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NTFS-3G(8)		    System Manager's Manual		    NTFS-3G(8)

NAME
       ntfs-3g - Third Generation Read/Write NTFS Driver

SYNOPSIS
       ntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t	ntfs-3g	[-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t	lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point

DESCRIPTION
       ntfs-3g	is  an	NTFS  driver,  which  can create, remove, rename, move
       files, directories, hard	links, and streams;  it	 can  read  and	 write
       files,  including  streams,  sparse  files and transparently compressed
       files; it can handle special files like symbolic	 links,	 devices,  and
       FIFOs;  moreover	 it provides standard management of file ownership and
       permissions, including POSIX ACLs.

       It comes	in two variants	ntfs-3g	and lowntfs-3g with a few  differences
       mentioned below in relevant options descriptions.

       The volume to be	mounted	can be either a	block device or	an image file,
       either by using the mount command or starting the drive.

   Windows hibernation and fast	restarting
       On computers which can be dual-booted into Windows  or  Linux,  Windows
       has to be fully shut down before	booting	into Linux, otherwise the NTFS
       file systems on internal	disks may be left in an	inconsistent state and
       changes made by Linux may be ignored by Windows.

       So,  Windows may	not be left in hibernation when	starting Linux,	in or-
       der to avoid inconsistencies. Moreover, the fast	restart	feature	avail-
       able on recent Windows systems has to be	disabled. This can be achieved
       by issuing as an	Administrator the Windows command which	disables  both
       hibernation and fast restarting :

	      powercfg /h off

       If  either Windows is hibernated	or its fast restart is enabled,	parti-
       tions on	internal disks are forced to be	mounted	in read-only mode.

   Access Handling and Security
       By default, files and directories are owned by the effective  user  and
       group of	the mounting process, and everybody has	full read, write, exe-
       cution and directory browsing permissions.  You can also	assign permis-
       sions to	a single user by using the uid and/or the gid options together
       with the	umask, or fmask	and dmask options.

       Doing so, all Windows users have	full access to the  files  created  by
       ntfs-3g.

       But,  by	 setting the permissions option, you can benefit from the full
       ownership and permissions features as defined by	 POSIX.	 Moreover,  by
       defining	 a  Windows-to-Linux  user mapping, the	ownerships and permis-
       sions are even applied to Windows users and conversely.

       If ntfs-3g is set setuid-root then non-root users will be also able  to
       mount volumes.

   Windows Filename Compatibility
       NTFS  supports several filename namespaces: DOS,	Win32 and POSIX. While
       the ntfs-3g driver handles all of them, it always creates new files  in
       the  POSIX  namespace for maximum portability and interoperability rea-
       sons.  This means that filenames	are case sensitive and all  characters
       are  allowed  except  '/' and '\0'. This	is perfectly legal on Windows,
       though some application may get confused. The option windows_names  may
       be used to apply	Windows	restrictions to	new file names.

   Alternate Data Streams (ADS)
       NTFS  stores  all  data	in streams. Every file has exactly one unnamed
       data stream and can have	many named data	streams.  The size of  a  file
       is  the size of its unnamed data	stream.	 By default, ntfs-3g will only
       read the	unnamed	data stream.

       By using	the option streams_interface=windows, with the ntfs-3g	driver
       (not possible with lowntfs-3g), you will	be able	to read	any named data
       streams,	simply by specifying the stream	name after a colon.  For exam-
       ple:

	      cat some.mp3:artist

       Named  data  streams  act like normal files, so you can read from them,
       write to	them and even delete them (using rm).  You can	list  all  the
       named data streams a file has by	getting	the ntfs.streams.list extended
       attribute.

OPTIONS
       Below is	a summary of the options that ntfs-3g accepts.

       acl    Enable setting Posix ACLs	on created files and use them for  ac-
	      cess control.  This option is only available on specific builds.
	      It is set	by default when	a user mapping file is present and the
	      permissions mount	option is not set.

       allow_other
	      This  option overrides the security measure restricting file ac-
	      cess to the user mounting	the filesystem.	This  option  is  only
	      allowed  to  root, but this restriction can be overridden	by the
	      user_allow_other option in the /etc/fuse.conf file.

       atime, noatime, relatime
	      The atime	option updates inode access time for each access.

	      The noatime option disables inode	access time updates, which can
	      speed  up	 file operations and prevent sleeping (notebook) disks
	      spinning up too often thus saving	energy and disk	lifetime.

	      The relatime option is very similar to noatime.  It updates  in-
	      ode  access times	relative to modify or change time.  The	access
	      time is only updated if the previous  access  time  was  earlier
	      than  the	current	modify or change time. Unlike noatime this op-
	      tion doesn't break applications that need	to know	if a file  has
	      been  read since the last	time it	was modified.  This is the de-
	      fault behaviour.

       big_writes
	      This option prevents fuse	from splitting write buffers  into  4K
	      chunks,  enabling	 big  write buffers to be transferred from the
	      application in a single step (up to some system limit, generally
	      128K bytes).

       compression
	      This  option enables creating new	transparently compressed files
	      in directories marked for	compression. A directory is marked for
	      compression by setting the bit 11	(value 0x00000800) in its Win-
	      dows attribute. In such a	directory, new files are created  com-
	      pressed  and  new	 subdirectories	are themselves marked for com-
	      pression.	The option and the flag	have  no  effect  on  existing
	      files. Currently this is the default option.

       debug  Makes  ntfs-3g  (or  lowntfs-3g)	to print a lot of debug	output
	      from libntfs-3g and FUSE.

       delay_mtime[= value]
	      Only update the file modification	time and the file change  time
	      of  a  file  when	it is closed or	when the indicated delay since
	      the previous update has elapsed. The argument  is	 a  number  of
	      seconds,	with a default value of	60.  This is mainly useful for
	      big files	which are kept open for	a long	time  and  written  to
	      without  changing	 their	size, such as databases	or file	system
	      images mounted as	loop.

       dmask=value
	      Set the  bitmask of  the	directory  permissions	that  are  not
	      present.	The  value  is	given in octal.	The default value is 0
	      which means full access to everybody.

       efs_raw
	      This option should only be used in backup	or restore  situation.
	      It  changes  the apparent	size of	files and the behavior of read
	      and write	operation so that encrypted files can be saved and re-
	      stored  without  being decrypted.	The user.ntfs.efsinfo extended
	      attribute	has also to be saved and restored for the file	to  be
	      decrypted.

       fmask=value
	      Set  the	 bitmask of the	file permissions that are not present.
	      The value	is given in octal. The default value is	0 which	 means
	      full access to everybody.

       force  This  option  is obsolete. It has	been superseded	by the recover
	      and norecover options.

       hide_dot_files
	      Set the hidden flag in the NTFS attribute	for created files  and
	      directories  whose  first	 character  of the name	is a dot. Such
	      files and	directories normally do	not appear in directory	 list-
	      ings, and	when the flag is set they do not appear	in Windows di-
	      rectory displays either.	When a file is renamed or linked  with
	      a	new name, the hidden flag is adjusted to the latest name.

       hide_hid_files
	      Hide the hidden files and	directories in directory listings, the
	      hidden files and directories being the ones whose	NTFS attribute
	      have the hidden flag set.	 The hidden files will not be selected
	      when using wildcards in commands,	but all	files and  directories
	      remain  accessible by full name, for example you can always dis-
	      play the Windows trash  bin  directory  by  :  "ls  -ld  '$RECY-
	      CLE.BIN'".

       ignore_case (only with lowntfs-3g)
	      Ignore character case when accessing a file (FOO,	Foo, foo, etc.
	      designate	the same file).	All files  are	displayed  with	 lower
	      case in directory	listings.

       inherit
	      When  creating a new file, set its initial protections according
	      to inheritance rules defined in parent  directory.  These	 rules
	      deviate  from  Posix  specifications, but	yield a	better Windows
	      compatibility. The permissions (or **acl**) option  or  a	 valid
	      user mapping file	is required for	this option to be effective.

       locale=value
	      This  option  can	be useful when wanting a language specific lo-
	      cale environment.	 It is however	discouraged  as	 it  leads  to
	      files with untranslatable	characters to not be visible.

       max_read=value
	      With this	option the maximum size	of read	operations can be set.
	      The default is infinite.	Note that the size of read requests is
	      limited anyway by	the system (usually to 128kbyte).

       no_def_opts
	      By  default  ntfs-3g acts	as if silent (ignore permission	errors
	      when permissions are not enabled), allow_other (allow  any  user
	      to  access  files) and nonempty (allow mounting on non-empty di-
	      rectories) were set, and no_def_opts cancels these  default  op-
	      tions.

       no_detach
	      Makes  ntfs-3g  to not detach from terminal and print some debug
	      output.

       nocompression
	      This option disables creating new	transparently compressed files
	      in directories marked for	compression. Existing compressed files
	      can still	be read	and updated.

       norecover
	      Do not try to mount a partition which was	not unmounted properly
	      by Windows.

       permissions
	      Set  standard  permissions on created files and use standard ac-
	      cess control.  This option is set	by default when	a user mapping
	      file is present.

       posix_nlink
	      Compute the count	of hard	links of a file	or directory according
	      to the POSIX specifications. When	this  option  is  not  set,  a
	      count  of	 1 is set for directories, and the short name of files
	      is accounted for.	 Using the option entails some penalty as  the
	      count is not stored and has to be	computed.

       recover
	      Recover  and  try	 to  mount a partition which was not unmounted
	      properly by Windows. The Windows logfile is cleared,  which  may
	      cause inconsistencies.  Currently	this is	the default option.

       remove_hiberfile
	      When the NTFS volume is hibernated, a read-write mount is	denied
	      and a read-only mount is forced. One needs either	to resume Win-
	      dows and shutdown	it properly, or	use this option	which will re-
	      move the Windows hibernation file. Please	note, this means  that
	      the  saved Windows session will be completely lost. Use this op-
	      tion under your own responsibility.

       ro     Mount the	filesystem read-only. Useful if	Windows	is  hibernated
	      or the NTFS journal file is unclean.

       show_sys_files
	      Show  the	metafiles in directory listings. Otherwise the default
	      behaviour	is to hide the metafiles, which	are special files used
	      to store the NTFS	structure. Please note that even when this op-
	      tion is specified, "$MFT"	may not	be visible due to a glibc bug.
	      Furthermore, irrespectively of show_sys_files, all files are ac-
	      cessible by name,	for example you	can always  do	"ls  -l	 '$Up-
	      Case'".

       silent Do  nothing, without returning any error,	on chmod and chown op-
	      erations and on permission checking errors, when the permissions
	      option  is not set and no	user mapping file is defined. This op-
	      tion is  on  by  default,	 and  when  set	 off  (through	option
	      no_def_opts)  ownership  and  permissions	 parameters have to be
	      set.

       special_files=mode
	      This option selects a mode for representing a special file to be
	      created  (symbolic  link,	 socket,  fifo,	character or block de-
	      vice). The mode can be interix or	wsl, and existing files	in ei-
	      ther  mode are recognized	irrespective of	the selected mode. In-
	      terix is the traditional mode, used by default, and wsl  is  in-
	      teroperable with Windows WSL, but	it is not compatible with Win-
	      dows versions earlier than Windows 10.  Neither mode are	inter-
	      operable with Windows.

       streams_interface=mode
	      This  option  controls  how  the	user can access	Alternate Data
	      Streams (ADS) or in other	words, named data  streams.  The  mode
	      can  be  set  to one of none, windows or xattr. If the option is
	      set to none, the user will have no  access  to  the  named  data
	      streams. If it is	set to windows (not possible with lowntfs-3g),
	      then the user can	access them just  like	in  Windows  (eg.  cat
	      file:stream).  If	it's set to xattr, then	the named data streams
	      are mapped to extended attributes	and a user can manipulate them
	      using {get,set}fattr utilities. The default is xattr.

       uid=value and gid=value
	      Set the owner and	the group of files and directories. The	values
	      are numerical.  The defaults are the uid and gid of the  current
	      process.

       umask=value
	      Set  the	bitmask	of the file and	directory permissions that are
	      not present. The value is	given in octal.	The default value is 0
	      which means full access to everybody.

       usermapping=file-name
	      Use  file	 file-name as the user mapping file instead of the de-
	      fault .NTFS-3G/UserMapping. If file-name defines	a  full	 path,
	      the  file	 must be located on a partition	previously mounted. If
	      it defines a relative path, it is	interpreted  relative  to  the
	      root of NTFS partition being mounted.

	      When  a  user  mapping  file is defined, the options uid=, gid=,
	      umask=, fmask=, dmask= and silent	are ignored.

       user_xattr
	      Same as streams_interface=xattr.

       windows_names
	      This option prevents files, directories and extended  attributes
	      to be created with a name	not allowed by windows,	because

		     - it contains some	not allowed character,
		     - or the last character is	a space	or a dot,
		     - or the name is reserved.

	      The forbidden characters are the nine characters " * / : < > ? \
	      |	and those whose	code is	less than 0x20,	and the	reserved names
	      are  CON,	 PRN, AUX, NUL,	COM1..COM9, LPT1..LPT9,	with no	suffix
	      or followed by a dot.

	      Existing such files can still be read (and renamed).

USER MAPPING
       NTFS uses specific ids to record	the ownership of files instead of  the
       uid (user id) and gid (group id)	used by	Linux. As a consequence	a map-
       ping between the	ids has	to be defined for ownerships  to  be  recorded
       into NTFS files and recognized.

       By  default, this mapping is fetched from the file .NTFS-3G/UserMapping
       located in the NTFS partition. The option usermapping= may be  used  to
       define  another location. When the option **permissions** is set	and no
       mapping file is found, a	default	mapping	is used.

       Each line in the	user mapping file defines a mapping. It	 is  organized
       in  three fields	separated by colons. The first field identifies	a uid,
       the second field	identifies a gid and the third one identifies the cor-
       responding  NTFS	 id,  known as a SID. The uid and the gid are optional
       and defining both of them for the same SID is not recommended.

       If no interoperation with Windows is needed, you	 can  use  the	option
       permissions  to	define a standard mapping. Alternately,	you may	define
       your own	mapping	by setting a single default mapping with  no  uid  and
       gid.  In	 both  cases, files created on Linux will appear to Windows as
       owned by	a foreign user,	and files created on Windows  will  appear  to
       Linux  as  owned	by root. Just copy the example below and replace the 9
       and 10-digit numbers by any number not greater than 4294967295. The re-
       sulting	behavior is the	same as	the one	with the option	permission set
       with no ownership option	and no user mapping file available.

	      ::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-10000

       If a strong interoperation with Windows is needed, the mapping  has  to
       be  defined  for	each user and group known to both system, and the SIDs
       used by Windows has to be collected. This will lead to a	 user  mapping
       file like :

	      john::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-1008
	      mary::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-1009
	      :smith:S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-513
	      ::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-10000

       The utility ntfsusermap may be used to create such a user mapping file.

EXAMPLES
       Mount /dev/sda1 to /mnt/windows:

	      ntfs-3g /dev/sda1	/mnt/windows
       or
	      mount -t ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt/windows

       Mount the ntfs data partition  /dev/sda3	 to  /mnt/data	with  standard
       Linux permissions applied :

	      ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3 /mnt/data
       or
	      mount -t ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3	/mnt/data

       Read-only mount /dev/sda5 to /home/user/mnt and make user with uid 1000
       to be the owner of all files:

	      ntfs-3g /dev/sda5	/home/user/mnt -o ro,uid=1000

       /etc/fstab entry	for the	above (the sixth and last field	has to be zero
       to avoid	a file system check at boot time) :

	      /dev/sda5	/home/user/mnt ntfs-3g ro,uid=1000 0 0

       Unmount /mnt/windows:

	      umount /mnt/windows

EXIT CODES
       To facilitate the use of	the ntfs-3g driver in scripts, an exit code is
       returned	to give	an indication of the mountability status of a  volume.
       Value 0 means success, and all other ones mean an error.	The unique er-
       ror codes are documented	in the ntfs-3g.probe(8)	manual page.

KNOWN ISSUES
       Please see

	      https://github.com/tuxera/ntfs-3g/wiki/NTFS-3G-FAQ

       for common questions and	known issues.  If you would find a new one  in
       the  latest  release  of	the software then please post an ntfs-3g issue
       describing it in	detail so that the development team can	 be  aware  of
       the issue and take care of it:

	      https://github.com/tuxera/ntfs-3g/issues

AUTHORS
       ntfs-3g	was  based on and a major improvement to ntfsmount and libntfs
       which were written by Yura Pakhuchiy and	the Linux-NTFS team.  The  im-
       provements  were	 made, the ntfs-3g project was initiated and currently
       led  by	long  time  Linux-NTFS	team  developer	 Szabolcs   Szakacsits
       (szaka@tuxera.com).

THANKS
       Several people made heroic efforts, often over five or more years which
       resulted	the ntfs-3g driver. Most  importantly  they  are  Anton	 Alta-
       parmakov,  Jean-Pierre AndrA(C),	Erik Larsson, Richard Russon, Szabolcs
       Szakacsits, Yura	Pakhuchiy, Yuval Fledel, and the author	of the ground-
       breaking	FUSE filesystem	development framework, Miklos Szeredi.

SEE ALSO
       ntfs-3g.probe(8), ntfsprogs(8), attr(5),	getfattr(1)

ntfs-3g	2022.5.17		   Aug 2021			    NTFS-3G(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | USER MAPPING | EXAMPLES | EXIT CODES | KNOWN ISSUES | AUTHORS | THANKS | SEE ALSO

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