Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages


home | help
NMH(7)		       Miscellaneous Information Manual			NMH(7)

       nmh - new MH message system

       nmh is the name of a powerful message handling system.  Rather than be-
       ing a single comprehensive program, nmh consists	 of  a	collection  of
       fairly  simple single-purpose programs to send, retrieve, save, and ma-
       nipulate	messages.

       Unlike most mail	clients	in UNIX, nmh is	not a closed system which must
       be  explicitly  run,  then exited when you wish to return to the	shell.
       You may freely intersperse nmh commands with other shell	commands,  al-
       lowing  you to read and answer your mail	while you have (for example) a
       compilation running, or search for a file or run	programs as needed  to
       find the	answer to someone's question before answering their mail.

       The  rest of this manual	entry is a quick tutorial which	will teach you
       the basics of nmh.  You should read the manual entries for the individ-
       ual programs for	complete documentation.

       To  get	started	 using nmh, put	the directory "/usr/local/bin" in your
       $PATH.  Run the install-mh command.  If you've never used  nmh  before,
       it will create the necessary default files and directories after	asking
       you if you wish it to do	so.

       inc moves mail from your	system maildrop	into your nmh "+inbox" folder,
       breaking	 it  up	into separate files and	converting it to nmh format as
       it goes.	 It prints one line for	each message it	processes,  containing
       the  from field,	the subject field and as much of the first line	of the
       message as will fit.  It	leaves the first message it processes as  your
       current message.	 You'll	need to	run inc	each time you wish to incorpo-
       rate new	mail into your nmh file.

       scan prints a list of the messages in your current folder.

       The commands show, next,	and prev are used to  read  specific  messages
       from  the current folder.  show displays	the current message, or	a spe-
       cific message, which may	be specified by	its number, which you pass  as
       an  argument to show.  next and prev display, respectively, the message
       numerically after or before the current message.	  In  all  cases,  the
       message	displayed becomes the current message.	If there is no current
       message,	show may be called with	an argument, or	next may  be  used  to
       advance to the first message.

       rmm  (remove  message)  deletes	the current message.  It may be	called
       with message numbers passed as arguments, to delete specific messages.

       repl is used to respond to the current message (by default).  It	places
       you  in the editor with a prototype response form.  While you're	in the
       editor, you may peruse the item you're responding  to  by  reading  the
       file  @.	 After completing your response, type "l" to list (review) it,
       or "s" to send it.

       comp allows you to compose a message by putting you in the editor on  a
       prototype  message form,	and then lets you send it via the whatnow com-
       mand.  whatnow also supports easy-to-use	management of MIME attachments
       via its attach and related responses, as	described in its man page.

       nmh  command arguments are usually called switches.  Some switches have
       a corresponding "-no" switch, which negates all previous	occurrences of
       that  switch  on	 the command line.  This allows	a user to conveniently
       override, on the	command	line, a	switch in their	profile.  Switches may
       be  abbreviated as long as there	is no ambiguity	with another switch of
       the same	command.  To avoid ambiguity with any  switches	 that  may  be
       added  in  the future, it is recommended	that full switch names be used
       in durable code such as shell scripts, functions, and aliases.

       All the nmh commands may	be run with the	 single	 switch	 -help,	 which
       causes  them  to	 print a list of the switches they may be invoked with
       and then	exit.

       All the nmh commands may	be run with the	single switch -version,	 which
       causes  them  to	 print the version number of the nmh distribution, and
       then exit.

       Commands	which take a message number as an argument (scan, show,	 repl,
       ...)   also  take  one  of the words "first", "prev", "cur", "next", or
       "last" to indicate (respectively) the first, previous,  current,	 next,
       or  last	message	in the current folder (assuming	they are defined).  As
       a shorthand, "."	is equivalent to "cur".

       Commands	which take a range of message numbers (rmm, scan,  show,  ...)
       also take any of	the abbreviations:

       _num1_-_num2_   Indicates  all  messages	in the range <num1> to <num2>,
		       inclusive.  The range must be nonempty.

       all	       Indicates all messages, i.e., first-last.

       _num_:-N	       Up to N messages	beginning with (or ending  with)  mes-
		       sage  num.   Num	 may be	any of the pre-defined symbols
		       first, prev, cur, next or last.

       last:N	       The first, previous, next or last messages, if they ex-

       Commands	 that  take  a folder name (inc, refile, scan, ...) accept the
       folder name in two formats:  "+folder" or "@folder".   In  both	cases,
       "folder"	can be a "/"-separated path, e.g. "foo/bar".  "+folder"	speci-
       fies a directory	path to	a folder.  If "folder" starts  with  "/"  then
       it's  an	 absolute path from the	root directory.	 If it is "." or "..",
       or starts with "./" or "../", then it's relative	to the current working
       directory.   Otherwise it's relative to mh-profile(5)'s "Path", i.e. as
       given by	`mhpath	+`.  "@folder" is a shorthand for "+curfolder/folder";
       it's  a relative	path from the current folder.  "curfolder" is given by
       `mhpath`.  For example, assuming	a Path profile component of Mail,

       scan +inbox     scans $HOME/Mail/inbox
       scan +work/todo scans $HOME/Mail/work/todo
       scan @todo      scans $HOME/Mail/work/todo, if current folder is	+work
       refile @../done refiles to $HOME/Mail/work/done,	if the current	folder
		       is +work/todo
       scan +/tmp      scans /tmp
       scan +.	       scans the current directory
       refile @.       refiles current message to end of current folder.

       There  are  many	 other possibilities such as creating multiple folders
       for different topics, and automatically refiling	messages according  to
       subject,	 source,  destination, or content.  These are beyond the scope
       of this manual entry.

       Following is a list of all the nmh commands, grouped loosely  according
       to their	role.

       comp(1)	       compose a message
       forw(1)	       forward messages
       repl(1)	       reply to	a message
       whatnow(1)      prompting front-end for send

       Note that although whatnow provides much	of the primary nmh user	inter-
       face for	sending	mail, it is almost never invoked manually, but	rather
       is  invoked  indirectly by one of the above commands, after you've com-
       posed a message in your editor, and before you've decided to  send  it.
       Here  you can add attachments, check the	recipient list,	decide to quit
       and send	it later, etc.

       Related utilities:

       ali(1)	       list mail aliases
       anno(1)	       annotate	messages
       whom(1)	       report to whom a	message	would go
       dist(1)	       redistribute a message to additional addresses

       Advanced	commands, only sometimes invoked directly:

       mhbuild(1)      translate MIME composition draft
       send(1)	       send a message
       sendfiles(1)    send multiple files in a	MIME message

       inc(1)	       incorporate new mail

       Related utilities:

       burst(1)	       explode digests into messages
       msgchk(1)       check for messages
       rcvdist(1)      asynchronously redistribute new mail
       rcvpack(1)      append message to file
       rcvstore(1)     asynchronously incorporate new mail
       slocal(1)       asynchronously filter and deliver new mail

       next(1)	       show the	next message
       prev(1)	       show the	previous message
       show(1)	       show(display) messages
       scan(1)	       produce a one line per message scan listing
       fnext(1)	       select the next folder with new messages
       fprev(1)	       select the previous folder with new messages

       Related utilities, only sometimes invoked directly:

       mhl(1)	       produce formatted listings of nmh messages
       mhlist(1)       list information	about content of MIME messages
       mhn(1)	       display/list/store/cache	MIME messages
       mhshow(1)       display MIME messages
       mhstore(1)      store contents of MIME messages into files

       Within a	folder:

       pick(1)	       select messages by content

       Across folders:

       new(1)	       list folders with new messages
       unseen(1)       list new	messages in a give set of folders
       flist(1)	       list folders with messages in given sequence(s)
       flists(1)       list all	folders	with messages in given sequence(s)
       folder(1)       set/list	current	folder/message
       folders(1)      list all	folders

       mark(1)	       mark messages
       refile(1)       file messages in	other folders
       rmf(1)	       remove folder
       rmm(1)	       remove messages
       sortm(1)	       sort messages

   Convenience Wrappers
       mhmail(1)       send or read mail
       msh(1)	       nmh shell

       mhfixmsg(1)     rewrite MIME messages with various transformations
       mhparam(1)      print nmh profile components
       mhpath(1)       print full pathnames of nmh messages and	folders
       packf(1)	       compress	a folder into a	single file
       prompter(1)     prompting editor	front end
       rcvtty(1)       report new mail

   Indirectly Invoked Commands
       ap(8)	       parse addresses RFC 822-style
       conflict(8)     search for alias/password conflicts
       dp(8)	       parse dates RFC 822-style
       fmtdump(8)      decode mh-format(5) files
       install-mh(8)   initialize the nmh environment
       post(8)	       deliver a message

   Files Used by nmh Commands
       mh-alias(5)     alias file for nmh message system
       mh-format(5)    format file for nmh message system
       mh-profile(5)   user customization for nmh message system
       mh-tailor(5)    mail transport customization for	nmh message system

       mh-draft(5)     draft folder facility
       mh-folders(5)   nmh message storage format specification
       mh-mail(5)      message format for nmh message system
       mh-sequence(5)  sequence	specification for nmh message system

	      contains nmh commands

	      contains nmh format files

	      contains nmh library commands

	      The user's nmh profile

       install-mh(1), mh-profile(5), mh-chart(7), mh-mime(7)

       If problems are encountered with	an nmh program,	the problems should be
       reported	to the local maintainers of nmh.  When doing this, the name of
       the program should be reported, along with the version information  for
       the program.

       To  find	 out  what  version of an nmh program is being run, invoke the
       program with the	-version switch.  This prints the version of nmh,  the
       host it was compiled on,	and the	date the program was linked.

       Send bug	reports	and suggestions	to

nmh-1.6				April 21, 2014				NMH(7)


Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:

home | help