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NTFS-3G(8)		    System Manager's Manual		    NTFS-3G(8)

       ntfs-3g - Third Generation Read/Write NTFS Driver

       ntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t	ntfs-3g	[-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t	lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point

       ntfs-3g	is  an	NTFS  driver,  which  can create, remove, rename, move
       files, directories, hard	links, and streams;  it	 can  read  and	 write
       files,  including  streams,  sparse  files and transparently compressed
       files; it can handle special files like symbolic	 links,	 devices,  and
       FIFOs;  moreover	 it provides standard management of file ownership and
       permissions, including POSIX ACLs.

       It comes	in two variants	ntfs-3g	and lowntfs-3g with a few  differences
       mentioned below in relevant options descriptions.

       The volume to be	mounted	can be either a	block device or	an image file.

   Windows hibernation and fast	restarting
       On  computers  which  can be dual-booted	into Windows or	Linux, Windows
       has to be fully shut down before	booting	into Linux, otherwise the NTFS
       file systems on internal	disks may be left in an	inconsistent state and
       changes made by Linux may be ignored by Windows.

       So, Windows may not be left in  hibernation  when  starting  Linux,  in
       order  to  avoid	 inconsistencies.  Moreover,  the fast restart feature
       available on recent Windows systems has to be  disabled.	 This  can  be
       achieved	 by issuing as an Administrator	the Windows command which dis-
       ables both hibernation and fast restarting :

	      powercfg /h off

   Access Handling and Security
       By default, files and directories are owned by the effective  user  and
       group of	the mounting process, and everybody has	full read, write, exe-
       cution and directory browsing permissions.  You can also	assign permis-
       sions to	a single user by using the uid and/or the gid options together
       with the	umask, or fmask	and dmask options.

       Doing so, Windows users have  full  access  to  the  files  created  by

       But,  by	 setting the permissions option, you can benefit from the full
       ownership and permissions features as defined by	 POSIX.	 Moreover,  by
       defining	 a  Windows-to-Linux  user mapping, the	ownerships and permis-
       sions are even applied to Windows users and conversely.

       If ntfs-3g is set setuid-root then non-root users will be also able  to
       mount volumes.

   Windows Filename Compatibility
       NTFS  supports several filename namespaces: DOS,	Win32 and POSIX. While
       the ntfs-3g driver handles all of them, it always creates new files  in
       the  POSIX  namespace for maximum portability and interoperability rea-
       sons.  This means that filenames	are case sensitive and all  characters
       are  allowed  except  '/' and '\0'. This	is perfectly legal on Windows,
       though some application may get confused. The option windows_names  may
       be used to apply	Windows	restrictions to	new file names.

   Alternate Data Streams (ADS)
       NTFS  stores  all  data	in streams. Every file has exactly one unnamed
       data stream and can have	many named data	streams.  The size of  a  file
       is  the size of its unnamed data	stream.	 By default, ntfs-3g will only
       read the	unnamed	data stream.

       By using	the  options  "streams_interface=windows",  with  the  ntfs-3g
       driver  (not  possible  with  lowntfs-3g), you will be able to read any
       named data streams, simply by specifying	 the  stream's	name  after  a
       colon.  For example:

	      cat some.mp3:artist

       Named  data  streams  act like normal files, so you can read from them,
       write to	them and even delete them (using rm).  You can	list  all  the
       named  data  streams  a	file  has  by  getting the "ntfs.streams.list"
       extended	attribute.

       Below is	a summary of the options that ntfs-3g accepts.

       uid=value and gid=value
	      Set the owner and	the group of files and directories. The	values
	      are  numerical.  The defaults are	the uid	and gid	of the current

	      Set the  bitmask of the file and directory permissions that  are
	      not present. The value is	given in octal.	The default value is 0
	      which means full access to everybody.

	      Set the  bitmask of the file permissions that are	 not  present.
	      The  value is given in octal. The	default	value is 0 which means
	      full access to everybody.

	      Set the  bitmask of  the	directory  permissions	that  are  not
	      present.	The  value  is	given in octal.	The default value is 0
	      which means full access to everybody.

	      Use file file-name as the	 user  mapping	file  instead  of  the
	      default  .NTFS-3G/UserMapping. If	file-name defines a full path,
	      the file must be located on a partition previously  mounted.  If
	      it  defines  a  relative path, it	is interpreted relative	to the
	      root of NTFS partition being mounted.

	      When a user mapping file is defined,  the	 options  uid=,	 gid=,
	      umask=, fmask=, dmask= and silent	are ignored.

	      Set  standard  permissions  on  created  files  and use standard
	      access control.  This option is set by default when a user  map-
	      ping file	is present.

       acl    Enable  setting  Posix  ACLs  on	created	files and use them for
	      access control.  This  option  is	 only  available  on  specific
	      builds. It is set	by default when	a user mapping file is present
	      and the permissions mount	option is not set.

	      When creating a new file,	set its	initial	protections  according
	      to  inheritance  rules  defined in parent	directory. These rules
	      deviate from Posix specifications, but yield  a  better  Windows
	      compatibility.  The  permissions	option or a valid user mapping
	      file is required for this	option to be effective.

       ro     Mount filesystem read-only. Useful if Windows is	hibernated  or
	      the NTFS journal file is unclean.

	      This  option  can	 be  useful  when  wanting a language specific
	      locale environment.  It is however discouraged as	 it  leads  to
	      files with untranslatable	chars to not be	visible.

       force  This  option  is obsolete. It has	been superseded	by the recover
	      and norecover options.

	      Recover and try to mount a partition  which  was	not  unmounted
	      properly	by  Windows. The Windows logfile is cleared, which may
	      cause inconsistencies.  Currently	this is	the default option.

	      Do not try to mount a partition which was	not unmounted properly
	      by Windows.

       ignore_case (only with lowntfs-3g)
	      Ignore character case when accessing a file (FOO,	Foo, foo, etc.
	      designate	the same file).	All files  are	displayed  with	 lower
	      case in directory	listings.

	      When the NTFS volume is hibernated, a read-write mount is	denied
	      and a read-only mount is forced. One needs either	to resume Win-
	      dows  and	 shutdown  it  properly, or use	this option which will
	      remove the Windows hibernation file.  Please  note,  this	 means
	      that the saved Windows session will be completely	lost. Use this
	      option under your	own responsibility.

       atime, noatime, relatime
	      The atime	option updates inode access time for each access.

	      The noatime option disables inode	access time updates which  can
	      speed  up	 file operations and prevent sleeping (notebook) disks
	      spinning up too often thus saving	energy and disk	lifetime.

	      The relatime option is very  similar  to	noatime.   It  updates
	      inode  access  times  relative  to  modify  or change time.  The
	      access time is only updated if the previous access time was ear-
	      lier than	the current modify or change time. Unlike noatime this
	      option doesn't break applications	that need to know  if  a  file
	      has  been	read since the last time it was	modified.  This	is the
	      default behaviour.

       delay_mtime[= value]
	      Only update the file modification	time and the file change  time
	      of  a  file  when	it is closed or	when the indicated delay since
	      the previous update has elapsed. The argument  is	 a  number  of
	      seconds,	with a default value of	60.  This is mainly useful for
	      big files	which are kept open for	a long	time  and  written  to
	      without  changing	 their	size, such as databases	or file	system
	      images mounted as	loop.

	      Show the metafiles in directory listings.	Otherwise the  default
	      behaviour	is to hide the metafiles, which	are special files used
	      to store the NTFS	structure. Please note	that  even  when  this
	      option  is  specified,  "$MFT" may not be	visible	due to a glibc
	      bug. Furthermore,	irrespectively of  show_sys_files,  all	 files
	      are  accessible  by  name,  for example you can always do	"ls -l

	      Hide the hidden files and	directories in directory listings, the
	      hidden files and directories being the ones whose	NTFS attribute
	      have the hidden flag set.	 The hidden files will not be selected
	      when  using wildcards in commands, but all files and directories
	      remain accessible	by full	name, for example you can always  dis-
	      play  the	 Windows  trash	 bin  directory	 by  : "ls -ld '$RECY-

	      Set the hidden flag in the NTFS attribute	for created files  and
	      directories  whose  first	 character  of the name	is a dot. Such
	      files and	directories normally do	not appear in directory	 list-
	      ings,  and  when	the  flag is set they do not appear in Windows
	      directory	displays either.  When a file  is  renamed  or	linked
	      with a new name, the hidden flag is adjusted to the latest name.

	      This  option prevents files, directories and extended attributes
	      to be created with a name	not allowed by windows,	because

		     - it contains some	not allowed character,
		     - or the last character is	a space	or a dot,
		     - or the name is reserved.

	      The forbidden characters are the nine characters " * / : < > ? \
	      |	and those whose	code is	less than 0x20,	and the	reserved names
	      are CON, PRN, AUX, NUL, COM1..COM9, LPT1..LPT9, with  no	suffix
	      or followed by a dot.

	      Existing such files can still be read (and renamed).

	      This  option  overrides  the  security  measure restricting file
	      access to	the user mounting the filesystem. This option is  only
	      allowed  to  root, but this restriction can be overridden	by the
	      'user_allow_other' option	in the /etc/fuse.conf file.

	      With this	option the maximum size	of read	operations can be set.
	      The default is infinite.	Note that the size of read requests is
	      limited anyway to	32 pages (which	is 128kbyte on i386).

       silent Do nothing, without returning any	 error,	 on  chmod  and	 chown
	      operations  and  on permission checking errors, when the permis-
	      sions option is not set and no user  mapping  file  is  defined.
	      This  option  is on by default, and when set off (through	option
	      no_def_opts) ownership and permissions  parameters  have	to  be

	      By default ntfs-3g acts as if "silent" (ignore permission	errors
	      when permissions are not enabled), "allow_other" (allow any user
	      to  access  files)  and  "nonempty" (allow mounting on non-empty
	      directories) were	set, and "no_def_opts" cancels	these  default

	      This  option  controls  how  the	user can access	Alternate Data
	      Streams (ADS) or in other	words, named data streams. It  can  be
	      set  to,	one of none, windows or	xattr. If the option is	set to
	      none, the	user will have no access to the	named data streams. If
	      it  is  set  to windows (not possible with lowntfs-3g), then the
	      user can access them just	like in	Windows	(eg. cat file:stream).
	      If  it's set to xattr, then the named data streams are mapped to
	      xattrs and user can manipulate them using	{get,set}fattr	utili-
	      ties. The	default	is xattr.

	      Same as streams_interface=xattr.

	      This  option should only be used in backup or restore situation.
	      It changes the apparent size of files and	the behavior  of  read
	      and  write  operation  so	 that encrypted	files can be saved and
	      restored without being decrypted.	The user.ntfs.efsinfo extended
	      attribute	 has  also to be saved and restored for	the file to be

	      This option enables creating new transparently compressed	 files
	      in directories marked for	compression. A directory is marked for
	      compression by setting the bit 11	(value 0x00000800) in its Win-
	      dows  attribute. In such a directory, new	files are created com-
	      pressed and new subdirectories are themselves  marked  for  com-
	      pression.	 The  option  and  the flag have no effect on existing
	      files. Currently this is the default option.

	      This option disables creating new	transparently compressed files
	      in directories marked for	compression. Existing compressed files
	      can still	be read	and updated.

	      This option prevents fuse	from splitting write buffers  into  4K
	      chunks,  enabling	 big  write buffers to be transferred from the
	      application in a single step (up to some system limit, generally
	      128K bytes).

       debug  Makes ntfs-3g to print a lot of debug output from	libntfs-3g and

	      Makes ntfs-3g to not detach from terminal	and print  some	 debug

       NTFS  uses specific ids to record the ownership of files	instead	of the
       uid and gid used	by Linux. As a consequence a mapping between  the  ids
       has  to	be  defined for	ownerships to be recorded into NTFS and	recog-

       By default, this	mapping	is fetched from	the file  .NTFS-3G/UserMapping
       located	in  the	NTFS partition.	The option usermapping=	may be used to
       define another location.	When the option	permissions is set and no map-
       ping file is found, a default mapping is	used.

       Each  line  in the user mapping file defines a mapping. It is organized
       in three	fields separated by colons. The	first field identifies a  uid,
       the second field	identifies a gid and the third one identifies the cor-
       responding NTFS id, known as a SID. The uid and the  gid	 are  optional
       and defining both of them for the same SID is not recommended.

       If  no  interoperation  with  Windows is	needed,	you can	use the	option
       permissions to define a standard	mapping. Alternately, you  may	define
       your  own  mapping  by setting a	single default mapping with no uid and
       gid. In both cases, files created on Linux will appear  to  Windows  as
       owned  by  a  foreign user, and files created on	Windows	will appear to
       Linux as	owned by root. Just copy the example below and replace	the  9
       and  10-digit  numbers  by  any number not greater than 4294967295. The
       resulting behavior is the same as the one with  the  option  permission
       set with	no ownership option and	no user	mapping	file available.


       If  a  strong interoperation with Windows is needed, the	mapping	has to
       be defined for each user	and group known	in both	system,	and  the  SIDs
       used  by	 Windows has to	be collected. This will	lead to	a user mapping
       file like :


       The utility ntfsusermap may be used to create such a user mapping file.

       Mount /dev/sda1 to /mnt/windows:

	      ntfs-3g /dev/sda1	/mnt/windows
	      mount -t ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt/windows

       Mount  the  ntfs	 data  partition  /dev/sda3 to /mnt/data with standard
       Linux permissions applied :

	      ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3 /mnt/data
	      mount -t ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3	/mnt/data

       Read-only mount /dev/sda5 to /home/user/mnt and make user with uid 1000
       to be the owner of all files:

	      ntfs-3g /dev/sda5	/home/user/mnt -o ro,uid=1000

       /etc/fstab entry	for the	above (the sixth and last field	has to be zero
       to avoid	a file system check at boot time) :

	      /dev/sda5	/home/user/mnt ntfs-3g ro,uid=1000 0 0

       Unmount /mnt/windows:

	      umount /mnt/windows

       To facilitate the use of	the ntfs-3g driver in scripts, an exit code is
       returned	 to give an indication of the mountability status of a volume.
       Value 0 means success, and all other ones mean  an  error.  The	unique
       error codes are documented in the ntfs-3g.probe(8) manual page.

       Please see

       for  common questions and known issues.	If you would find a new	one in
       the latest release of the software then please send an email describing
       it   in	 detail.   You	 can  contact  the  development	 team  on  the address.

       ntfs-3g was based on and	a major	improvement to ntfsmount  and  libntfs
       which  were  written  by	 Yura  Pakhuchiy  and the Linux-NTFS team. The
       improvements were made, the ntfs-3g project was initiated and currently
       led   by	 long  time  Linux-NTFS	 team  developer  Szabolcs  Szakacsits

       Several people made heroic efforts, often over five or more years which
       resulted	 the  ntfs-3g  driver.	Most  importantly they are Anton Alta-
       parmakov, Jean-Pierre AndrA(C), Richard	Russon,	 Szabolcs  Szakacsits,
       Yura Pakhuchiy, Yuval Fledel, and the author of the groundbreaking FUSE
       filesystem development framework, Miklos	Szeredi.

       ntfs-3g.probe(8), ntfsprogs(8), attr(5),	getfattr(1)

ntfs-3g	2017.3.23		   Mar 2014			    NTFS-3G(8)


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