units separated by '*' to  indicate	multi-
       plication  and  '/'  to	indicate  division.  Units  may	 be  raised to
       real-valued powers using	the '^'character. A  contrived	example	 of  a
       valid unit string would be "N*nm^2*kg/s/in^-3*GHz^2.34".

       Orpie  supports the standard SI prefix set, {y, z, a, f,	p, n, u, m, c,
       d, da, h, k, M, G, T, P,	E, Z, Y} (note the use	of  'u'	 for  micro-).
       These  prefixes	may be applied to any of the following exhaustive sets
       of units:

       --------------------------------
       String	   Length Unit
       --------------------------------
       m	   meter
       ft	   foot
       in	   inch
       yd	   yard
       mi	   mile
       pc	   parsec
       AU	   astronomical	unit
       Ang	   angstrom
       furlong	   furlong
       pt	   PostScript point
       pica	   PostScript pica
       nmi	   nautical mile
       lyr	   lightyear
       --------------------------------

       -----------------------------
       String	  Mass Unit
       -----------------------------
       g	  gram
       lb	  pound	mass
       oz	  ounce

       slug	  slug
       lbt	  Troy pound
       ton	  (USA)	short ton
       tonl	  (UK) long ton
       tonm	  metric ton
       ct	  carat
       gr	  grain
       -----------------------------

       -----------------------
       String	  Time Unit
       -----------------------
       s	  second
       min	  minute
       hr	  hour
       day	  day
       yr	  year
       Hz	  Hertz
       -----------------------

       ------------------------------
       String	  Temperature Unit
       ------------------------------
       K	  Kelvin
       R	  Rankine
       ------------------------------

       Note: No, Celsius and Fahrenheit	will not be supported.	Because	 these
       temperature  units  do not share	a common zero point, their behavior is
       ill-defined under many operations.

       ------------------------------------------
       String	  ``Amount of Substance'' Unit
       ------------------------------------------
       mol	  Mole
       ------------------------------------------

       -------------------------
       String	  Force	Unit
       -------------------------
       N	  Newton
       lbf	  pound	force
       dyn	  dyne
       kip	  kip
       -------------------------

       ----------------------------------
       String	  Energy Unit
       ----------------------------------
       J	  Joule
       erg	  erg
       cal	  calorie
       BTU	  british thermal unit
       eV	  electron volt
       ----------------------------------

       -----------------------------
       String	  Electrical Unit
       -----------------------------
       A	  Ampere
       C	  Coulomb
       V	  volt
       Ohm	  Ohm
       F	  Farad
       H	  Henry
       T	  Tesla
       G	  Gauss

       Wb	  Weber
       Mx	  Maxwell
       -----------------------------

       ------------------------
       String	  Power	Unit
       ------------------------
       W	  Watt
       hp	  horsepower
       ------------------------

       ------------------------------------
       String	  Pressure Unit
       ------------------------------------
       Pa	  Pascal
       atm	  atmosphere
       bar	  bar
       Ohm	  Ohm
       mmHg	  millimeters of mercury
       inHg	  inches of mercury
       ------------------------------------

       ----------------------------
       String	  Luminance Unit
       ----------------------------
       cd	  candela
       lm	  lumen
       lx	  lux
       ----------------------------

       Note: Although the lumen	is defined by 1_lm = 1_cd *  sr,  Orpie	 drops
       the  steridian  because	it is a	dimensionless unit and therefore is of
       questionable use	to a calculator.

       ------------------------------
       String	  Volume Unit
       ------------------------------
       ozfl	  fluid	ounce (US)
       cup	  cup (US)
       pt	  pint (US)
       qt	  quart	(US)
       gal	  gallon (US)
       L	  liter
       ------------------------------

       All units are defined in	the Orpie run-configuration file; consult  the
       orpierc(5)  manpage  if you wish	to define your own units or change the
       existing	definitions.

LICENSING
       Orpie is	Free Software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it	 under
       the  terms  of the GNU General Public License (GPL), Version 2, as pub-
       lished by the Free Software Foundation. You should have received	a copy
       of the GPL along	with this program, in the file ``COPYING''.

CREDITS
       Orpie  includes	portions  of  the  ocamlgsl  [1]  bindings supplied by
       Olivier Andrieu,	as well	as the curses bindings	from  the  OCaml  Text
       Mode Kit	[2] written by Nicolas George. I would like to thank these au-
       thors for helping to make Orpie possible.

CONTACT	INFO
       Orpie author: Paul Pelzl	<pelzlpj@gmail.com>
       Orpie website: http://pessimization.com/software/orpie

       Feel free to contact me if you have bugs,  feature  requests,  patches,
       etc.  I would also welcome volunteers interested	in packaging Orpie for
       various platforms.

REFERENCES
       [1]     http://oandrieu.nerim.net/ocaml/gsl/
       [2]     http://www.nongnu.org/ocaml-tmk/
       [3]     http://www.gnu.org/software/gnu-arch/.

SEE ALSO
       orpierc(5), orpie-curses-keys(1)

a console-based	RPN calculator	 11 April 2014			      ORPIE(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | QUICK START | LICENSING | CREDITS | CONTACT INFO | REFERENCES | SEE ALSO

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