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NNADMIN(1M)							   NNADMIN(1M)

NAME
       nnadmin - nn database administration

SYNOPSIS
       nnadmin [ commands ]

DESCRIPTION
       nnadmin	is  a control program for the nnmaster(1M) daemon which	is re-
       sponsible for building and maintaining the database used	by  the	 nn(1)
       news reader.

       nnadmin	allows	you to display extracts	from the log file, display the
       "raw" contents of the database, make consistency	checks	on  the	 data-
       base, instruct the running nnmaster to expire one or more groups, alter
       the options of the running nnmaster, and	much more.

       nnadmin runs in two modes: interactive and non-interactive.

       In interactive mode, simple one line menus are used to show the	avail-
       able operations which are then selected by typing the letter associated
       with the	command	(normally the first letter in the command name).

       In non-interactive mode,	the commands argument will be used as a	series
       of  key-strokes	which are interpreted exactly as if they were typed in
       from the	keyboard in interactive	mode.  For example, to stop the	nnmas-
       ter, the	following invokation of	nnadmin	can be used:
	    nnadmin MK
       which will select the (M)aster submenu from the main menu, and then the
       (K)ill entry from the submenu.

       In non-interactive mode,	the menus are not displayed and	 the  commands
       are  not	 echoed!  nnadmin will exit when there are no more key-strokes
       to be read from the commands argument.  It is not possible to specify a
       group  name in the commands argument, so	the functionalities of nnadmin
       that relates to specific	groups are only	available in interactive mode.

       Some "dangerous"	commands will require that you confirm them by follow-
       ing  them  by  "Y" on the command line.	The most noteable are IY (ini-
       tialize database) and EY	(expire	all groups).  These commands  will  be
       marked with a [Y] following the command name.

       You  can	also invoke an interactive nnadmin using the :admin command in
       nn.

SHELL ESCAPES
       At all prompts you can hit `!' to spawn a subshell.

       The working directory of	the subshell will be changed to	 the  database
       directory  when	invoked	 from  the  MASTER  or DUMP menus, and it will
       changed to the group's spool directory (if it exists) when invoked from
       the GROUP menu.

MAIN MENU
       From  the main menu (identified by the ADMIN prompt) you	can select the
       following operations:

       C)onf
	      Show  current  configuration  parameters	such  as  directories,
	      files, programs, network usage, etc.

       E)xpire [Y]
	      Send  a request to the nnmaster daemon to	schedule (and run) ex-
	      pire for all groups in the database.

       G)roups
	      Enter the	GROUP submenu.

       I)nit [Y]
	      Send a request to	the nnmaster daemon to recollect all groups in
	      the database.

       L)og
	      Enter the	LOG submenu.

       M)aster
	      Enter the	MASTER submenu.

       Q)uit
	      Quit nnadmin.

       S)tat
	      Print general statistics about the database.  See	the section on
	      Database Statistics below.

       U)pdate
	      Update the incore	copy of	the database master index.

       V)alidate
	      Make a thorough consistency check	on the database.  If inconsis-
	      tencies  are  found  in a	group, you will	be asked whether a re-
	      quest should be sent to the nnmaster  daemon  to	recollect  the
	      group  (in non-interactive mode, requests	will be	sent automati-
	      cally for	all corrupted groups).

       W)akeup
	      Send a wakeup signal to the nnmaster daemon to have  it  receive
	      messages sent to it, perform the required	actions, and then col-
	      lect articles as necessary.

       Z (silent validation)
	      This operation is	identical to the  Validate  operation,	expect
	      that  no	output	is produced during the consistency check; this
	      operation	is used	by the nnmaster	to execute the -C option.

THE MASTER MENU
       The master menu (identified by the MASTER prompt)  provides  access  to
       overall	database  information, and to send control messages to the nn-
       master daemon.

       C)heck In interactive mode and in  verbose  batch  mode	(nnadmin  MC),
	      print  a message telling whether nnmaster	is running or not.  In
	      silent batch mode	(nnadmin =MC) exit with	a status code of 0  if
	      nnmaster	is  running and	1 otherwise; this may be useful	is ad-
	      ministrative scripts.

       D)ump  Enter the	DUMP submenu.

       F)iles
	      Print a listing (using ls(1)) of all the data and	index files in
	      the database.

       G)roup
	      Print  the  master  index	entry for a single group identified by
	      its internal group number.

       K)ill
	      Stop the nnmaster	when it	has finished its current task.

       O)ptions
	      Change the runtime options of the	running	nnmaster daemon.  Cur-
	      rently, only the value of	the -r and -e options can be modified.

       S)tat
	      Print general statistics about the database.  See	the section on
	      Database Statistics below.

       T)race
	      Turn the trace option -t on or off in the	running	nnmaster.

THE DUMP MENU
       The dump	menu (identified by the	DUMP prompt) allows you	to  print  the
       master index entry for various selections of groups in the database.

       A)ll
	      Print all	groups in the database.

       E)mpty
	      Print the	empty groups in	the database.

       H)oles Print the	groups where the `min' field in	the active file	is not
	      the first	article	saved in the database (because it doesn't  ex-
	      ist  or because it is ignored for	some other reason, e.g.	bad or
	      old).

       I)gnored
	      Print groups which are ignored, either in	the GROUPS file	or be-
	      cause of some other condition (mainly no spool directory).

       N)on-empty
	      Print the	non-empty groups in the	database.

       V)alid Print the	groups which are present in the	active file.

       in(W)alid
	      Print  the  groups  in the database which	are not	present	in the
	      active file.

THE LOG	MENU
       The log menu (identified	by the LOG prompt)  enables  you  the  extract
       specific	entries	from the log file, and to truncate the log file.

       The entries in the log file share the following format:
	    <class>: <date> <time> (<user>): <message>
       where <class> identifies	the message class, the <date> and <time> spec-
       ify when	the entry was made, the	<user> specifies who created the entry
       (the  letter "M"	denote the nnmaster), and the <message>	is the text of
       the entry.

       To extract the log file entries of a specific class, simply  enter  the
       letter identifying the class:

       A - admin to master communication
	      This  class  of  messages	are related to the sending of messages
	      from an nnadmin program to the nnmaster daemon.

       B - bad articles
	      Reports about bad	articles which have been  ignored  or  removed
	      (controlled by the -b and	-B options to nnmaster).

       C - collection statistics
	      Statistics  about	 collection  of	new articles.  The message has
	      the format:
		   Collect: nnn	art, ppp gr, ttt s
	      meaning that nnn articles	in ppp groups were  collected  in  ttt
	      seconds (real time).

       E - fatal errors
	      Fatal errors encountered during operation.  These	errors require
	      manual intervention to be	fixed (some of the fatal errors	 occur
	      if thing that "cannot happen" happens anyway, and	may indicate a
	      bug in the software).

       M - nnmaster messages.
	      Master start/stop	messages.

       N - NNTP	related	messages
	      Various messages related to  the	NNTP  part  of	the  nnmaster,
	      mostly  about lost connections and failed	attempts to connect to
	      the NNTP server.	These messages should only appear if  you  use
	      NNTP, and	your NNTP server is down for some reason.

       O - old articles
	      Reports  related	to  ignoring  (and removing) old articles when
	      building the database (controlled	by the -O and  -B  options  to
	      nnmaster).

       R - reports
	      Non-fatal	 error	which  enables the nnmaster to continue	opera-
	      tion, but	may prevent a user to run nn (file  access  problems).
	      Reported	problems  should  be  checked.	The most common	report
	      message will probably be
		   some.group: no directory
	      which indicates that the spool directory for that	group has dis-
	      appeared (most likely because it has been	rmgroup'ed).

       T - trace output
	      Messages	produced as a result of	using the -t option on the nn-
	      master.  This is primarily for debugging purposes.

       U - usage statistics
	      If nn is compiled	with the STATISTICS option enabled,  an	 entry
	      will  be	made  in the log file every time a user	has spent more
	      than five	minutes	on news	reading.  The message  will  have  the
	      following	format:
		   USAGE hours.minutes
	      Since  it	is possible to suspend nn, or leave the	terminal while
	      nn is active, nn tries to	be intelligent when it calculates  the
	      usage  time  so  it  will	 reflect the actual time spent on news
	      reading.	The usage  statistics  can  be	summarized  using  the
	      nnusage(1M) program.

       V - validation errors
	      When inconsistencies are detected	in the database	during valida-
	      tion, an entry for each corrupted	group will be entered  in  the
	      log file.

       X - expire statistics
	      Messages	similar	to the Collect statistics reporting the	result
	      of running expire	on the database.  Reports related to ignoring,
	      removing,	renumbering, and reactivation of groups	are also given
	      class X.

       To extract a specific entry class, grep(1) is used, so it  may  take  a
       while on	a large	log file.

       There are also a	few special operations on the log file:

       G)roup
	      Extract the entries which	refers to a specified group.

       (1-9) tail
	      Invoke  tail(1)  to  extract  the	 last 10-90 entries in the log
	      file.

       space
	      Equivalent to 1 (list last 10 lines of log).

       (.) all
	      Display the complete log file.

       (@) clean [Y]
	      Move the Log file	to Log.old, and	create a new empty  Log	 file.
	      If you want to clean out the old log file	as well, simply	repeat
	      the clean	operation (this	will result in an empty	Log.old	file.)

THE GROUP MENU
       When you	enter the group	menu (identified by the	GROUP prompt), nnadmin
       will  prompt you	for the	name of	a news group, which you	can enter with
       the usual completion feature described in the nn(1)  manual.   You  can
       then perform the	following operations on	the specified group:

       C)lear_flag
	      Clear a group specific flag.  See	the section on group flags be-
	      low.

       D)ata
	      Dump the contents	of the data file containing the	extracted  ar-
	      ticle headers for	the group.

       E)xpire
	      Request the nnmaster to run expire on the	group.

       F)iles
	      List  the	 files (using ls(1)) containing	the index and data for
	      the group.

       G)roup
	      Switch to	another	group.

       H)eader
	      Dump the master index entry for the group.

       R)ecollect
	      Request the nnmaster to recollect	all articles in	the group.

       S)et_flag
	      Set a group specific flag.  See the section on group  flags  be-
	      low.

       V)alidate
	      Perform validation on the	group's	database information.

       Z)ap [Y]
	      Remove group from	news system - this will	be done	by running the
	      rmgroup program which must reside	in the NEWS_LIB	directory.  Of
	      course, this should be done with great caution.

INDIVIDUAL GROUP FLAGS
       You can set and clear the following flags for individual	groups to con-
       trol the	future behaviour of nnmaster on	that group.

       Notice that these flags will be reset to	their  default	value  if  you
       reinitialize  the  database  using  nnmaster -I.	 To change these flags
       permanently, they should	be set or cleared in the GROUPS	file.

       A)lways_digest
	      Normally,	nnmaster will only attempt to split digests into indi-
	      vidual  articles	if it can easily recognize an article as a di-
	      gest.  This requires that	the word "digest" appears somewhere in
	      the  subject  line,  and	that one of the	first few lines	in the
	      body of the article loosely matches the  subject.	  A  few  news
	      groups  frequently  receives  digests which break	one or both of
	      these requirements.  To have nnmaster split these	 digests  into
	      individual  articles anyway, you can turn	on the "always digest"
	      flag on these news groups.  This will instruct nnmaster to treat
	      all  articles in the group as digests (naturally,	articles which
	      are then found not to contain other articles are	still  treated
	      as normal	articles.)

       C)ontrol
	      This is a	special	flag for the control group.  It	indicates that
	      the "Newsgroups:"	field in the article header cannot be  trusted
	      (it  does	 not  specify the groups to which the article has been
	      posted.)

       D)irectory missing
	      This flag	indicates that the spool directory for the news	 group
	      cannot  be  found	 (the group has	probably been removed with rm-
	      group(1M)).  It is set automatically be the nnmaster if it  can-
	      not  access  the directory.  When	the flag is set, nnmaster com-
	      pletely ignores the group, so it can be  used  to	 disable  news
	      collection in specific groups.  If you recreate the group	or the
	      directory	manually, you must also	clear this flag	 to  have  the
	      nnmaster recognize the group again.

       M)oderated
	      Indicates	 that  the  group is moderated.	 This flag is normally
	      initialized automatically	from the active	file,  and  it	should
	      not be changed lightly.

       N)ever_digest
	      This  is the opposite of the "always digest" flag; when set, the
	      nnmaster will never attempt to split any articles	in that	 group
	      into subarticles.

DATABASE STATISTICS DISPLAY
       When  you  select the (S)tat operation in the main or master menus, you
       will get	some general statistics	about the database:

       initialized
	      The time when the	database was last rebuild using	nnmaster -I.

       last_scan, last_size
	      The time stamp on	the active file	and its	size the last time the
	      nnmaster read it.

       no of groups
	      The total	number of groups in the	database.

       Articles
	      The  total number	of articles in all groups.  This is not	an ex-
	      act number, because it will count	split digests as a single  ar-
	      ticle (making the	number too small), and it may count some arti-
	      cles that	have been expired (making the number too large).

       Disk usage
	      The total	number of (1 kbyte) disk blocks	occupied by the	 data-
	      base.

MASTER INDEX ENTRIES
       The  master index entries displayed when	you select the (H)eader	opera-
       tion in the master and group menus contain the following	information:

       group_name  group_number
	      The first	line of	the display will show the name	of  the	 group
	      and  the	internal  group	 number	 which is used to identify the
	      group in the database.

       first/last art
	      This is the numbers of the first and last	article	that are  cur-
	      rently stored in the database.

       active info
	      This  is	the  numbers of	the first and last article in the news
	      system as	read from the active file.  They will  normally	 match
	      the  numbers  above,  but	 they may differ while the nnmaster is
	      working on the group (or it has not yet collected	all the	 arti-
	      cles in the group).

       Offsets:	index->..., data->...
	      These values show	the starting position for the next write oper-
	      ation on the index and data files.  They are primarily used  for
	      consistency  checking and	recovery after a system	crash, but af-
	      ter an "expire by	rewrite" operation (expire method 2) which  is
	      performed	 "in-situ", the	data and index files may physically be
	      longer than the actual data stored in them.

       Flags:
	      This shows the current flags set for this	group.	 If  no	 flags
	      are  set,	the field is omitted from the display.	One extra flag
	      which was	not explained above is the BLOCKED flag; it is a  tem-
	      porary  locking  flag set	on a group by the nnmaster while it is
	      updating the database files for that group to prevent nn clients
	      to access	that group.

RAW DATABASE DISPLAY
       When  you select	the (D)ata operation on	the group menu,	you will get a
       combined	display	of the raw data	and index files	for that  group.   The
       index  file  contains  a	 single	32 bit value for each existing article
       number.	This value is an offset	into the data  file  pointing  to  the
       header for the corresponding article.

       When  nn	 want to access	the article from number	N to the last article,
       it looks	up the offset for article number N in the index	file, and uses
       this  as	 the  starting point for reading article header	information in
       the data	file.  It then simply reads to the end of  the	data  file  in
       which  the article headers for articles number N+1, N+2,	and so on fol-
       lows immediately	after the header for article number N.

       The article header information is presented in a	very terse form;  each
       of the output lines are described below for reference purposes:

       offset =	xxxx	, article # = nnnnn   (type)
	      This shows the offset into the data file and the article number.
	      The offset is stored in the index	file for quick access.	If  no
	      type  is	printed	it is a	normal article.	 Other types are: "di-
	      gest header" and "digest sub-article".

       xpost(count):  nnn, nnn,	nnn, ...
	      Cross-postings to	other groups are encoded as a list of internal
	      group numbers.

       ts=nn hp=nn fp=nn lp=nn ref=nn[+Re] lines=nn
	      These  values are	used by	nn to sort, present, and access	an ar-
	      ticle:
	      ts is the	time stamp on the article; it is a simple encoding  of
	      the posting date and time	found in the Date: field.
	      hp,  fp, and lp are offsets into the file	containing the article
	      text: the	header position, first text position,  and  last  text
	      position.	  The  first will be zero for normal articles, but not
	      for articles in a	split digest.  The last	will be	equal  to  the
	      length of	the file for normal articles, but not inside digests.
	      ref  is  the  number  of	references on the Reference: line.  If
	      "+Re" follows the	number,	the subject  line  contained  a	 "Re:"
	      prefix which has been removed.

       Sender(length): name
	      The  name	of the sender in "ready	to print" format, i.e. reduced
	      to 16 characters as explained in the nn manual.

       Subj(length): subject
	      This is the full subject line from the  article  header  (except
	      for Re: prefixes in various formats).

FILES
       The  $db, $lib, and $news used below are	synonyms for the DB_DIRECTORY,
       LIB_DIRECTORY, and the news system's lib	directories respectively.
       $db/MASTER	 Database master index
       $db/GROUPS	 News group names in MASTER file order
       $db/DATA/nnn.x	 Index file for	group number nnn
       $db/DATA/nnn.d	 Data file for group number nnn
       $master/GATE	 Message channel from nnadmin to nnmaster
       $master/MPID	 The process id	of the nnmaster	daemon.
       $Log		 The log file (truncate	it regularly!)

       The MASTER file contains	a record for each news group, occurring	in the
       same sequence as	the group names	in the GROUPS file.  The sequence also
       defines the group numbers used to identify the files  in	 the  database
       and in a	few other places.

       The  GATE  file	will be	created	by nnadmin when	needed,	and removed by
       nnmaster	when it	has read it.  Therefore, to send a message to the  nn-
       master requires that you	are allowed to write in	the $master directory.

SEE ALSO
       nn(1), nncheck(1), nngrep(1), nntidy(1)
       nnquery(1M), nnusage(1M), nnmaster(8)

WARNINGS
       The GATE	file is	created	with the owner and modes of the	user that runs
       nnadmin which may cause problems	if the owner of	the  nnmaster  process
       (normally  "news")  is  not  allowed  to	 read the created GATE file (a
       "umask" of 022 is ok.)  Unless you allow	ordinary users to create files
       in the LIB directory where the GATE file	resides, only the owner	of the
       directory (normally "news") and "root" can use nnadmin to send messages
       to  the nnmaster.  However, to send a wakeup signal to the master, any-
       body can	run
	    nnmaster -w

BUGS
       The user	interface is completely	out of line with the rest  of  the  nn
       family, and the way to run nnadmin in the non-interactive mode is a bit
       bizarre.	 This is not likely to change, because	I  believe  there  are
       more important things to	do!

AUTHOR
       Kim F. Storm, Texas Instruments A/S, Denmark
       E-mail: storm@texas.dk

4th Berkeley Distribution	  Release 6.6			   NNADMIN(1M)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | SHELL ESCAPES | MAIN MENU | THE MASTER MENU | THE DUMP MENU | THE LOG MENU | THE GROUP MENU | INDIVIDUAL GROUP FLAGS | DATABASE STATISTICS DISPLAY | MASTER INDEX ENTRIES | RAW DATABASE DISPLAY | FILES | SEE ALSO | WARNINGS | BUGS | AUTHOR

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