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od(1)				 User Commands				 od(1)

NAME
       od - octal dump

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/od [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx] [-] [file]	[offset_string]

       /usr/bin/od  [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx]  [-A address_base]  [-j skip] [-N	count]
       [-t type_string...] [-] [file...]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/od	[-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx] [-] [file] [offset_string]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/od	   [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx]	[-A address_base]    [-j skip]
       [-N count] [-t type_string...] [-] [file...]

DESCRIPTION
       The  od	command	copies sequentially each input file to standard	output
       and transforms the input	data according to the output  types  specified
       by  the -t or -bcCDdFfOoSsvXx options.  If no output type is specified,
       the default output is as	if -t o2 had been specified.   Multiple	 types
       can  be	specified  by using multiple -bcCDdFfOoSstvXx options.	Output
       lines are written for each type specified in the	 order	in  which  the
       types  are  specified.	If no file is specified, the standard input is
       used.
	The [offset_string] operand is mutually	exclusive from the -A, -j, -N,
       and  -t	options.   For the purposes of this description, the following
       terms are used:

       word  Refers to a 16-bit	unit, independent of the word size of the  ma-
	     chine.

       long word
	     Refers to a 32-bit	unit.

       double long word
	     Refers to a 64-bit	unit.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -A address_base
	     Specify  the input	offset base.  The address_base option-argument
	     must be a character.  The characters d, o and x specify that  the
	     offset base will be written in decimal, octal or hexadecimal, re-
	     spectively.  The character	n specifies that the offset  will  not
	     be	 written.  Unless  -A  n is specified, the output line will be
	     preceded by the input offset, cumulative across input  files,  of
	     the  next byte to be written. In addition,	the offset of the byte
	     following the last	byte written will be displayed after  all  the
	     input data	has been processed. Without the	-A address_base	option
	     and the [offset_string] operand, the input	offset	base  is  dis-
	     played in octal.

       -b    Interpret bytes in	octal.	This is	equivalent to -t o1.

   /usr/bin/od
       -c    Display  single-byte  characters.	Certain	non-graphic characters
	     appear as C-language escapes:

	     null	  \0
	     backspace	  \b
	     form-feed	  \f
	     new-line	   \n
	     return	     \r
	     tab	   \t

	     Others appear as 3-digit octal numbers. For example:

       echo "hello world" | od -c
       0000000	 h   e	 l   l	 o	 w   o	 r   l	 d  \n
       0000014

   /usr/xpg4/bin/od
       -c    Interpret bytes as	single-byte or multibyte characters  according
	     to	 the  current setting of the LC_CTYPE locale category.	Print-
	     able multibyte characters are written in the  area	 corresponding
	     to	the first byte of the character; the two character sequence **
	     is	written	in the area corresponding to each  remaining  byte  in
	     the  character, as	an indication that the character is continued.
	     Non-graphic characters appear the same as they would using	the -C
	     option.

       -C    Interpret	bytes as single-byte or	multibyte characters according
	     to	the current setting of the LC_CTYPE locale category. Printable
	     multibyte characters are written in the area corresponding	to the
	     first byte	of the character; two character	sequence ** are	 writ-
	     ten in the	area corresponding to each remaining byte in the char-
	     acter, as an indication that the character	is continued.  Certain
	     non-graphic characters appear as C	escapes:

	     null	  \0
	     backspace	  \b
	     form-feed	  \f
	     new-line	   \n
	     return	     \r
	     tab	   \t

	     Other  non-printable  characters  appear as one three-digit octal
	     number for	each byte in the character.

       -d    Interpret words in	unsigned decimal.  This	is  equivalent	to  -t
	     u2.

       -D    Interpret	long words in unsigned decimal.	 This is equivalent to
	     -t	u4.

       -f    Interpret long words in floating point.  This is equivalent to -t
	     f4.

       -F    Interpret	double	long  words  in	 extended  precision.  This is
	     equivalent	to -t f8.

       -j skip
	     Jump over skip bytes from the beginning of	 the  input.   The  od
	     command  will  read or seek past the first	skip bytes in the con-
	     catenated input files.  If	the combined input  is	not  at	 least
	     skip  bytes  long,	the od command will write a diagnostic message
	     to	standard error and exit	with a non-zero	exit status.

	     By	default, the skip option-argument is interpreted as a  decimal
	     number.   With a leading 0x or 0X,	the offset is interpreted as a
	     hexadecimal number; otherwise, with a leading 0, the offset  will
	     be	interpreted as an octal	number.	 Appending the character b, k,
	     or	m to offset will cause it to be	interpreted as a  multiple  of
	     512,  1024	or 1048576 bytes, respectively.	 If the	skip number is
	     hexadecimal, any appended b is considered to be the  final	 hexa-
	     decimal digit.  The address is displayed starting at 0000000, and
	     its base is not implied by	the base of the	skip option-argument.

       -N count
	     Format no more than count bytes of	input.	By default,  count  is
	     interpreted  as a decimal number.	With a leading 0x or 0X, count
	     is	interpreted as a hexadecimal number; otherwise,	with a leading
	     0,	it is interpreted as an	octal number.  If count	bytes of input
	     (after successfully skipping, if -jskip  is  specified)  are  not
	     available,	 it  will  not	be considered an error;	the od command
	     will format the input that	is available.  The base	of the address
	     displayed	is  not	 implied by the	base of	the count option-argu-
	     ment.

       -o    Interpret words in	octal.	This is	equivalent to -t o2.

       -O    Interpret long words in unsigned octal.  This is equivalent to -t
	     o4.

       -s    Interpret words in	signed decimal.	 This is equivalent to -t d2.

       -S    Interpret long words in signed decimal.  This is equivalent to -t
	     d4.

       -t type_string
	     Specify one or more output	types.	The  type_string  option-argu-
	     ment  must	be a string specifying the types to be used when writ-
	     ing the input data. The string must consist of the	type  specifi-
	     cation characters:

	     a	   Named character. Interpret bytes as named characters.  Only
		   the least significant seven bits of each byte will be  used
		   for	this type specification.  Bytes	with the values	listed
		   in the following table will be  written  using  the	corre-
		   sponding names for those characters.

		   Named Characters in od

	     +------------------+-------------------+-------------------+------------------+
	     | Value	 Name	|  Value     Name   | Value	Name	| Value	    Name   |
	     |\000	nul	| \001	    soh	    |\002      stx	|\003	   etx	   |
	     |\004	eot	| \005	    enq	    |\006      ack	|\007	   bel	   |
	     |\010	bs	| \011	    ht	    |\012      lf	|\013	   vt	   |
	     |\014	ff	| \015	    cr	    |\016      so	|\017	   si	   |
	     |\020	dle	| \021	    dc1	    |\022      dc2	|\023	   dc3	   |
	     |\024	dc4	| \025	    nak	    |\026      syn	|\027	   etb	   |
	     |\030	can	| \031	    em	    |\032      sub	|\033	   esc	   |
	     |\034	fs	| \035	    gs	    |\036      rs	|\037	   us	   |
	     |\040	sp	| \177	    del	    |			|		   |
	     +------------------+-------------------+-------------------+------------------+

	     c	   Character.  Interpret  bytes	 as  single-byte  or multibyte
		   characters specified	by the current setting of the LC_CTYPE
		   locale category. Printable multibyte	characters are written
		   in the area corresponding to	the first byte of the  charac-
		   ter;	 the  two character sequence **	is written in the area
		   corresponding to each remaining byte	in the	character,  as
		   an indication that the character is continued. Certain non-
		   graphic characters appear as	C escapes: \0, \a, \b, \f, \n,
		   \r,	\t,  \v.  Other	non-printable characters appear	as one
		   three-digit octal number for	each byte in the character.

       The type	specification characters d, f, o, u, and x can be followed  by
       an optional unsigned decimal integer that specifies the number of bytes
       to be transformed by each instance of the output	type.

	     f	   Floating point. Can be followed by an optional F, D,	 or  L
		   indicating that the conversion should be applied to an item
		   of type float, double, or long double, respectively.

	     d,	o, u, and x
		   Signed decimal, octal, unsigned decimal,  and  hexadecimal,
		   respectively.
		    Can	 be  followed  by an optional C, S, I, or L indicating
		   that	the conversion should be applied to an	item  of  type
		   char, short,	int, or	long, respectively.

	     Multiple  types  can  be concatenated within the same type_string
	     and multiple -t options can be specified. Output lines are	 writ-
	     ten for each type specified in the	order in which the type	speci-
	     fication characters are specified.

       -v    Show all input data (verbose).  Without the -v option, all	groups
	     of	 output	 lines that would be identical to the immediately pre-
	     ceding output line	(except	for byte offsets),  will  be  replaced
	     with a line containing only an asterisk (*).

       -x    Interpret words in	hex.  This is equivalent to -t x2.

       -X    Interpret long words in hex.  This	is equivalent to -t x4.

OPERANDS
       The   following	 operands  are	supported  for	both  /usr/bin/od  and
       /usr/xpg4/bin/od:

       -     Use the standard input in addition	to any files specified.	  When
	     this  operand is not given, the standard input is used only if no
	     file operands are specified.

   /usr/bin/od
       The following operands are supported for	/usr/bin/od only:

       file  A path name of a file to be read.	If no file operands are	speci-
	     fied,  the	standard input will be used. If	there are no more than
	     two operands, none	of the -A, -j, -N, or -t options is specified,
	     and any of	the following are true:

	     1.	the first character of the last	operand	is a plus sign (+)

	     2.	the first character of the second operand is numeric

	     3.	the  first character of	the second operand is x	and the	second
		character of the second	operand	is  a  lower-case  hexadecimal
		character or digit

	     4.	the second operand is named "x"

	     5.	the second operand is named "."

       then  the  corresponding	 operand  is  assumed  to be an	offset operand
       rather than a file operand.

	     Without the -N count option, the display continues	until an  end-
	     of-file is	reached.

       [+][0] offset [.][b|B]

       [+][0][offset] [.]

       [+][0x|x][offset]

	[+][0x|x] offset[B]
	     The  offset_string	 operand specifies the byte offset in the file
	     where dumping is to commence.  The	offset is interpreted in octal
	     bytes by default. If offset begins	with "0", it is	interpreted in
	     octal. If offset begins with "x" or "0x", it  is  interpreted  in
	     hexadecimal  and  any  appended "b" is considered to be the final
	     hexadecimal digit.	If "." is appended, the	offset is  interpreted
	     in	 decimal. If "b" or "B"	is appended, the offset	is interpreted
	     in	units of 512 bytes. If the file	argument is omitted, the  off-
	     set argument must be preceded by a	plus sign (+).	The address is
	     displayed starting	at the given offset.  The radix	of the address
	     will be the same as the radix of the offset, if specified,	other-
	     wise it will be octal.  Decimal overrides octal, and it is	an er-
	     ror  to  specify  both hexadecimal	and decimal conversions	in the
	     same offset operand.

   /usr/xpg4/bin/od
       The following operands are supported for	/usr/xpg4/bin/od only:

       file  Same as /usr/bin/od, except only one of the first two  conditions
	     must be true.

       [+] [0] offset [.][b|B]

       + [offset] [.]

       [+][0x][offset]

	[+][0x]	offset[B]

       +x [offset]

       +xoffset	[B]
	     Description of offset_string is the same as for /usr/bin/od.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See  environ(5) for descriptions	of the following environment variables
       that affect the execution of od:	LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_NUMERIC, and
       NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0     Successful	completion.

       >0    An	error occurred.

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

   /usr/bin/od
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWtoo			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

   /usr/xpg4/bin/od
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWxcu4			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       sed(1), attributes(5), environ(5), XPG4(5)

SunOS 5.9			  18 Mar 1997				 od(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | OPERANDS | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | EXIT STATUS | ATTRIBUTES | SEE ALSO

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