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OPING(8)			   liboping			      OPING(8)

       oping - send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts

       oping [-4 | -6] [-c count] [-i interval]	host [host [host ...]]

       oping [-4 | -6] [-c count] [-i interval]	-f filename

       noping [-4 | -6]	[-c count] [-i interval] host [host [host ...]]

       noping [-4 | -6]	[-c count] [-i interval] -f filename

       oping uses ICMPv4 or ICMPv6 ECHO_REQUEST	packets	to measure a hosts
       reachability and	the network latency. In	contrast to the	original
       ping(8) utility oping can send ICMP packets to multiple hosts in
       parallel	and wait for all ECHO_RESPONSE packets to arrive. In contrast
       to the fping utility (URL is listed in "SEE ALSO") oping	can use	both,
       IPv4 and	IPv6 transparently and side by side.

       noping is an ncurses-based front-end to liboping	which displays ping
       statistics online and highlights	aberrant round-trip times if the
       terminal	supports colors.

       -4  Force the use of IPv4.

       -6  Force the use of IPv6.

       -c count
	   Send	(and receive) count ICMP packets, then stop and	exit.

       -i interval
	   Send	one ICMP packet	(per host) each	interval seconds. This can be
	   a floating-point number to specify sub-second precision.

       -t ttl
	   Set the IP Time to Live to ttl. This	must be	a number between (and
	   including) 1	and 255. If omitted, the value 64 is used.

       -I address
	   Set the source address to use. You may either specify an IP number
	   or a	hostname. You cannot pass the interface	name, as you can with
	   GNU's ping(8) - use the -D option for that purpose.

       -D interface name
	   Set the outgoing network device to use.

       -f filename
	   Instead of specifying hostnames on the command line,	read them from
	   filename. If	filename is -, read from "STDIN".

	   If oping is installed with the SetUID-bit, it will set the
	   effective UID to the	real UID before	opening	the file. In the
	   special (but	common)	case that oping	is owned by the	super-user
	   (UID	0), this means that privileges are temporarily dropped before
	   opening the file, in	order to prevent users from reading arbitrary
	   files on the	system.

	   If your system doesn't provide saved	set-user IDs (this was an
	   optional feature before POSIX 2001),	the behavior is	different
	   because it is not possible to temporarily drop privileges. The
	   alternative behavior	is: If the real	user ID	(as returned by
	   getuid(2)) and the effective	user ID	(as returned by	geteuid(2))
	   differ, the only argument allowed for this option is	"-" (i.e.
	   standard input).

       -Q qos
	   Specify the Quality of Service (QoS)	for outgoing packets. This is
	   a somewhat tricky option, since the meaning of the bits in the IPv4
	   header has been revised several times.

	   The currently recommended method is Differentiated Services which
	   is used in IPv6 headers as well. There are shortcuts	for various
	   predefined per-hop behaviors	(PHBs):

	   be  Selects the Best	Effort behavior. This is the default behavior.

	   ef  Selects the Expedited Forwarding	(EF) per-hop behavior, as
	       defined in RFC 3246. This PHB is	characterised by low delay,
	       low loss	and low	jitter,	i.e. high priority traffic.

	   va  Selects the Voice Admitted (VA) per-hop behavior, as defined in
	       RFC 5865. This traffic class is meant for Voice over IP (VoIP)
	       traffic which uses Call Admission Control (CAC) for reserving
	       network capacity.

	       Selects one of 12 differentiated	services code points (DSCPs),
	       which are organized in four classes with	three priorities each.
	       Therefore, c must be a number between 1 through 4 and p must be
	       a number	between	1 through 3, for example "af13", "af22"	and
	       "af41". In each class, the lower	priority number	takes
	       precedence over the higher priority number.

	   csn Selects one of the eight	Class Selector PHBs. n is a number
	       between 0 through 7. The	class selectors	have been defined to
	       be compatible to	the Precedence field in	the IPv4 header	as
	       defined in RFC 791. Please note that "cs0" is synonymous	to

	   The old definition of the same bits in the IPv4 header was as Type
	   of Service (ToS) field, specified in	RFC 1349. It defined four
	   possible values which have appropriate aliases. Please note that
	   this	use of the bits	is deprecated and the meaning is limited to

	       Minimize	delay

	       Maximize	throughput

	       Maximize	reliability

	       Minimize	monetary cost

	   Alternatively, you can also specify the byte	manually. You can use
	   either a decimal number (0-255), a hexadecimal number (0x00-0xff)
	   or an octal number (00-0377)	using the usual	"0x" and "0" prefixes
	   for hexadecimal and octal respectively.

	   The printed lines will contain information about the	QoS field of
	   received packets if either a	non-standard QoS setting was used on
	   outgoing packets or if the QoS byte of incoming packets is not
	   zero. In other words, the QoS information is	omitted	if both, the
	   outgoing and	the incoming QoS bytes are zero. The received byte is
	   always interpreted as Differentiated	Services Code Point (DSCP) and
	   Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN), even	if the deprecated Type
	   of Service (ToS) aliases were used to specify the bits of outgoing

	   noping only -u forces UTF-8 output, -U disables UTF-8 output. If
	   neither is given, the codeset is automatically determined from the

       -g none|prettyping|boxplot|histogram
	   noping only Selects the graph to display.

	       Do not show a graph.

	       Show a graph with time on the x-axis, the y-axis	shows the
	       round-trip time.	 This is the default graph.

	       If your terminal	supports unicode and colors, they are used to
	       improve the precision of	the data shown:	a green	box is drawn
	       for round-trip times up to one third of the configured timeout,
	       the height representing the RTT.	Longer RTTs will start to fill
	       the box yellow (with a green background)	and then red (with a
	       yellow background). Lost	packages are drawn as a	bold red
	       explamation mark.

	       Show a box plot where the x-axis, i.e. the width	of the window,
	       is the round-trip time. The entire width	of the window it the
	       ping interval, set with the -i option.

	       The box is sized	so it contains 50% of the replies. The
	       vertical	line shows the median. The whiskers are	sized to
	       contain 95% of the replies -- 2.5% below	the whiskers and 2.5%

		 ^	    ^	  ^	     ^						  ^
		2.75%	   25%	 50%	    75%						97.5%

	       Show a histrogram of the	round-trip times. The width of the
	       window is taken as round-trip time from 0ms on the left to the
	       interval	(the -i	option,	default	1000ms)	on the right.

	       The height of the graph is scaled so that the most-used buckets
	       vertically fills	the line. The buckets are colored green	up to
	       and including the 80th percentile, yellow up to and including
	       the 95th	percentile and red for the remainder.

       -P percent
	   Configures the latency percentile to	report.	percent	must be	a
	   number between zero and 100,	exclusively in both cases. In general,
	   defaults to 95.  If -c is given and a number	less than 20, this
	   would be the	same as	the maximum. In	this case the default is
	   chosen so that it excludes the maximum, e.g.	if -c 5	is given, the
	   default is 80. The calculated percentile is based on	the last 900
	   packets (15 minutes with the	default	interval).

       -Z percent
	   If any hosts	have a drop rate higher	than percent, where percent is
	   a number between zero and 100 inclusively, exit with	a non-zero
	   exit	status.	 Since it is not possible to have a higher drop	rate
	   than	100%, passing this limit will effectively disable the feature
	   (the	default). Setting the option to	zero means that	the exit
	   status will only be zero if all replies for all hosts have been

	   The exit status will	indicate the number of hosts with more than
	   percent packets lost, up to a number	of 255 failing hosts.

       If supported by the terminal, noping will highlight the round-trip
       times (RTT) using the colors green, yellow and red. Green signals RTTs
       that are	in the "expected" range, yellow	marks moderately unusual times
       and times that differ a lot from	the expected value are printed in red.

       The information used to categorize round-trip times is the percentile.
       RTTs in the 80th	percentile are considered to be	"normal" and are
       printed in green.  RTTs within the 95th percentile are considered
       "moderately unusual" and	are printed in yellow. RTTs above that are
       considered to be	"unusual" and are printed in red.

       ping(8),	<>, liboping(3)

       liboping	is written by Florian "octo" Forster <ff at>.  Its
       homepage	can be found at	<>.

       Copyright (c) 2005-2011 by Florian "octo" Forster.

1.8.0				  2014-11-20			      OPING(8)


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