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OPEN(2)			   Linux Programmer's Manual		       OPEN(2)

NAME
       open, creat - open and possibly create a	file or	device

SYNOPSIS
       #include	<sys/types.h>
       #include	<sys/stat.h>
       #include	<fcntl.h>

       int open(const char *pathname, int flags);
       int open(const char *pathname, int flags, mode_t	mode);

       int creat(const char *pathname, mode_t mode);

DESCRIPTION
       Given a pathname	for a file, open() returns a file descriptor, a	small,
       nonnegative integer  for	 use  in  subsequent  system  calls  (read(2),
       write(2), lseek(2), fcntl(2), etc.).  The file descriptor returned by a
       successful call will be the lowest-numbered file	 descriptor  not  cur-
       rently open for the process.

       By  default,  the  new  file descriptor is set to remain	open across an
       execve(2) (i.e.,	the  FD_CLOEXEC	 file  descriptor  flag	 described  in
       fcntl(2)	 is  initially	disabled; the O_CLOEXEC	flag, described	below,
       can be used to change this default).  The file offset  is  set  to  the
       beginning of the	file (see lseek(2)).

       A  call	to open() creates a new	open file description, an entry	in the
       system-wide table of open files.	 This entry records  the  file	offset
       and  the	 file status flags (modifiable via the fcntl(2)	F_SETFL	opera-
       tion).  A file descriptor is a reference	to one of these	entries;  this
       reference is unaffected if pathname is subsequently removed or modified
       to refer	to a different file.  The new open file	 description  is  ini-
       tially  not  shared  with  any other process, but sharing may arise via
       fork(2).

       The argument flags must include one  of	the  following	access	modes:
       O_RDONLY,  O_WRONLY,  or	 O_RDWR.  These	request	opening	the file read-
       only, write-only, or read/write,	respectively.

       In addition, zero or more file creation flags and file status flags can
       be  bitwise-or'd	 in  flags.   The  file	 creation flags	are O_CLOEXEC,
       O_CREAT,	 O_DIRECTORY,  O_EXCL,	O_NOCTTY,  O_NOFOLLOW,	O_TRUNC,   and
       O_TTY_INIT.   The  file	status	flags  are  all	of the remaining flags
       listed below.  The distinction between these two	 groups	 of  flags  is
       that  the  file status flags can	be retrieved and (in some cases) modi-
       fied using fcntl(2).  The full list of file  creation  flags  and  file
       status flags is as follows:

       O_APPEND
	      The  file	 is  opened in append mode.  Before each write(2), the
	      file offset is positioned	at the end of the  file,  as  if  with
	      lseek(2).	 O_APPEND may lead to corrupted	files on NFS file sys-
	      tems if more than	one process appends data to a  file  at	 once.
	      This is because NFS does not support appending to	a file,	so the
	      client kernel has	to simulate it,	which can't be done without  a
	      race condition.

       O_ASYNC
	      Enable  signal-driven  I/O: generate a signal (SIGIO by default,
	      but this can be changed  via  fcntl(2))  when  input  or	output
	      becomes  possible	 on  this  file	 descriptor.   This feature is
	      available	only  for  terminals,  pseudoterminals,	 sockets,  and
	      (since  Linux  2.6)  pipes  and FIFOs.  See fcntl(2) for further
	      details.

       O_CLOEXEC (Since	Linux 2.6.23)
	      Enable the close-on-exec	flag  for  the	new  file  descriptor.
	      Specifying  this	flag  permits  a  program  to avoid additional
	      fcntl(2) F_SETFD operations to set the FD_CLOEXEC	 flag.	 Addi-
	      tionally,	 use  of  this flag is essential in some multithreaded
	      programs since using a separate fcntl(2)	F_SETFD	 operation  to
	      set  the	FD_CLOEXEC  flag does not suffice to avoid race	condi-
	      tions where one thread opens a file descriptor at	the same  time
	      as another thread	does a fork(2) plus execve(2).

       O_CREAT
	      If  the file does	not exist it will be created.  The owner (user
	      ID) of the file is set to	the effective user ID of the  process.
	      The  group  ownership  (group ID)	is set either to the effective
	      group ID of the process or to the	group ID of the	parent	direc-
	      tory  (depending	on file	system type and	mount options, and the
	      mode of the parent directory, see	the  mount  options  bsdgroups
	      and sysvgroups described in mount(8)).

	      mode specifies the permissions to	use in case a new file is cre-
	      ated.  This argument must	be supplied when O_CREAT is  specified
	      in  flags;  if  O_CREAT  is not specified, then mode is ignored.
	      The effective permissions	are modified by	the process's umask in
	      the   usual  way:	 The  permissions  of  the  created  file  are
	      (mode _ ~umask).	Note that this mode  applies  only  to	future
	      accesses of the newly created file; the open() call that creates
	      a	read-only file may well	return a read/write file descriptor.

	      The following symbolic constants are provided for	mode:

	      S_IRWXU  00700 user (file	owner) has  read,  write  and  execute
		       permission

	      S_IRUSR  00400 user has read permission

	      S_IWUSR  00200 user has write permission

	      S_IXUSR  00100 user has execute permission

	      S_IRWXG  00070 group has read, write and execute permission

	      S_IRGRP  00040 group has read permission

	      S_IWGRP  00020 group has write permission

	      S_IXGRP  00010 group has execute permission

	      S_IRWXO  00007 others have read, write and execute permission

	      S_IROTH  00004 others have read permission

	      S_IWOTH  00002 others have write permission

	      S_IXOTH  00001 others have execute permission

       O_DIRECT	(Since Linux 2.4.10)
	      Try  to minimize cache effects of	the I/O	to and from this file.
	      In general this will degrade performance,	but it	is  useful  in
	      special  situations,  such  as  when  applications  do their own
	      caching.	File I/O is done directly to/from user-space  buffers.
	      The  O_DIRECT  flag  on its own makes an effort to transfer data
	      synchronously, but does not give the guarantees  of  the	O_SYNC
	      flag that	data and necessary metadata are	transferred.  To guar-
	      antee synchronous	I/O,  O_SYNC  must  be	used  in  addition  to
	      O_DIRECT.	 See NOTES below for further discussion.

	      A	 semantically  similar	(but  deprecated)  interface for block
	      devices is described in raw(8).

       O_DIRECTORY
	      If pathname is not a directory, cause the	open  to  fail.	  This
	      flag is Linux-specific, and was added in kernel version 2.1.126,
	      to avoid denial-of-service problems if opendir(3)	is called on a
	      FIFO or tape device.

       O_EXCL Ensure  that  this call creates the file:	if this	flag is	speci-
	      fied in conjunction with O_CREAT,	and pathname  already  exists,
	      then open() will fail.

	      When  these two flags are	specified, symbolic links are not fol-
	      lowed: if	pathname is a symbolic link, then open() fails regard-
	      less of where the	symbolic link points to.

	      In  general,  the	 behavior of O_EXCL is undefined if it is used
	      without O_CREAT.	There is  one  exception:  on  Linux  2.6  and
	      later,  O_EXCL can be used without O_CREAT if pathname refers to
	      a	block device.  If the block device is in  use  by  the	system
	      (e.g., mounted), open() fails with the error EBUSY.

	      On  NFS,	O_EXCL	is supported only when using NFSv3 or later on
	      kernel 2.6 or later.  In NFS environments	where  O_EXCL  support
	      is not provided, programs	that rely on it	for performing locking
	      tasks will contain a race	 condition.   Portable	programs  that
	      want  to	perform	atomic file locking using a lockfile, and need
	      to avoid reliance	on NFS support for O_EXCL, can create a	unique
	      file  on	the same file system (e.g., incorporating hostname and
	      PID), and	use link(2) to	make  a	 link  to  the	lockfile.   If
	      link(2)  returns	0,  the	 lock  is  successful.	Otherwise, use
	      stat(2) on the unique file  to  check  if	 its  link  count  has
	      increased	to 2, in which case the	lock is	also successful.

       O_LARGEFILE
	      (LFS)  Allow files whose sizes cannot be represented in an off_t
	      (but can be represented  in  an  off64_t)	 to  be	 opened.   The
	      _LARGEFILE64_SOURCE  macro must be defined (before including any
	      header files) in order to	obtain this definition.	  Setting  the
	      _FILE_OFFSET_BITS	 feature  test	macro to 64 (rather than using
	      O_LARGEFILE) is the preferred method of accessing	large files on
	      32-bit systems (see feature_test_macros(7)).

       O_NOATIME (Since	Linux 2.6.8)
	      Do  not update the file last access time (st_atime in the	inode)
	      when the file is read(2).	 This flag  is	intended  for  use  by
	      indexing	or  backup  programs,  where its use can significantly
	      reduce the amount	of disk	activity.  This	flag may not be	effec-
	      tive  on all file	systems.  One example is NFS, where the	server
	      maintains	the access time.

       O_NOCTTY
	      If pathname refers to a terminal device--see tty(4)--it will not
	      become  the  process's  controlling terminal even	if the process
	      does not have one.

       O_NOFOLLOW
	      If pathname is a symbolic	link, then the open fails.  This is  a
	      FreeBSD  extension, which	was added to Linux in version 2.1.126.
	      Symbolic links in	earlier	components of the pathname will	 still
	      be followed.  See	also O_NOPATH below.

       O_NONBLOCK or O_NDELAY
	      When  possible, the file is opened in nonblocking	mode.  Neither
	      the open() nor any subsequent operations on the file  descriptor
	      which  is	 returned will cause the calling process to wait.  For
	      the handling of FIFOs (named pipes), see also  fifo(7).	For  a
	      discussion  of  the  effect  of  O_NONBLOCK  in conjunction with
	      mandatory	file locks and with file leases, see fcntl(2).

       O_PATH (since Linux 2.6.39)
	      Obtain a file descriptor that can	be used	for two	 purposes:  to
	      indicate a location in the file-system tree and to perform oper-
	      ations that act purely at	the file descriptor level.   The  file
	      itself  is not opened, and other file operations (e.g., read(2),
	      write(2),	fchmod(2),  fchown(2),	fgetxattr(2))  fail  with  the
	      error EBADF.

	      The  following operations	can be performed on the	resulting file
	      descriptor:

	      *	 close(2); fchdir(2) (since Linux 3.5);	fstat(2) (since	 Linux
		 3.6).

	      *	 Duplicating  the  file	 descriptor (dup(2), fcntl(2) F_DUPFD,
		 etc.).

	      *	 Getting and setting file descriptor flags  (fcntl(2)  F_GETFD
		 and F_SETFD).

	      *	 Retrieving  open file status flags using the fcntl(2) F_GETFL
		 operation: the	returned flags will include the	bit O_PATH.

	      *	 Passing the file descriptor as	the  dirfd  argument  of  ope-
		 nat(2)	and the	other "*at()" system calls.

	      *	 Passing  the  file  descriptor	 to another process via	a UNIX
		 domain	socket (see SCM_RIGHTS in unix(7)).

	      When O_PATH is specified in flags, flag bits other than O_DIREC-
	      TORY and O_NOFOLLOW are ignored.

	      If  the O_NOFOLLOW flag is also specified, then the call returns
	      a	file descriptor	referring to the  symbolic  link.   This  file
	      descriptor  can be used as the dirfd argument in calls to	fchow-
	      nat(2), fstatat(2), linkat(2), and readlinkat(2) with  an	 empty
	      pathname to have the calls operate on the	symbolic link.

       O_SYNC The  file	 is  opened for	synchronous I/O.  Any write(2)s	on the
	      resulting	file descriptor	will block the calling	process	 until
	      the data has been	physically written to the underlying hardware.
	      But see NOTES below.

       O_TRUNC
	      If the file already exists and is	a regular file	and  the  open
	      mode  allows  writing  (i.e.,  is	O_RDWR or O_WRONLY) it will be
	      truncated	to length 0.  If the file is a FIFO or terminal	device
	      file,  the  O_TRUNC  flag	 is  ignored.  Otherwise the effect of
	      O_TRUNC is unspecified.

       Some of these optional flags can	be altered using  fcntl(2)  after  the
       file has	been opened.

       creat()	  is	equivalent    to    open()   with   flags   equal   to
       O_CREAT|O_WRONLY|O_TRUNC.

RETURN VALUE
       open() and creat() return the new file descriptor, or -1	 if  an	 error
       occurred	(in which case,	errno is set appropriately).

ERRORS
       EACCES The  requested access to the file	is not allowed,	or search per-
	      mission is denied	for one	of the directories in the path	prefix
	      of  pathname,  or	the file did not exist yet and write access to
	      the parent directory is not  allowed.   (See  also  path_resolu-
	      tion(7).)

       EDQUOT Where  O_CREAT  is  specified,  the file does not	exist, and the
	      user's quota of disk blocks or inodes on	the  file  system  has
	      been exhausted.

       EEXIST pathname already exists and O_CREAT and O_EXCL were used.

       EFAULT pathname points outside your accessible address space.

       EFBIG  See EOVERFLOW.

       EINTR  While  blocked  waiting  to  complete  an	 open of a slow	device
	      (e.g., a FIFO; see fifo(7)), the call was	interrupted by a  sig-
	      nal handler; see signal(7).

       EISDIR pathname refers to a directory and the access requested involved
	      writing (that is,	O_WRONLY or O_RDWR is set).

       ELOOP  Too many symbolic	links were encountered in resolving  pathname,
	      or O_NOFOLLOW was	specified but pathname was a symbolic link.

       EMFILE The process already has the maximum number of files open.

       ENAMETOOLONG
	      pathname was too long.

       ENFILE The  system  limit  on  the  total number	of open	files has been
	      reached.

       ENODEV pathname refers to a device special file	and  no	 corresponding
	      device  exists.	(This is a Linux kernel	bug; in	this situation
	      ENXIO must be returned.)

       ENOENT O_CREAT is not set and the named file does  not  exist.	Or,  a
	      directory	 component in pathname does not	exist or is a dangling
	      symbolic link.

       ENOMEM Insufficient kernel memory was available.

       ENOSPC pathname was to be created but the  device  containing  pathname
	      has no room for the new file.

       ENOTDIR
	      A	 component  used as a directory	in pathname is not, in fact, a
	      directory, or O_DIRECTORY	was specified and pathname was	not  a
	      directory.

       ENXIO  O_NONBLOCK  |  O_WRONLY  is set, the named file is a FIFO	and no
	      process has the file open	for reading.  Or, the file is a	device
	      special file and no corresponding	device exists.

       EOVERFLOW
	      pathname	refers	to  a  regular	file  that  is too large to be
	      opened.  The usual scenario here is that an application compiled
	      on  a  32-bit  platform  without -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 tried to
	      open a file whose	size exceeds (2__31)-1 bits; see also O_LARGE-
	      FILE  above.   This  is  the error specified by POSIX.1-2001; in
	      kernels before 2.6.24, Linux gave	the error EFBIG	for this case.

       EPERM  The  O_NOATIME  flag was specified, but the effective user ID of
	      the caller did not match the owner of the	file  and  the	caller
	      was not privileged (CAP_FOWNER).

       EROFS  pathname	refers	to a file on a read-only file system and write
	      access was requested.

       ETXTBSY
	      pathname refers to an executable image which is currently	 being
	      executed and write access	was requested.

       EWOULDBLOCK
	      The O_NONBLOCK flag was specified, and an	incompatible lease was
	      held on the file (see fcntl(2)).

CONFORMING TO
       SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001.  The	 O_DIRECTORY,  O_NOATIME,  O_NOFOLLOW,
       and  O_PATH  flags  are	Linux-specific,	 and  one  may	need to	define
       _GNU_SOURCE (before including any header	files) to obtain their defini-
       tions.

       The  O_CLOEXEC  flag is not specified in	POSIX.1-2001, but is specified
       in POSIX.1-2008.

       O_DIRECT	is not specified in  POSIX;  one  has  to  define  _GNU_SOURCE
       (before including any header files) to get its definition.

NOTES
       Under  Linux,  the O_NONBLOCK flag indicates that one wants to open but
       does not	necessarily have the intention to read or write.  This is typ-
       ically  used  to	open devices in	order to get a file descriptor for use
       with ioctl(2).

       Unlike the other	values that can	be specified in	flags, the access mode
       values  O_RDONLY, O_WRONLY, and O_RDWR, do not specify individual bits.
       Rather, they define the low order two bits of flags,  and  are  defined
       respectively  as	0, 1, and 2.  In other words, the combination O_RDONLY
       | O_WRONLY is a logical error, and certainly does  not  have  the  same
       meaning as O_RDWR.  Linux reserves the special, nonstandard access mode
       3 (binary 11) in	flags to mean: check for read and write	permission  on
       the  file  and  return  a  descriptor that can't	be used	for reading or
       writing.	 This nonstandard access mode is used by some Linux drivers to
       return  a  descriptor  that  is	to  be	used  only for device-specific
       ioctl(2)	operations.

       The (undefined) effect of O_RDONLY | O_TRUNC varies  among  implementa-
       tions.  On many systems the file	is actually truncated.

       There  are  many	infelicities in	the protocol underlying	NFS, affecting
       amongst others O_SYNC and O_NDELAY.

       POSIX provides for three	different variants of synchronized I/O,	corre-
       sponding	  to  the  flags  O_SYNC,  O_DSYNC,  and  O_RSYNC.   Currently
       (2.6.31), Linux implements only O_SYNC,	but  glibc  maps  O_DSYNC  and
       O_RSYNC to the same numerical value as O_SYNC.  Most Linux file systems
       don't actually implement	the POSIX O_SYNC semantics, which require  all
       metadata	 updates  of a write to	be on disk on returning	to user	space,
       but only	the O_DSYNC semantics, which require only actual file data and
       metadata	 necessary to retrieve it to be	on disk	by the time the	system
       call returns.

       Note that open()	can open device	special	files, but creat() cannot cre-
       ate them; use mknod(2) instead.

       On  NFS file systems with UID mapping enabled, open() may return	a file
       descriptor but, for example, read(2) requests are denied	 with  EACCES.
       This is because the client performs open() by checking the permissions,
       but UID mapping	is  performed  by  the	server	upon  read  and	 write
       requests.

       If  the	file is	newly created, its st_atime, st_ctime, st_mtime	fields
       (respectively, time of last access, time	of  last  status  change,  and
       time  of	 last  modification; see stat(2)) are set to the current time,
       and so are the st_ctime and st_mtime fields of  the  parent  directory.
       Otherwise,  if  the  file  is modified because of the O_TRUNC flag, its
       st_ctime	and st_mtime fields are	set to the current time.

   O_DIRECT
       The O_DIRECT flag may impose alignment restrictions on the  length  and
       address	of  user-space	buffers	and the	file offset of I/Os.  In Linux
       alignment restrictions vary by file system and kernel version and might
       be absent entirely.  However there is currently no file system-indepen-
       dent interface for an application to discover these restrictions	for  a
       given  file or file system.  Some file systems provide their own	inter-
       faces for doing	so,  for  example  the	XFS_IOC_DIOINFO	 operation  in
       xfsctl(3).

       Under  Linux  2.4, transfer sizes, and the alignment of the user	buffer
       and the file offset must	all be multiples of the	logical	block size  of
       the  file  system.   Under  Linux 2.6, alignment	to 512-byte boundaries
       suffices.

       O_DIRECT	I/Os should never be run concurrently with the fork(2)	system
       call, if	the memory buffer is a private mapping (i.e., any mapping cre-
       ated with the mmap(2) MAP_PRIVATE flag; this includes memory  allocated
       on  the heap and	statically allocated buffers).	Any such I/Os, whether
       submitted via an	asynchronous I/O interface or from another  thread  in
       the  process, should be completed before	fork(2)	is called.  Failure to
       do so can result	in data	corruption and undefined  behavior  in	parent
       and  child  processes.  This restriction	does not apply when the	memory
       buffer for the O_DIRECT I/Os was	created	using shmat(2) or mmap(2) with
       the  MAP_SHARED	flag.  Nor does	this restriction apply when the	memory
       buffer has been advised as MADV_DONTFORK	with madvise(2), ensuring that
       it will not be available	to the child after fork(2).

       The  O_DIRECT  flag  was	introduced in SGI IRIX,	where it has alignment
       restrictions similar to those of	Linux 2.4.  IRIX has also  a  fcntl(2)
       call  to	 query	appropriate alignments,	and sizes.  FreeBSD 4.x	intro-
       duced a flag of the same	name, but without alignment restrictions.

       O_DIRECT	support	was added under	Linux in kernel	version	2.4.10.	 Older
       Linux  kernels  simply  ignore  this  flag.   Some file systems may not
       implement the flag and open() will fail with EINVAL if it is used.

       Applications should avoid mixing	O_DIRECT and normal I/O	 to  the  same
       file,  and  especially  to  overlapping	byte regions in	the same file.
       Even when the file system correctly handles  the	 coherency  issues  in
       this  situation,	 overall  I/O  throughput  is likely to	be slower than
       using either mode alone.	 Likewise, applications	 should	 avoid	mixing
       mmap(2) of files	with direct I/O	to the same files.

       The behaviour of	O_DIRECT with NFS will differ from local file systems.
       Older kernels, or kernels configured in certain ways, may  not  support
       this  combination.   The	NFS protocol does not support passing the flag
       to the server, so O_DIRECT I/O will bypass the page cache only  on  the
       client; the server may still cache the I/O.  The	client asks the	server
       to make the I/O synchronous to preserve the  synchronous	 semantics  of
       O_DIRECT.   Some	servers	will perform poorly under these	circumstances,
       especially if the I/O size is small.  Some servers may also be  config-
       ured  to	 lie  to  clients about	the I/O	having reached stable storage;
       this will avoid the performance penalty at some risk to data  integrity
       in  the	event of server	power failure.	The Linux NFS client places no
       alignment restrictions on O_DIRECT I/O.

       In summary, O_DIRECT is a potentially powerful tool that	should be used
       with  caution.	It  is	recommended  that  applications	 treat	use of
       O_DIRECT	as a performance option	which is disabled by default.

	      "The thing that has always disturbed me about O_DIRECT  is  that
	      the whole	interface is just stupid, and was probably designed by
	      a	 deranged  monkey  on  some  serious   mind-controlling	  sub-
	      stances."--Linus

BUGS
       Currently, it is	not possible to	enable signal-driven I/O by specifying
       O_ASYNC when calling open(); use	fcntl(2) to enable this	flag.

SEE ALSO
       chmod(2), chown(2),  close(2),  dup(2),	fcntl(2),  link(2),  lseek(2),
       mknod(2),  mmap(2),  mount(2),  openat(2), read(2), socket(2), stat(2),
       umask(2), unlink(2), write(2), fopen(3),	 fifo(7),  path_resolution(7),
       symlink(7)

COLOPHON
       This  page  is  part of release 3.53 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found	at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux				  2013-07-21			       OPEN(2)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUE | ERRORS | CONFORMING TO | NOTES | BUGS | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

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