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NTFS-3G(8)							    NTFS-3G(8)

       ntfs-3g - Third Generation Read/Write NTFS Driver

       ntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t	ntfs-3g	[-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t	lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point

       ntfs-3g	is  an	NTFS  driver,  which  can create, remove, rename, move
       files, directories, hard	links, and streams;  it	 can  read  and	 write
       files,  including  streams,  sparse  files and transparently compressed
       files; it can handle special files like symbolic	 links,	 devices,  and
       FIFOs;  moreover	 it provides standard management of file ownership and
       permissions, including POSIX ACLs.

       It comes	in two variants	ntfs-3g	and lowntfs-3g with a few  differences
       mentioned below in relevant options descriptions.

       The volume to be	mounted	can be either a	block device or	an image file.

   Windows hibernation and fast	restarting
       On computers which can be dual-booted into Windows  or  Linux,  Windows
       has to be fully shut down before	booting	into Linux, otherwise the NTFS
       file systems on internal	disks may be left in an	inconsistent state and
       changes made by Linux may be ignored by Windows.

       So,  Windows  may  not  be  left	in hibernation when starting Linux, in
       order to	avoid inconsistencies.	Moreover,  the	fast  restart  feature
       available  on  recent  Windows  systems has to be disabled. This	can be
       achieved	by issuing as an Administrator the Windows command which  dis-
       ables both hibernation and fast restarting :

	      powercfg /h off

   Access Handling and Security
       By  default,  files and directories are owned by	the effective user and
       group of	the mounting process, and everybody has	full read, write, exe-
       cution and directory browsing permissions.  You can also	assign permis-
       sions to	a single user by using the uid and/or the gid options together
       with the	umask, or fmask	and dmask options.

       Doing  so,  Windows  users  have	 full  access  to the files created by

       But, by setting the permissions option, you can benefit from  the  full
       ownership  and  permissions  features as	defined	by POSIX. Moreover, by
       defining	a Windows-to-Linux user	mapping, the  ownerships  and  permis-
       sions are even applied to Windows users and conversely.

       If  ntfs-3g is set setuid-root then non-root users will be also able to
       mount volumes.

   Windows Filename Compatibility
       NTFS supports several filename namespaces: DOS, Win32 and POSIX.	 While
       the  ntfs-3g driver handles all of them,	it always creates new files in
       the POSIX namespace for maximum portability and	interoperability  rea-
       sons.   This means that filenames are case sensitive and	all characters
       are allowed except '/' and '\0'.	This is	perfectly  legal  on  Windows,
       though  some application	may get	confused. The option windows_names may
       be used to apply	Windows	restrictions to	new file names.

   Alternate Data Streams (ADS)
       NTFS stores all data in streams.	Every file  has	 exactly  one  unnamed
       data  stream  and can have many named data streams.  The	size of	a file
       is the size of its unnamed data stream.	By default, ntfs-3g will  only
       read the	unnamed	data stream.

       By  using  the  options	"streams_interface=windows",  with the ntfs-3g
       driver (not possible with lowntfs-3g), you will be  able	 to  read  any
       named  data  streams,  simply  by  specifying the stream's name after a
       colon.  For example:

	      cat some.mp3:artist

       Named data streams act like normal files, so you	can  read  from	 them,
       write  to  them	and even delete	them (using rm).  You can list all the
       named data streams  a  file  has	 by  getting  the  "ntfs.streams.list"
       extended	attribute.

       Below is	a summary of the options that ntfs-3g accepts.

       uid=value and gid=value
	      Set the owner and	the group of files and directories. The	values
	      are numerical.  The defaults are the uid and gid of the  current

	      Set  the	bitmask	of the file and	directory permissions that are
	      not present. The value is	given in octal.	The default value is 0
	      which means full access to everybody.

	      Set  the	 bitmask of the	file permissions that are not present.
	      The value	is given in octal. The default value is	0 which	 means
	      full access to everybody.

	      Set  the	 bitmask  of  the  directory  permissions that are not
	      present. The value is given in octal. The	 default  value	 is  0
	      which means full access to everybody.

	      Use  file	 file-name  as	the  user  mapping file	instead	of the
	      default .NTFS-3G/UserMapping. If file-name defines a full	 path,
	      the  file	 must be located on a partition	previously mounted. If
	      it defines a relative path, it is	interpreted  relative  to  the
	      root of NTFS partition being mounted.

	      When  a  user  mapping  file is defined, the options uid=, gid=,
	      umask=, fmask=, dmask= and silent	are ignored.

	      Set standard permissions	on  created  files  and	 use  standard
	      access  control.	This option is set by default when a user map-
	      ping file	is present.

       acl    Enable setting Posix ACLs	on created  files  and	use  them  for
	      access  control.	 This  option  is  only	 available on specific
	      builds. It is set	by default when	a user mapping file is present
	      and the permissions mount	option is not set.

	      When  creating a new file, set its initial protections according
	      to inheritance rules defined in parent  directory.  These	 rules
	      deviate  from  Posix  specifications, but	yield a	better Windows
	      compatibility. The permissions option or a  valid	 user  mapping
	      file is required for this	option to be effective.

       ro     Mount  filesystem	 read-only. Useful if Windows is hibernated or
	      the NTFS journal file is unclean.

	      This option can be  useful  when	wanting	 a  language  specific
	      locale  environment.   It	 is however discouraged	as it leads to
	      files with untranslatable	chars to not be	visible.

       force  This option is obsolete. It has been superseded by  the  recover
	      and norecover options.

	      Recover  and  try	 to  mount a partition which was not unmounted
	      properly by Windows. The Windows logfile is cleared,  which  may
	      cause inconsistencies.  Currently	this is	the default option.

	      Do not try to mount a partition which was	not unmounted properly
	      by Windows.

       ignore_case (only with lowntfs-3g)
	      Ignore character case when accessing a file (FOO,	Foo, foo, etc.
	      designate	 the  same  file).  All	files are displayed with lower
	      case in directory	listings.

	      When the NTFS volume is hibernated, a read-write mount is	denied
	      and a read-only mount is forced. One needs either	to resume Win-
	      dows and shutdown	it properly, or	use  this  option  which  will
	      remove  the  Windows  hibernation	 file. Please note, this means
	      that the saved Windows session will be completely	lost. Use this
	      option under your	own responsibility.

       atime, noatime, relatime
	      The atime	option updates inode access time for each access.

	      The  noatime option disables inode access	time updates which can
	      speed up file operations and prevent sleeping  (notebook)	 disks
	      spinning up too often thus saving	energy and disk	lifetime.

	      The  relatime  option  is	 very  similar to noatime.  It updates
	      inode access times relative  to  modify  or  change  time.   The
	      access time is only updated if the previous access time was ear-
	      lier than	the current modify or change time. Unlike noatime this
	      option  doesn't  break  applications that	need to	know if	a file
	      has been read since the last time	it was modified.  This is  the
	      default behaviour.

       delay_mtime[= value]
	      Only  update the file modification time and the file change time
	      of a file	when it	is closed or when the  indicated  delay	 since
	      the  previous  update  has  elapsed. The argument	is a number of
	      seconds, with a default value of 60.  This is mainly useful  for
	      big  files  which	 are  kept open	for a long time	and written to
	      without changing their size, such	as databases  or  file	system
	      images mounted as	loop.

	      Show  the	metafiles in directory listings. Otherwise the default
	      behaviour	is to hide the metafiles, which	are special files used
	      to  store	 the  NTFS  structure. Please note that	even when this
	      option is	specified, "$MFT" may not be visible due  to  a	 glibc
	      bug.  Furthermore,  irrespectively  of show_sys_files, all files
	      are accessible by	name, for example you can  always  do  "ls  -l

	      Hide the hidden files and	directories in directory listings, the
	      hidden files and directories being the ones whose	NTFS attribute
	      have the hidden flag set.	 The hidden files will not be selected
	      when using wildcards in commands,	but all	files and  directories
	      remain  accessible by full name, for example you can always dis-
	      play the Windows trash  bin  directory  by  :  "ls  -ld  '$RECY-

	      Set  the hidden flag in the NTFS attribute for created files and
	      directories whose	first character	of the name  is	 a  dot.  Such
	      files  and directories normally do not appear in directory list-
	      ings, and	when the flag is set they do  not  appear  in  Windows
	      directory	 displays  either.   When  a file is renamed or	linked
	      with a new name, the hidden flag is adjusted to the latest name.

	      This  option prevents files, directories and extended attributes
	      to be created with a name	not allowed by windows,	because

		     - it contains some	not allowed character,
		     - or the last character is	a space	or a dot,
		     - or the name is reserved.

	      The forbidden characters are the nine characters " * / : < > ? \
	      |	and those whose	code is	less than 0x20,	and the	reserved names
	      are CON, PRN, AUX, NUL, COM1..COM9, LPT1..LPT9, with  no	suffix
	      or followed by a dot.

	      Existing such files can still be read (and renamed).

	      This  option  overrides  the  security  measure restricting file
	      access to	the user mounting the filesystem. This option is  only
	      allowed  to  root, but this restriction can be overridden	by the
	      'user_allow_other' option	in the /etc/fuse.conf file.

	      With this	option the maximum size	of read	operations can be set.
	      The default is infinite.	Note that the size of read requests is
	      limited anyway to	32 pages (which	is 128kbyte on i386).

       silent Do nothing, without returning any	 error,	 on  chmod  and	 chown
	      operations  and  on permission checking errors, when the permis-
	      sions option is not set and no user  mapping  file  is  defined.
	      This  option  is on by default, and when set off (through	option
	      no_def_opts) ownership and permissions  parameters  have	to  be

	      By default ntfs-3g acts as if "silent" (ignore permission	errors
	      when permissions are not enabled), "allow_other" (allow any user
	      to  access  files)  and  "nonempty" (allow mounting on non-empty
	      directories) were	set, and "no_def_opts" cancels	these  default

	      This  option  controls  how  the	user can access	Alternate Data
	      Streams (ADS) or in other	words, named data streams. It  can  be
	      set  to,	one of none, windows or	xattr. If the option is	set to
	      none, the	user will have no access to the	named data streams. If
	      it  is  set  to windows (not possible with lowntfs-3g), then the
	      user can access them just	like in	Windows	(eg. cat file:stream).
	      If  it's set to xattr, then the named data streams are mapped to
	      xattrs and user can manipulate them using	{get,set}fattr	utili-
	      ties. The	default	is xattr.

	      Same as streams_interface=xattr.

	      This  option should only be used in backup or restore situation.
	      It changes the apparent size of files and	the behavior  of  read
	      and  write  operation  so	 that encrypted	files can be saved and
	      restored without being decrypted.	The user.ntfs.efsinfo extended
	      attribute	 has  also to be saved and restored for	the file to be

	      This option enables creating new transparently compressed	 files
	      in directories marked for	compression. A directory is marked for
	      compression by setting the bit 11	(value 0x00000800) in its Win-
	      dows  attribute. In such a directory, new	files are created com-
	      pressed and new subdirectories are themselves  marked  for  com-
	      pression.	 The  option  and  the flag have no effect on existing
	      files. Currently this is the default option.

	      This option disables creating new	transparently compressed files
	      in directories marked for	compression. Existing compressed files
	      can still	be read	and updated.

	      This option prevents fuse	from splitting write buffers  into  4K
	      chunks,  enabling	 big  write buffers to be transferred from the
	      application in a single step (up to some system limit, generally
	      128K bytes).

       debug  Makes ntfs-3g to print a lot of debug output from	libntfs-3g and

	      Makes ntfs-3g to not detach from terminal	and print  some	 debug

       NTFS  uses specific ids to record the ownership of files	instead	of the
       uid and gid used	by Linux. As a consequence a mapping between  the  ids
       has  to	be  defined for	ownerships to be recorded into NTFS and	recog-

       By default, this	mapping	is fetched from	the file  .NTFS-3G/UserMapping
       located	in  the	NTFS partition.	The option usermapping=	may be used to
       define another location.	When the option	permissions is set and no map-
       ping file is found, a default mapping is	used.

       Each  line  in the user mapping file defines a mapping. It is organized
       in three	fields separated by colons. The	first field identifies a  uid,
       the second field	identifies a gid and the third one identifies the cor-
       responding NTFS id, known as a SID. The uid and the  gid	 are  optional
       and defining both of them for the same SID is not recommended.

       If  no  interoperation  with  Windows is	needed,	you can	use the	option
       permissions to define a standard	mapping. Alternately, you  may	define
       your  own  mapping  by setting a	single default mapping with no uid and
       gid. In both cases, files created on Linux will appear  to  Windows  as
       owned  by  a  foreign user, and files created on	Windows	will appear to
       Linux as	owned by root. Just copy the example below and replace	the  9
       and  10-digit  numbers  by  any number not greater than 4294967295. The
       resulting behavior is the same as the one with  the  option  permission
       set with	no ownership option and	no user	mapping	file available.


       If  a  strong interoperation with Windows is needed, the	mapping	has to
       be defined for each user	and group known	in both	system,	and  the  SIDs
       used  by	 Windows has to	be collected. This will	lead to	a user mapping
       file like :


       The utility ntfsusermap may be used to create such a user mapping file.

       Mount /dev/sda1 to /mnt/windows:

	      ntfs-3g /dev/sda1	/mnt/windows
	      mount -t ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt/windows

       Mount the ntfs data partition  /dev/sda3	 to  /mnt/data	with  standard
       Linux permissions applied :

	      ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3 /mnt/data
	      mount -t ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3	/mnt/data

       Read-only mount /dev/sda5 to /home/user/mnt and make user with uid 1000
       to be the owner of all files:

	      ntfs-3g /dev/sda5	/home/user/mnt -o ro,uid=1000

       /etc/fstab entry	for the	above (the sixth and last field	has to be zero
       to avoid	a file system check at boot time) :

	      /dev/sda5	/home/user/mnt ntfs-3g ro,uid=1000 0 0

       Unmount /mnt/windows:

	      umount /mnt/windows

       To facilitate the use of	the ntfs-3g driver in scripts, an exit code is
       returned	to give	an indication of the mountability status of a  volume.
       Value  0	 means	success,  and all other	ones mean an error. The	unique
       error codes are documented in the ntfs-3g.probe(8) manual page.

       Please see

       for common questions and	known issues.  If you would find a new one  in
       the latest release of the software then please send an email describing
       it  in  detail.	You  can  contact  the	 development   team   on   the address.

       ntfs-3g	was  based on and a major improvement to ntfsmount and libntfs
       which were written by Yura  Pakhuchiy  and  the	Linux-NTFS  team.  The
       improvements were made, the ntfs-3g project was initiated and currently
       led  by	long  time  Linux-NTFS	team  developer	 Szabolcs   Szakacsits

       Several people made heroic efforts, often over five or more years which
       resulted	the ntfs-3g driver. Most  importantly  they  are  Anton	 Alta-
       parmakov,  Jean-Pierre  AndrA(C),  Richard Russon, Szabolcs Szakacsits,
       Yura Pakhuchiy, Yuval Fledel, and the author of the groundbreaking FUSE
       filesystem development framework, Miklos	Szeredi.

       ntfs-3g.probe(8), ntfsprogs(8), attr(5),	getfattr(1)

ntfs-3g	2017.3.23		   Mar 2014			    NTFS-3G(8)


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