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NTFS-3G(8)		    System Manager's Manual		    NTFS-3G(8)

NAME
       ntfs-3g - Third Generation Read/Write NTFS Driver

SYNOPSIS
       ntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t	ntfs-3g	[-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t	lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point

DESCRIPTION
       ntfs-3g	is  an	NTFS  driver,  which  can create, remove, rename, move
       files, directories, hard	links, and streams;  it	 can  read  and	 write
       files,  including  streams,  sparse  files and transparently compressed
       files; it can handle special files like symbolic	 links,	 devices,  and
       FIFOs;  moreover	 it provides standard management of file ownership and
       permissions, including POSIX ACLs.

       It comes	in two variants	ntfs-3g	and lowntfs-3g with a few  differences
       mentioned below in relevant options descriptions.

       The volume to be	mounted	can be either a	block device or	an image file.

   Windows hibernation and fast	restarting
       On  computers  which  can be dual-booted	into Windows or	Linux, Windows
       has to be fully shut down before	booting	into Linux, otherwise the NTFS
       file systems on internal	disks may be left in an	inconsistent state and
       changes made by Linux may be ignored by Windows.

       So, Windows may not be left in hibernation when starting	Linux, in  or-
       der to avoid inconsistencies. Moreover, the fast	restart	feature	avail-
       able on recent Windows systems has to be	disabled. This can be achieved
       by  issuing as an Administrator the Windows command which disables both
       hibernation and fast restarting :

	      powercfg /h off

   Access Handling and Security
       By default, files and directories are owned by the effective  user  and
       group of	the mounting process, and everybody has	full read, write, exe-
       cution and directory browsing permissions.  You can also	assign permis-
       sions to	a single user by using the uid and/or the gid options together
       with the	umask, or fmask	and dmask options.

       Doing so, Windows users have  full  access  to  the  files  created  by
       ntfs-3g.

       But,  by	 setting the permissions option, you can benefit from the full
       ownership and permissions features as defined by	 POSIX.	 Moreover,  by
       defining	 a  Windows-to-Linux  user mapping, the	ownerships and permis-
       sions are even applied to Windows users and conversely.

       If ntfs-3g is set setuid-root then non-root users will be also able  to
       mount volumes.

   Windows Filename Compatibility
       NTFS  supports several filename namespaces: DOS,	Win32 and POSIX. While
       the ntfs-3g driver handles all of them, it always creates new files  in
       the  POSIX  namespace for maximum portability and interoperability rea-
       sons.  This means that filenames	are case sensitive and all  characters
       are  allowed  except  '/' and '\0'. This	is perfectly legal on Windows,
       though some application may get confused. The option windows_names  may
       be used to apply	Windows	restrictions to	new file names.

   Alternate Data Streams (ADS)
       NTFS  stores  all  data	in streams. Every file has exactly one unnamed
       data stream and can have	many named data	streams.  The size of  a  file
       is  the size of its unnamed data	stream.	 By default, ntfs-3g will only
       read the	unnamed	data stream.

       By using	the  options  "streams_interface=windows",  with  the  ntfs-3g
       driver  (not  possible  with  lowntfs-3g), you will be able to read any
       named data streams, simply by specifying	 the  stream's	name  after  a
       colon.  For example:

	      cat some.mp3:artist

       Named  data  streams  act like normal files, so you can read from them,
       write to	them and even delete them (using rm).  You can	list  all  the
       named  data  streams  a file has	by getting the "ntfs.streams.list" ex-
       tended attribute.

OPTIONS
       Below is	a summary of the options that ntfs-3g accepts.

       uid=value and gid=value
	      Set the owner and	the group of files and directories. The	values
	      are  numerical.  The defaults are	the uid	and gid	of the current
	      process.

       umask=value
	      Set the  bitmask of the file and directory permissions that  are
	      not present. The value is	given in octal.	The default value is 0
	      which means full access to everybody.

       fmask=value
	      Set the  bitmask of the file permissions that are	 not  present.
	      The  value is given in octal. The	default	value is 0 which means
	      full access to everybody.

       dmask=value
	      Set the  bitmask of  the	directory  permissions	that  are  not
	      present.	The  value  is	given in octal.	The default value is 0
	      which means full access to everybody.

       usermapping=file-name
	      Use file file-name as the	user mapping file instead of  the  de-
	      fault  .NTFS-3G/UserMapping.  If	file-name defines a full path,
	      the file must be located on a partition previously  mounted.  If
	      it  defines  a  relative path, it	is interpreted relative	to the
	      root of NTFS partition being mounted.

	      When a user mapping file is defined,  the	 options  uid=,	 gid=,
	      umask=, fmask=, dmask= and silent	are ignored.

       permissions
	      Set  standard  permissions on created files and use standard ac-
	      cess control.  This option is set	by default when	a user mapping
	      file is present.

       acl    Enable  setting Posix ACLs on created files and use them for ac-
	      cess control.  This option is only available on specific builds.
	      It is set	by default when	a user mapping file is present and the
	      permissions mount	option is not set.

       inherit
	      When creating a new file,	set its	initial	protections  according
	      to  inheritance  rules  defined in parent	directory. These rules
	      deviate from Posix specifications, but yield  a  better  Windows
	      compatibility.  The  permissions	option or a valid user mapping
	      file is required for this	option to be effective.

       ro     Mount filesystem read-only. Useful if Windows is	hibernated  or
	      the NTFS journal file is unclean.

       locale=value
	      This  option  can	be useful when wanting a language specific lo-
	      cale environment.	 It is however	discouraged  as	 it  leads  to
	      files with untranslatable	chars to not be	visible.

       force  This  option  is obsolete. It has	been superseded	by the recover
	      and norecover options.

       recover
	      Recover and try to mount a partition  which  was	not  unmounted
	      properly	by  Windows. The Windows logfile is cleared, which may
	      cause inconsistencies.  Currently	this is	the default option.

       norecover
	      Do not try to mount a partition which was	not unmounted properly
	      by Windows.

       ignore_case (only with lowntfs-3g)
	      Ignore character case when accessing a file (FOO,	Foo, foo, etc.
	      designate	the same file).	All files  are	displayed  with	 lower
	      case in directory	listings.

       remove_hiberfile
	      When the NTFS volume is hibernated, a read-write mount is	denied
	      and a read-only mount is forced. One needs either	to resume Win-
	      dows and shutdown	it properly, or	use this option	which will re-
	      move the Windows hibernation file. Please	note, this means  that
	      the  saved Windows session will be completely lost. Use this op-
	      tion under your own responsibility.

       atime, noatime, relatime
	      The atime	option updates inode access time for each access.

	      The noatime option disables inode	access time updates which  can
	      speed  up	 file operations and prevent sleeping (notebook) disks
	      spinning up too often thus saving	energy and disk	lifetime.

	      The relatime option is very similar to noatime.  It updates  in-
	      ode  access times	relative to modify or change time.  The	access
	      time is only updated if the previous  access  time  was  earlier
	      than  the	current	modify or change time. Unlike noatime this op-
	      tion doesn't break applications that need	to know	if a file  has
	      been  read since the last	time it	was modified.  This is the de-
	      fault behaviour.

       delay_mtime[= value]
	      Only update the file modification	time and the file change  time
	      of  a  file  when	it is closed or	when the indicated delay since
	      the previous update has elapsed. The argument  is	 a  number  of
	      seconds,	with a default value of	60.  This is mainly useful for
	      big files	which are kept open for	a long	time  and  written  to
	      without  changing	 their	size, such as databases	or file	system
	      images mounted as	loop.

       show_sys_files
	      Show the metafiles in directory listings.	Otherwise the  default
	      behaviour	is to hide the metafiles, which	are special files used
	      to store the NTFS	structure. Please note that even when this op-
	      tion is specified, "$MFT"	may not	be visible due to a glibc bug.
	      Furthermore, irrespectively of show_sys_files, all files are ac-
	      cessible	by  name,  for	example	you can	always do "ls -l '$Up-
	      Case'".

       hide_hid_files
	      Hide the hidden files and	directories in directory listings, the
	      hidden files and directories being the ones whose	NTFS attribute
	      have the hidden flag set.	 The hidden files will not be selected
	      when  using wildcards in commands, but all files and directories
	      remain accessible	by full	name, for example you can always  dis-
	      play  the	 Windows  trash	 bin  directory	 by  : "ls -ld '$RECY-
	      CLE.BIN'".

       hide_dot_files
	      Set the hidden flag in the NTFS attribute	for created files  and
	      directories  whose  first	 character  of the name	is a dot. Such
	      files and	directories normally do	not appear in directory	 list-
	      ings, and	when the flag is set they do not appear	in Windows di-
	      rectory displays either.	When a file is renamed or linked  with
	      a	new name, the hidden flag is adjusted to the latest name.

       windows_names
	      This  option prevents files, directories and extended attributes
	      to be created with a name	not allowed by windows,	because

		     - it contains some	not allowed character,
		     - or the last character is	a space	or a dot,
		     - or the name is reserved.

	      The forbidden characters are the nine characters " * / : < > ? \
	      |	and those whose	code is	less than 0x20,	and the	reserved names
	      are CON, PRN, AUX, NUL, COM1..COM9, LPT1..LPT9, with  no	suffix
	      or followed by a dot.

	      Existing such files can still be read (and renamed).

       allow_other
	      This  option overrides the security measure restricting file ac-
	      cess to the user mounting	the filesystem.	This  option  is  only
	      allowed  to  root, but this restriction can be overridden	by the
	      'user_allow_other' option	in the /etc/fuse.conf file.

       max_read=value
	      With this	option the maximum size	of read	operations can be set.
	      The default is infinite.	Note that the size of read requests is
	      limited anyway to	32 pages (which	is 128kbyte on i386).

       silent Do nothing, without returning any	error, on chmod	and chown  op-
	      erations and on permission checking errors, when the permissions
	      option is	not set	and no user mapping file is defined. This  op-
	      tion  is	on  by	default,  and  when  set  off  (through	option
	      no_def_opts) ownership and permissions  parameters  have	to  be
	      set.

       no_def_opts
	      By default ntfs-3g acts as if "silent" (ignore permission	errors
	      when permissions are not enabled), "allow_other" (allow any user
	      to access	files) and "nonempty" (allow mounting on non-empty di-
	      rectories) were set, and "no_def_opts" cancels these default op-
	      tions.

       streams_interface=value
	      This  option  controls  how  the	user can access	Alternate Data
	      Streams (ADS) or in other	words, named data streams. It  can  be
	      set  to,	one of none, windows or	xattr. If the option is	set to
	      none, the	user will have no access to the	named data streams. If
	      it  is  set  to windows (not possible with lowntfs-3g), then the
	      user can access them just	like in	Windows	(eg. cat file:stream).
	      If  it's set to xattr, then the named data streams are mapped to
	      xattrs and user can manipulate them using	{get,set}fattr	utili-
	      ties. The	default	is xattr.

       user_xattr
	      Same as streams_interface=xattr.

       efs_raw
	      This  option should only be used in backup or restore situation.
	      It changes the apparent size of files and	the behavior  of  read
	      and write	operation so that encrypted files can be saved and re-
	      stored without being decrypted. The  user.ntfs.efsinfo  extended
	      attribute	 has  also to be saved and restored for	the file to be
	      decrypted.

       compression
	      This option enables creating new transparently compressed	 files
	      in directories marked for	compression. A directory is marked for
	      compression by setting the bit 11	(value 0x00000800) in its Win-
	      dows  attribute. In such a directory, new	files are created com-
	      pressed and new subdirectories are themselves  marked  for  com-
	      pression.	 The  option  and  the flag have no effect on existing
	      files. Currently this is the default option.

       nocompression
	      This option disables creating new	transparently compressed files
	      in directories marked for	compression. Existing compressed files
	      can still	be read	and updated.

       big_writes
	      This option prevents fuse	from splitting write buffers  into  4K
	      chunks,  enabling	 big  write buffers to be transferred from the
	      application in a single step (up to some system limit, generally
	      128K bytes).

       debug  Makes ntfs-3g to print a lot of debug output from	libntfs-3g and
	      FUSE.

       no_detach
	      Makes ntfs-3g to not detach from terminal	and print  some	 debug
	      output.

USER MAPPING
       NTFS  uses specific ids to record the ownership of files	instead	of the
       uid and gid used	by Linux. As a consequence a mapping between  the  ids
       has  to	be  defined for	ownerships to be recorded into NTFS and	recog-
       nized.

       By default, this	mapping	is fetched from	the file  .NTFS-3G/UserMapping
       located	in  the	NTFS partition.	The option usermapping=	may be used to
       define another location.	When the option	permissions is set and no map-
       ping file is found, a default mapping is	used.

       Each  line  in the user mapping file defines a mapping. It is organized
       in three	fields separated by colons. The	first field identifies a  uid,
       the second field	identifies a gid and the third one identifies the cor-
       responding NTFS id, known as a SID. The uid and the  gid	 are  optional
       and defining both of them for the same SID is not recommended.

       If  no  interoperation  with  Windows is	needed,	you can	use the	option
       permissions to define a standard	mapping. Alternately, you  may	define
       your  own  mapping  by setting a	single default mapping with no uid and
       gid. In both cases, files created on Linux will appear  to  Windows  as
       owned  by  a  foreign user, and files created on	Windows	will appear to
       Linux as	owned by root. Just copy the example below and replace	the  9
       and 10-digit numbers by any number not greater than 4294967295. The re-
       sulting behavior	is the same as the one with the	option permission  set
       with no ownership option	and no user mapping file available.

	      ::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-10000

       If  a  strong interoperation with Windows is needed, the	mapping	has to
       be defined for each user	and group known	in both	system,	and  the  SIDs
       used  by	 Windows has to	be collected. This will	lead to	a user mapping
       file like :

	      john::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-1008
	      mary::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-1009
	      :smith:S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-513
	      ::S-1-5-21-3141592653-589793238-462643383-10000

       The utility ntfsusermap may be used to create such a user mapping file.

EXAMPLES
       Mount /dev/sda1 to /mnt/windows:

	      ntfs-3g /dev/sda1	/mnt/windows
       or
	      mount -t ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt/windows

       Mount  the  ntfs	 data  partition  /dev/sda3 to /mnt/data with standard
       Linux permissions applied :

	      ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3 /mnt/data
       or
	      mount -t ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3	/mnt/data

       Read-only mount /dev/sda5 to /home/user/mnt and make user with uid 1000
       to be the owner of all files:

	      ntfs-3g /dev/sda5	/home/user/mnt -o ro,uid=1000

       /etc/fstab entry	for the	above (the sixth and last field	has to be zero
       to avoid	a file system check at boot time) :

	      /dev/sda5	/home/user/mnt ntfs-3g ro,uid=1000 0 0

       Unmount /mnt/windows:

	      umount /mnt/windows

EXIT CODES
       To facilitate the use of	the ntfs-3g driver in scripts, an exit code is
       returned	 to give an indication of the mountability status of a volume.
       Value 0 means success, and all other ones mean an error.	The unique er-
       ror codes are documented	in the ntfs-3g.probe(8)	manual page.

KNOWN ISSUES
       Please see

	      http://www.tuxera.com/support/

       for  common questions and known issues.	If you would find a new	one in
       the latest release of the software then please send an email describing
       it  in  detail. You can contact the development team on the ntfs-3g-de-
       vel@lists.sf.net	address.

AUTHORS
       ntfs-3g was based on and	a major	improvement to ntfsmount  and  libntfs
       which  were  written by Yura Pakhuchiy and the Linux-NTFS team. The im-
       provements were made, the ntfs-3g project was initiated	and  currently
       led   by	 long  time  Linux-NTFS	 team  developer  Szabolcs  Szakacsits
       (szaka@tuxera.com).

THANKS
       Several people made heroic efforts, often over five or more years which
       resulted	 the  ntfs-3g  driver.	Most  importantly they are Anton Alta-
       parmakov, Jean-Pierre AndrA(C), Richard	Russon,	 Szabolcs  Szakacsits,
       Yura Pakhuchiy, Yuval Fledel, and the author of the groundbreaking FUSE
       filesystem development framework, Miklos	Szeredi.

SEE ALSO
       ntfs-3g.probe(8), ntfsprogs(8), attr(5),	getfattr(1)

ntfs-3g	2017.3.23		   Mar 2014			    NTFS-3G(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | USER MAPPING | EXAMPLES | EXIT CODES | KNOWN ISSUES | AUTHORS | THANKS | SEE ALSO

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