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od(1)				 User Commands				 od(1)

NAME
       od - octal dump

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/od [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx] [file] [offset_string]

       /usr/bin/od  [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx]  [-A address_base]  [-j skip] [-N	count]
       [-t type_string...] [file...]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/od	[-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx] [file] [offset_string]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/od	   [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx]	[-A address_base]    [-j skip]
       [-N count] [-t type_string...] [-] [file...]

DESCRIPTION
       The  od	command	copies sequentially each input file to standard	output
       and transforms the input	data according to the output  types  specified
       by  the	-t or -bcCDdFfOoSsvXx options. If no output type is specified,
       the default output is as	if -t o2 had been specified.   Multiple	 types
       can  be	specified  by  using multiple -bcCDdFfOoSstvXx options.	Output
       lines are written for each type specified in the	 order	in  which  the
       types  are  specified.	If no file is specified, the standard input is
       used.
	The [offset_string] operand is mutually	exclusive from the -A, -j, -N,
       and  -t	options.  For  the purposes of this description, the following
       terms are used:

       word		       Refers to a 16-bit  unit,  independent  of  the
			       word size of the	machine.

       long word	       Refers to a 32-bit unit.

       double long word	       Refers to a 64-bit unit.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -A address_base Specifies  the  input  offset  base.  The  address_base
		       option-argument must be a character.  The characters d,
		       o and x specify that the	offset base will be written in
		       decimal,	octal or hexadecimal, respectively. The	 char-
		       acter  n	specifies that the offset will not be written.
		       Unless -A n is specified, the output line will be  pre-
		       ceded  by  the  input  offset,  cumulative across input
		       files, of the next byte to be written. In addition, the
		       offset of the byte following the	last byte written will
		       be displayed after all the input	 data  has  been  pro-
		       cessed.	Without	 the  -A  address_base	option and the
		       [offset_string] operand,	the input offset base is  dis-
		       played in octal.

       -b	       Interprets  bytes  in  octal.  This is equivalent to -t
		       o1.

   /usr/bin/od
       -c	       Displays	single-byte  characters.  Certain  non-graphic
		       characters appear as C-language escapes:

		       null	    \0
		       backspace    \b
		       form-feed    \f
		       new-line	    \n
		       return	    \r
		       tab	    \t

		       Others appear as	3-digit	octal numbers. For example:

		       echo "hello world" | od -c
		       0000000	 h   e	 l   l	 o	 w   o	 r   l	 d  \n
		       0000014

   /usr/xpg4/bin/od
       -c	       Interprets bytes	as single-byte or multibyte characters
		       according to the	current	setting	of the LC_CTYPE	locale
		       category. Printable multibyte characters	are written in
		       the area	corresponding to the first byte	of the charac-
		       ter.  The  two-character	 sequence ** is	written	in the
		       area corresponding to each remaining byte in the	 char-
		       acter,  as  an indication that the character is contin-
		       ued. Non-graphic	characters appear  the	same  as  they
		       would using the -C option.

       -C	       Interprets bytes	as single-byte or multibyte characters
		       according to the	current	setting	of the LC_CTYPE	locale
		       category. Printable multibyte characters	are written in
		       the area	corresponding to the first byte	of the charac-
		       ter.   The  two-character sequence ** is	written	in the
		       area corresponding to each remaining byte in the	 char-
		       acter,  as  an indication that the character is contin-
		       ued.  Certain  non-graphic  characters  appear	as   C
		       escapes:

		       null	    \0
		       backspace    \b
		       form-feed    \f
		       new-line	    \n
		       return	    \r
		       tab	    \t

		       Other  non-printable  characters	 appear	 as one	three-
		       digit octal number for each byte	in the character.

       -d	       Interprets words	in unsigned decimal.  This is  equiva-
		       lent to -t u2.

       -D	       Interprets  long	 words	in  unsigned  decimal. This is
		       equivalent to -t	u4.

       -f	       Interprets long	words  in  floating  point.   This  is
		       equivalent to -t	f4.

       -F	       Interprets  double  long	 words	in extended precision.
		       This is equivalent to -t	f8.

       -j skip	       Jumps over skip bytes from the beginning	of the	input.
		       The  od	command	 will read or seek past	the first skip
		       bytes in	the concatenated input files.  If the combined
		       input  is  not at least skip bytes long,	the od command
		       will write a diagnostic message to standard  error  and
		       exit with a non-zero exit status.

		       By  default, the	skip option-argument is	interpreted as
		       a decimal number. With a	leading	0x or 0X,  the	offset
		       is interpreted as a hexadecimal number; otherwise, with
		       a leading 0, the	offset will be interpreted as an octal
		       number.	 Appending  the	character b, k,	or m to	offset
		       will cause it to	be interpreted as a multiple  of  512,
		       1024 or 1048576 bytes, respectively. If the skip	number
		       is hexadecimal, any appended b is considered to be  the
		       final  hexadecimal  digit.  The	address	 is  displayed
		       starting	at 0000000, and	its base is not	implied	by the
		       base of the skip	option-argument.

       -N count	       Formats	no more	than count bytes of input. By default,
		       count is	interpreted as a decimal number.  With a lead-
		       ing  0x	or  0X,	 count is interpreted as a hexadecimal
		       number; otherwise, with a leading 0, it is  interpreted
		       as an octal number. If count bytes of input (after suc-
		       cessfully skipping, if -jskip  is  specified)  are  not
		       available,  it  will not	be considered an error.	The od
		       command will format the input that is  available.   The
		       base  of	 the  address  displayed is not	implied	by the
		       base of the count option-argument.

       -o	       Interprets words	in octal. This is equivalent to	-t o2.

       -O	       Interprets long	words  in  unsigned  octal.   This  is
		       equivalent to -t	o4.

       -s	       Interprets  words in signed decimal. This is equivalent
		       to -t d2.

       -S	       Interprets long words in	signed decimal.	This is	equiv-
		       alent to	-t d4.

       -t type_string  Specifies  one  or  more	 output	types. The type_string
		       option-argument must be a string	specifying  the	 types
		       to be used when writing the input data. The string must
		       consist of the type specification characters:

		       a	       Named character.	 Interprets  bytes  as
				       named  characters.  Only	the least sig-
				       nificant	seven bits of each  byte  will
				       be  used	 for  this type	specification.
				       Bytes with the  values  listed  in  the
				       following  table	 will be written using
				       the corresponding names for those char-
				       acters.

				       The  following  are named characters in
				       od:

				       Value   Name

					00    nul
					01    soh
					02    stx
					03    etx
					04    eot
					05    enq
					06    ack
					07    bel
					10    bs
					11    ht
					12    lf
					13    vt
					14    ff
					15    cr
					16    so
					17    si
					20    dle
					21    dc1
					22    dc2
					23    dc3
					24    dc4
					25    nak
					26    syn
					27    etb
					30    can
					31    em
					32    sub
					33    esc
					34    fs
					35    gs
					36    rs
					37    us
					40    sp
				       177    del

		       c	       Character. Interprets bytes as  single-
				       byte  or	multibyte characters specified
				       by the current setting of the  LC_CTYPE
				       locale  category.  Printable  multibyte
				       characters are written in the area cor-
				       responding  to  the  first  byte	of the
				       character. The  two-character  sequence
				       ** is written in	the area corresponding
				       to each remaining byte in  the  charac-
				       ter,  as	an indication that the charac-
				       ter is continued.  Certain  non-graphic
				       characters appear as C escapes: \0, \a,
				       \b, \f, \n,  \r,	 \t,  \v.  Other  non-
				       printable   characters  appear  as  one
				       three-digit octal number	for each  byte
				       in the character.

		       The type	specification characters d, f, o, u, and x can
		       be followed by an  optional  unsigned  decimal  integer
		       that specifies the number of bytes to be	transformed by
		       each instance of	the output type.

		       f	       Floating	point. Can be followed	by  an
				       optional	F, D, or L indicating that the
				       conversion should be applied to an item
				       of  type	float, double, or long double,
				       respectively.

		       d, o, u,	and x  Signed decimal, octal,  unsigned	 deci-
				       mal, and	hexadecimal, respectively.
					Can  be	 followed by an	optional C, S,
				       I, or L indicating that the  conversion
				       should  be  applied  to an item of type
				       char,  short,  int,  or	long,  respec-
				       tively.

		       Multiple	 types	can  be	 concatenated  within the same
		       type_string and multiple	-t options can	be  specified.
		       Output lines are	written	for each type specified	in the
		       order in	which the type	specification  characters  are
		       specified.

       -v	       Shows  all input	data (verbose).	Without	the -v option,
		       all groups of output lines that would be	 identical  to
		       the  immediately	preceding output line (except for byte
		       offsets), will be replaced with a line containing  only
		       an asterisk (*).

       -x	       Interprets words	in hex.	This is	equivalent to -t x2.

       -X	       Interprets  long	words in hex. This is equivalent to -t
		       x4.

OPERANDS
       The  following  operands	 are  supported	 for  both   /usr/bin/od   and
       /usr/xpg4/bin/od:

       -	       Uses the	standard input in addition to any files	speci-
		       fied.  When this	operand	is  not	 given,	 the  standard
		       input is	used only if no	file operands are specified.

   /usr/bin/od
       The following operands are supported for	/usr/bin/od only:

       file		       A  path	name  of a file	to be read. If no file
			       operands	are specified, the standard input will
			       be  used.  If  there are	no more	than two oper-
			       ands, none of the -A, -j, -N, or	-t options  is
			       specified, and any of the following are true:

				   1.  the first character of the last operand
				       is a plus sign (+)

				   2.  the first character of the second oper-
				       and is numeric

				   3.  the first character of the second oper-
				       and is x	and the	 second	 character  of
				       the  second  operand  is	 a  lower-case
				       hexadecimal character or	digit

				   4.  the second operand is named "x"

				   5.  the second operand is named "."

			       then the	corresponding operand is assumed to be
			       an offset operand rather	than a file operand.

			       Without	the  -N	count option, the display con-
			       tinues until an end-of-file is reached.

       [+][0] offset [.][b|B]  The offset_string operand  specifies  the  byte
       [+][0][offset] [.]      offset  in  the	file  where dumping is to com-
       [+][0x|x][offset]       mence.  The  offset  is	interpreted  in	 octal
       [+][0x|x] offset[B]     bytes by	default. If offset begins with "0", it
			       is interpreted in octal.	If offset begins  with
			       "x"  or	"0x", it is interpreted	in hexadecimal
			       and any appended	"b" is considered  to  be  the
			       final  hexadecimal  digit.  If "." is appended,
			       the offset is interpreted in decimal. If	"b" or
			       "B"  is	appended, the offset is	interpreted in
			       units of	512 bytes. If  the  file  argument  is
			       omitted,	 the  offset argument must be preceded
			       by a plus sign (+).  The	address	 is  displayed
			       starting	at the given offset.  The radix	of the
			       address will be the same	as the	radix  of  the
			       offset,	if  specified,	otherwise  it  will be
			       octal.  Decimal overrides octal,	and it	is  an
			       error  to  specify both hexadecimal and decimal
			       conversions in the same offset operand.

   /usr/xpg4/bin/od
       The following operands are supported for	/usr/xpg4/bin/od only:

       file		       Same as /usr/bin/od, except  only  one  of  the
			       first two conditions must be true.

       [+] [0] offset [.][b|B]
       + [offset] [.]
       [+][0x][offset]
       [+][0x] offset[B]
       +x [offset]
       +xoffset	[B]
			       Description of offset_string is the same	as for
			       /usr/bin/od.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following	environment  variables
       that  affect  the execution of od: LANG,	LC_ALL,	LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
       LC_NUMERIC, and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0	Successful completion.

       >0	An error occurred.

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

   /usr/bin/od
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWtoo			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

   /usr/xpg4/bin/od
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWxcu4			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Standard			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       sed(1), attributes(5), environ(5), standards(5)

SunOS 5.10			  18 Mar 1997				 od(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | OPERANDS | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | EXIT STATUS | ATTRIBUTES | SEE ALSO

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