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NOTMUCH-SEARCH-TERMS(7)		    notmuch	       NOTMUCH-SEARCH-TERMS(7)

NAME
       notmuch-search-terms - syntax for notmuch queries

SYNOPSIS
       notmuch count [option ...] <search-term>	...

       notmuch dump [--gzip] [--format=(batch-tag|sup)]	[--output=<file>] [--]
       [<search-term> ...]

       notmuch reindex [option ...] <search-term> ...

       notmuch search [option ...] <search-term> ...

       notmuch show [option ...] <search-term> ...

       notmuch tag +<tag> ... -<tag> [--] <search-term>	...

DESCRIPTION
       Several notmuch commands	accept a common	syntax for search terms.

       The search terms	can consist of free-form  text	(and  quoted  phrases)
       which   will   match  all  messages  that  contain  all	of  the	 given
       terms/phrases in	the body, the subject, or any of the sender or recipi-
       ent headers.

       As  a  special case, a search string consisting of exactly a single as-
       terisk ("*") will match all messages.

   Search prefixes
       In addition to free text, the following prefixes	can be used  to	 force
       terms to	match against specific portions	of an email, (where <brackets>
       indicate	user-supplied values).

       Some of the prefixes with <regex> forms can be also  used  to  restrict
       the  results  to	 those	whose  value matches a regular expression (see
       regex(7)) delimited with	//, for	example:

	  notmuch search 'from:"/bob@.*[.]example[.]com/"'

       body:<word-or-quoted-phrase>
	      Match terms in the body of messages.

       from:<name-or-address> or from:/<regex>/
	      The from:	prefix is used to match	the name  or  address  of  the
	      sender of	an email message.

       to:<name-or-address>
	      The  to:	prefix	is used	to match the names or addresses	of any
	      recipient	of an email message, (whether To, Cc, or Bcc).

       subject:<word-or-quoted-phrase> or subject:/<regex>/
	      Any term prefixed	with subject: will match only  text  from  the
	      subject  of  an  email. Searching	for a phrase in	the subject is
	      supported	by including quotation marks around the	phrase,	 imme-
	      diately following	subject:.

       attachment:<word>
	      The  attachment: prefix can be used to search for	specific file-
	      names (or	extensions) of attachments to email messages.

       mimetype:<word>
	      The mimetype: prefix will	be used	to match text  from  the  con-
	      tent-types  of MIME parts	within email messages (as specified by
	      the sender).

       tag:<tag> or tag:/<regex>/ or is:<tag> or is:/<regex>/
	      For tag: and is: valid tag values	include	inbox  and  unread  by
	      default  for  new	 messages  added by notmuch new	as well	as any
	      other tag	values added manually with notmuch tag.

       id:<message-id> or mid:<message-id> or mid:/<regex>/
	      For id: and mid:,	message	ID values are the literal contents  of
	      the  Message-ID:	header of email	messages, but without the '<',
	      '>' delimiters.

       thread:<thread-id>
	      The thread: prefix can be	used with the thread  ID  values  that
	      are  generated internally	by notmuch (and	do not appear in email
	      messages). These thread ID values	can be seen in the first  col-
	      umn of output from notmuch search

       thread:{<notmuch	query>}
	      Threads may be searched for indirectly by	providing an arbitrary
	      notmuch query in {}. For example,	the following returns  threads
	      containing  a  message from mallory and one (not necessarily the
	      same message) with Subject containing the	word "crypto".

		 % notmuch search 'thread:"{from:mallory}" and thread:"{subject:crypto}"'

	      The performance of such queries can vary wildly.	To  understand
	      this, the	user should think of the query thread:{<something>} as
	      expanding	to all of the thread IDs which match <something>; not-
	      much then	performs a second search using the expanded query.

       path:<directory-path> or	path:<directory-path>/** or path:/<regex>/
	      The path:	prefix searches	for email messages that	are in partic-
	      ular directories within the mail store. The  directory  must  be
	      specified	 relative  to  the  top-level maildir (and without the
	      leading slash). By default, path:	matches	messages in the	speci-
	      fied  directory only. The	"/**" suffix can be used to match mes-
	      sages in the specified directory and all its subdirectories  re-
	      cursively.  path:""  matches  messages  in  the root of the mail
	      store and, likewise, path:** matches all messages.

	      path: will find a	message	if any copy of that message is in  the
	      specific directory.

       folder:<maildir-folder> or folder:/<regex>/
	      The  folder: prefix searches for email messages by maildir or MH
	      folder. For MH-style folders, this is equivalent to  path:.  For
	      maildir, this includes messages in the "new" and "cur" subdirec-
	      tories. The exact	syntax for maildir  folders  depends  on  your
	      mail  configuration.  For	maildir++, folder:"" matches the inbox
	      folder (which is the root	in maildir++), other folder names  al-
	      ways  start  with	".", and nested	folders	are separated by "."s,
	      such as folder:.classes.topology.	For "file system" maildir, the
	      inbox is typically folder:INBOX and nested folders are separated
	      by slashes, such as folder:classes/topology.

	      folder: will find	a message if any copy of that  message	is  in
	      the specific folder.

       date:<since>..<until> or	date:<date>
	      The  date:  prefix  can  be used to restrict the results to only
	      messages within a	particular time	 range	(based	on  the	 Date:
	      header).

	      See  DATE	AND TIME SEARCH	below for details on the range expres-
	      sion, and	supported syntax for <since> and <until> date and time
	      expressions.

	      The  time	 range	can also be specified using timestamps without
	      including	the date prefix	using a	syntax of:

	      <initial-timestamp>..<final-timestamp>

	      Each timestamp is	a number representing the  number  of  seconds
	      since  1970-01-01	00:00:00 UTC. Specifying a time	range this way
	      is considered legacy and predates	the date prefix.

       lastmod:<initial-revision>..<final-revision>
	      The lastmod: prefix can be used to restrict the  result  by  the
	      database	revision  number  of  when messages were last modified
	      (tags were added/removed or filenames changed). This is  usually
	      used  in	conjunction with the --uuid argument to	notmuch	search
	      to find messages that have changed since an earlier query.

       query:<name>
	      The query: prefix	allows queries to refer	 to  previously	 saved
	      queries added with notmuch-config(1).

       property:<key>=<value>
	      The  property:  prefix  searches	for messages with a particular
	      <key>=<value> property pair. Properties are used	internally  by
	      notmuch  (and  extensions)  to add metadata to messages. A given
	      key can be present on a given  message  with  several  different
	      values.  See notmuch-properties(7) for more details.

       User defined prefixes are also supported, see notmuch-config(1) for de-
       tails.

   Operators
       In addition to individual terms,	multiple terms can  be	combined  with
       Boolean	operators (and,	or, not, and xor). Each	term in	the query will
       be implicitly connected by a logical AND	if  no	explicit  operator  is
       provided	 (except  that	terms  with a common prefix will be implicitly
       combined	with OR).  The	shorthand  '-<term>'  can  be  used  for  'not
       <term>' but unfortunately this does not work at the start of an expres-
       sion.  Parentheses can also be used to control the combination  of  the
       Boolean operators, but will have	to be protected	from interpretation by
       the shell, (such	as by putting quotation	marks around any parenthesized
       expression).

       In  addition to the standard boolean operators, Xapian provides several
       operators specific to text searching.

	  notmuch search term1 NEAR term2

       will return results where term1	is  within  10	words  of  term2.  The
       threshold can be	set like this:

	  notmuch search term1 NEAR/2 term2

       The search

	  notmuch search term1 ADJ term2

       will return results where term1 is within 10 words of term2, but	in the
       same order as in	the query. The threshold can be	set the	same  as  with
       NEAR:

	  notmuch search term1 ADJ/7 term2

   Stemming
       Stemming	in notmuch means that these searches

	  notmuch search detailed
	  notmuch search details
	  notmuch search detail

       will  all  return identical results, because Xapian first "reduces" the
       term to the common stem (here 'detail') and then	performs the search.

       There are two ways to turn this off: a search for  a  capitalized  word
       will  be	performed unstemmed, so	that one can search for	"John" and not
       get results for "Johnson"; phrase searches are also unstemmed (see  be-
       low  for	 details).   Stemming is currently only	supported for English.
       Searches	for words in other languages will be performed unstemmed.

   Wildcards
       It is possible to use a trailing	 '*'  as  a  wildcard.	A  search  for
       'wildc*'	will match 'wildcard', 'wildcat', etc.

   Boolean and Probabilistic Prefixes
       Xapian  (and hence notmuch) prefixes are	either boolean,	supporting ex-
       act matches like	"tag:inbox" or probabilistic, supporting a more	flexi-
       ble  term  based	 searching.  Certain special prefixes are processed by
       notmuch in a way	not strictly  fitting  either  of  Xapian's  built  in
       styles. The prefixes currently supported	by notmuch are as follows.

       Boolean
	      tag:, id:, thread:, folder:, path:, property:

       Probabilistic
	      body:, to:, attachment:, mimetype:

       Special
	      from:, query:, subject:

   Terms and phrases
       In  general  Xapian  distinguishes  between lists of terms and phrases.
       Phrases are indicated by	double quotes (but beware you probably need to
       protect	those  from  your shell) and insist that those unstemmed words
       occur in	that order. One	useful,	but initially  surprising  feature  is
       that the	following are equivalent ways to write the same	phrase.

       o "a list of words"

       o a-list-of-words

       o a/list/of/words

       o a.list.of.words

       Both parenthesised lists	of terms and quoted phrases are	ok with	proba-
       bilistic	prefixes such as to:, from:, and subject:. In particular

	  subject:(pizza free)

       is equivalent to

	  subject:pizza	and subject:free

       Both of these will match	a subject "Free	Delicious Pizza" while

	  subject:"pizza free"

       will not.

   Quoting
       Double quotes are also used by the  notmuch  query  parser  to  protect
       boolean	terms, regular expressions, or subqueries containing spaces or
       other special characters, e.g.

	  tag:"a tag"

	  folder:"/^.*/(Junk|Spam)$/"

	  thread:"{from:mallory	and date:2009}"

       As with phrases,	you need to protect the	double quotes from  the	 shell
       e.g.

	  % notmuch search 'folder:"/^.*/(Junk|Spam)$/"'
	  % notmuch search 'thread:"{from:mallory and date:2009}" and thread:{to:mallory}'

DATE AND TIME SEARCH
       notmuch	understands a variety of standard and natural ways of express-
       ing dates and times, both in absolute terms ("2012-10-24") and in rela-
       tive  terms ("yesterday"). Any number of	relative terms can be combined
       ("1 hour	25 minutes") and an absolute date/time can  be	combined  with
       relative	 terms	to  further adjust it. A non-exhaustive	description of
       the syntax supported for	absolute and relative terms is given below.

   The range expression
       date:<since>..<until>

       The above expression  restricts	the  results  to  only	messages  from
       <since> to <until>, based on the	Date: header.

       <since>	and <until> can	describe imprecise times, such as "yesterday".
       In this case, <since> is	taken as the earliest time it  could  describe
       (the beginning of yesterday) and	<until>	is taken as the	latest time it
       could describe (the end of yesterday). Similarly,  date:january..febru-
       ary matches from	the beginning of January to the	end of February.

       If  specifying  a  time	range using timestamps in conjunction with the
       date prefix, each timestamp must	be preceded by @ (ASCII	 hex  40).  As
       above,  each  timestamp	is a number representing the number of seconds
       since 1970-01-01	00:00:00 UTC. For example:
	  date:@<initial-timestamp>..@<final-timestamp>

       Currently, spaces in range expressions are not supported. You  can  re-
       place  the  spaces with '_', or (in most	cases) '-', or (in some	cases)
       leave the spaces	out altogether.	Examples in this man page  use	spaces
       for clarity.

       Open-ended   ranges  are	 supported.  I.e.  it's	 possible  to  specify
       date:..<until> or date:<since>..	to not limit the start	or  end	 time,
       respectively.

   Single expression
       date:<expr> works as a shorthand	for date:<expr>..<expr>.  For example,
       date:monday matches from	the beginning of Monday	until the end of  Mon-
       day.

   Relative date and time
       [N|number]	  (years|months|weeks|days|hours|hrs|minutes|mins|sec-
       onds|secs) [...]

       All refer to past, can be repeated and will be accumulated.

       Units can be abbreviated	to any length, with  the  otherwise  ambiguous
       single m	being m	for minutes and	M for months.

       Number can also be written out one, two,	..., ten, dozen, hundred.  Ad-
       ditionally, the unit may	be preceded by "last" or "this"	 (e.g.,	 "last
       week" or	"this month").

       When  combined  with absolute date and time, the	relative date and time
       specification will be relative from the	specified  absolute  date  and
       time.

       Examples: 5M2d, two weeks

   Supported absolute time formats
       o H[H]:MM[:SS] [(am|a.m.|pm|p.m.)]

       o H[H] (am|a.m.|pm|p.m.)

       o HHMMSS

       o now

       o noon

       o midnight

       o Examples: 17:05, 5pm

   Supported absolute date formats
       o YYYY-MM[-DD]

       o DD-MM[-[YY]YY]

       o MM-YYYY

       o M[M]/D[D][/[YY]YY]

       o M[M]/YYYY

       o D[D].M[M][.[YY]YY]

       o D[D][(st|nd|rd|th)] Mon[thname] [YYYY]

       o Mon[thname] D[D][(st|nd|rd|th)] [YYYY]

       o Wee[kday]

       Month names can be abbreviated at three or more characters.

       Weekday names can be abbreviated	at three or more characters.

       Examples: 2012-07-31, 31-07-2012, 7/31/2012, August 3

   Time	zones
       o (+|-)HH:MM

       o (+|-)HH[MM]

       Some time zone codes, e.g. UTC, EET.

SEE ALSO
       notmuch(1),  notmuch-config(1), notmuch-count(1), notmuch-dump(1), not-
       much-hooks(5), notmuch-insert(1),  notmuch-new(1),  notmuch-reindex(1),
       notmuch-properties(1),	*notmuch-reply(1),   notmuch-restore(1),  not-
       much-search(1), *notmuch-show(1), notmuch-tag(1)

AUTHOR
       Carl Worth and many others

COPYRIGHT
       2009-2020, Carl Worth and many others

0.30				 Aug 30, 2020	       NOTMUCH-SEARCH-TERMS(7)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | DATE AND TIME SEARCH | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR | COPYRIGHT

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