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ncurses(3X)                                                        ncurses(3X)

       ncurses - CRT screen handling and optimization package

       #include <curses.h>

       The ncurses library routines give the user a terminal-independent
       method of updating character screens with reasonable optimization.
       This implementation is ``new curses'' (ncurses) and is the approved
       replacement for 4.4BSD classic curses, which has been discontinued.

       The ncurses routines emulate the curses(3X) library of System V Release
       4 UNIX, and the XPG4 curses standard (XSI curses) but the ncurses
       library is freely redistributable in source form.  Differences from the
       SVr4 curses are summarized under the EXTENSIONS and BUGS sections below
       and described in detail in the EXTENSIONS and BUGS sections of
       individual man pages.

       A program using these routines must be linked with the -lncurses
       option, or (if it has been generated) with the debugging library
       -lncurses_g.  (Your system integrator may also have installed these
       libraries under the names -lcurses and -lcurses_g.)  The ncurses_g
       library generates trace logs (in a file called 'trace' in the current
       directory) that describe curses actions.

       The ncurses package supports: overall screen, window and pad
       manipulation; output to windows and pads; reading terminal input;
       control over terminal and curses input and output options; environment
       query routines; color manipulation; use of soft label keys; terminfo
       capabilities; and access to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.

       To initialize the routines, the routine initscr or newterm must be
       called before any of the other routines that deal with windows and
       screens are used.  The routine endwin must be called before exiting.
       To get character-at-a-time input without echoing (most interactive,
       screen oriented programs want this), the following sequence should be

             initscr(); cbreak(); noecho();

       Most programs would additionally use the sequence:

             intrflush(stdscr, FALSE);
             keypad(stdscr, TRUE);

       Before a curses program is run, the tab stops of the terminal should be
       set and its initialization strings, if defined, must be output.  This
       can be done by executing the tput init command after the shell
       environment variable TERM has been exported.  tset(1) is usually
       responsible for doing this.  [See terminfo(5) for further details.]

       The ncurses library permits manipulation of data structures, called
       windows, which can be thought of as two-dimensional arrays of
       characters representing all or part of a CRT screen.  A default window
       called stdscr, which is the size of the terminal screen, is supplied.
       Others may be created with newwin.

       Note that curses does not handle overlapping windows, that's done by
       the panel(3X) library. This means that you can either use stdscr or
       divide the screen into tiled windows and not using stdscr at all.
       Mixing the two will result in unpredictable, and undesired, effects.

       Windows are referred to by variables declared as WINDOW *.  These data
       structures are manipulated with routines described here and elsewhere
       in the ncurses manual pages.  Among which the most basic routines are
       move and addch.  More general versions of these routines are included
       with names beginning with w, allowing the user to specify a window.
       The routines not beginning with w affect stdscr.)

       After using routines to manipulate a window, refresh is called, telling
       curses to make the user's CRT screen look like stdscr.  The characters
       in a window are actually of type chtype, (character and attribute data)
       so that other information about the character may also be stored with
       each character.

       Special windows called pads may also be manipulated.  These are windows
       which are not constrained to the size of the screen and whose contents
       need not be completely displayed.  See curs_pad(3X) for more

       In addition to drawing characters on the screen, video attributes and
       colors may be supported, causing the characters to show up in such
       modes as underlined, in reverse video, or in color on terminals that
       support such display enhancements.  Line drawing characters may be
       specified to be output.  On input, curses is also able to translate
       arrow and function keys that transmit escape sequences into single
       values.  The video attributes, line drawing characters, and input
       values use names, defined in <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE, ACS_HLINE,
       and KEY_LEFT.

       If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or if the
       program is executing in a window environment, line and column
       information in the environment will override information read by
       terminfo.  This would effect a program running in an AT&T 630 layer,
       for example, where the size of a screen is changeable (see

       If the environment variable TERMINFO is defined, any program using
       curses checks for a local terminal definition before checking in the
       standard place.  For example, if TERM is set to att4424, then the
       compiled terminal definition is found in


       (The a is copied from the first letter of att4424 to avoid creation of
       huge directories.)  However, if TERMINFO is set to $HOME/myterms,
       curses first checks


       and if that fails, it then checks


       This is useful for developing experimental definitions or when write
       permission in /usr/share/misc/terminfo is not available.

       The integer variables LINES and COLS are defined in <curses.h> and will
       be filled in by initscr with the size of the screen.  The constants
       TRUE and FALSE have the values 1 and 0, respectively.

       The curses routines also define the WINDOW * variable curscr which is
       used for certain low-level operations like clearing and redrawing a
       screen containing garbage.  The curscr can be used in only a few

   Routine and Argument Names
       Many curses routines have two or more versions.  The routines prefixed
       with w require a window argument.  The routines prefixed with p require
       a pad argument.  Those without a prefix generally use stdscr.

       The routines prefixed with mv require a y and x coordinate to move to
       before performing the appropriate action.  The mv routines imply a call
       to move before the call to the other routine.  The coordinate y always
       refers to the row (of the window), and x always refers to the column.
       The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

       The routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument and x and y
       coordinates.  The window argument is always specified before the

       In each case, win is the window affected, and pad is the pad affected;
       win and pad are always pointers to type WINDOW.

       Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the value TRUE
       or FALSE; bf is always of type bool.  The variables ch and attrs below
       are always of type chtype.  The types WINDOW, SCREEN, bool, and chtype
       are defined in <curses.h>.  The type TERMINAL is defined in <term.h>.
       All other arguments are integers.

   Routine Name Index
       The following table lists each curses routine and the name of the
       manual page on which it is described.  Routines flagged with `*' are
       ncurses-specific, not described by XPG4 or present in SVr4.

                     curses Routine Name     Manual Page Name
                     COLOR_PAIR              curs_color(3X)
                     PAIR_NUMBER             curs_attr(3X)
                     _nc_tracebits           curs_trace(3X)*
                     _traceattr              curs_trace(3X)*
                     _traceattr2             curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracechar              curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracechtype            curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracechtype2           curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracedump              curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracef                 curs_trace(3X)*
                     _tracemouse             curs_trace(3X)*
                     addch                   curs_addch(3X)
                     addchnstr               curs_addchstr(3X)
                     addchstr                curs_addchstr(3X)
                     addnstr                 curs_addstr(3X)
                     addstr                  curs_addstr(3X)
                     assume_default_colors   default_colors(3X)*
                     attr_get                curs_attr(3X)
                     attr_off                curs_attr(3X)
                     attr_on                 curs_attr(3X)
                     attr_set                curs_attr(3X)
                     attroff                 curs_attr(3X)
                     attron                  curs_attr(3X)
                     attrset                 curs_attr(3X)
                     baudrate                curs_termattrs(3X)
                     beep                    curs_beep(3X)
                     bkgd                    curs_bkgd(3X)
                     bkgdset                 curs_bkgd(3X)
                     border                  curs_border(3X)
                     box                     curs_border(3X)
                     can_change_color        curs_color(3X)
                     cbreak                  curs_inopts(3X)
                     chgat                   curs_attr(3X)
                     clear                   curs_clear(3X)
                     clearok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                     clrtobot                curs_clear(3X)
                     clrtoeol                curs_clear(3X)
                     color_content           curs_color(3X)
                     color_set               curs_attr(3X)
                     copywin                 curs_overlay(3X)
                     curs_set                curs_kernel(3X)
                     curses_version          curs_extend(3X)*
                     def_prog_mode           curs_kernel(3X)
                     def_shell_mode          curs_kernel(3X)
                     define_key              define_key(3X)*
                     del_curterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                     delay_output            curs_util(3X)
                     delch                   curs_delch(3X)
                     deleteln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                     delscreen               curs_initscr(3X)
                     delwin                  curs_window(3X)
                     derwin                  curs_window(3X)
                     doupdate                curs_refresh(3X)
                     dupwin                  curs_window(3X)
                     echo                    curs_inopts(3X)
                     echochar                curs_addch(3X)
                     endwin                  curs_initscr(3X)
                     erase                   curs_clear(3X)
                     erasechar               curs_termattrs(3X)
                     filter                  curs_util(3X)
                     flash                   curs_beep(3X)
                     flushinp                curs_util(3X)
                     getbegyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                     getbkgd                 curs_bkgd(3X)
                     getch                   curs_getch(3X)
                     getmaxyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                     getmouse                curs_mouse(3X)*
                     getnstr                 curs_getstr(3X)
                     getparyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                     getstr                  curs_getstr(3X)
                     getsyx                  curs_kernel(3X)
                     getwin                  curs_util(3X)
                     getyx                   curs_getyx(3X)
                     halfdelay               curs_inopts(3X)
                     has_colors              curs_color(3X)
                     has_ic                  curs_termattrs(3X)
                     has_il                  curs_termattrs(3X)
                     has_key                 curs_getch(3X)*
                     hline                   curs_border(3X)
                     idcok                   curs_outopts(3X)
                     idlok                   curs_outopts(3X)
                     immedok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                     inch                    curs_inch(3X)
                     inchnstr                curs_inchstr(3X)
                     inchstr                 curs_inchstr(3X)
                     init_color              curs_color(3X)
                     init_pair               curs_color(3X)
                     initscr                 curs_initscr(3X)
                     innstr                  curs_instr(3X)
                     insch                   curs_insch(3X)
                     insdelln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                     insertln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                     insnstr                 curs_insstr(3X)
                     insstr                  curs_insstr(3X)
                     instr                   curs_instr(3X)
                     intrflush               curs_inopts(3X)
                     is_linetouched          curs_touch(3X)
                     is_wintouched           curs_touch(3X)
                     isendwin                curs_initscr(3X)
                     keybound                keybound(3X)*
                     keyname                 curs_util(3X)
                     keyok                   keyok(3X)*
                     keypad                  curs_inopts(3X)
                     killchar                curs_termattrs(3X)
                     leaveok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                     longname                curs_termattrs(3X)
                     mcprint                 curs_print(3X)*
                     meta                    curs_inopts(3X)
                     mouse_trafo             curs_mouse(3X)*
                     mouseinterval           curs_mouse(3X)*
                     mousemask               curs_mouse(3X)*
                     move                    curs_move(3X)
                     mvaddch                 curs_addch(3X)
                     mvaddchnstr             curs_addchstr(3X)
                     mvaddchstr              curs_addchstr(3X)
                     mvaddnstr               curs_addstr(3X)
                     mvaddstr                curs_addstr(3X)
                     mvchgat                 curs_attr(3X)
                     mvcur                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                     mvdelch                 curs_delch(3X)
                     mvderwin                curs_window(3X)
                     mvgetch                 curs_getch(3X)
                     mvgetnstr               curs_getstr(3X)
                     mvgetstr                curs_getstr(3X)
                     mvhline                 curs_border(3X)
                     mvinch                  curs_inch(3X)
                     mvinchnstr              curs_inchstr(3X)
                     mvinchstr               curs_inchstr(3X)
                     mvinnstr                curs_instr(3X)
                     mvinsch                 curs_insch(3X)
                     mvinsnstr               curs_insstr(3X)
                     mvinsstr                curs_insstr(3X)
                     mvinstr                 curs_instr(3X)
                     mvprintw                curs_printw(3X)
                     mvscanw                 curs_scanw(3X)
                     mvvline                 curs_border(3X)
                     mvwaddch                curs_addch(3X)
                     mvwaddchnstr            curs_addchstr(3X)
                     mvwaddchstr             curs_addchstr(3X)
                     mvwaddnstr              curs_addstr(3X)
                     mvwaddstr               curs_addstr(3X)
                     mvwchgat                curs_attr(3X)
                     mvwdelch                curs_delch(3X)
                     mvwgetch                curs_getch(3X)
                     mvwgetnstr              curs_getstr(3X)
                     mvwgetstr               curs_getstr(3X)
                     mvwhline                curs_border(3X)
                     mvwin                   curs_window(3X)
                     mvwinch                 curs_inch(3X)
                     mvwinchnstr             curs_inchstr(3X)
                     mvwinchstr              curs_inchstr(3X)
                     mvwinnstr               curs_instr(3X)
                     mvwinsch                curs_insch(3X)
                     mvwinsnstr              curs_insstr(3X)
                     mvwinsstr               curs_insstr(3X)
                     mvwinstr                curs_instr(3X)
                     mvwprintw               curs_printw(3X)
                     mvwscanw                curs_scanw(3X)
                     mvwvline                curs_border(3X)
                     napms                   curs_kernel(3X)
                     newpad                  curs_pad(3X)
                     newterm                 curs_initscr(3X)
                     newwin                  curs_window(3X)
                     nl                      curs_outopts(3X)
                     nocbreak                curs_inopts(3X)
                     nodelay                 curs_inopts(3X)
                     noecho                  curs_inopts(3X)
                     nonl                    curs_outopts(3X)
                     noqiflush               curs_inopts(3X)
                     noraw                   curs_inopts(3X)
                     notimeout               curs_inopts(3X)
                     overlay                 curs_overlay(3X)
                     overwrite               curs_overlay(3X)
                     pair_content            curs_color(3X)
                     pechochar               curs_pad(3X)
                     pnoutrefresh            curs_pad(3X)
                     prefresh                curs_pad(3X)
                     printw                  curs_printw(3X)
                     putp                    curs_terminfo(3X)
                     putwin                  curs_util(3X)
                     qiflush                 curs_inopts(3X)
                     raw                     curs_inopts(3X)
                     redrawwin               curs_refresh(3X)
                     refresh                 curs_refresh(3X)
                     reset_prog_mode         curs_kernel(3X)
                     reset_shell_mode        curs_kernel(3X)
                     resetty                 curs_kernel(3X)
                     resizeterm              resizeterm(3X)*
                     restartterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                     ripoffline              curs_kernel(3X)
                     savetty                 curs_kernel(3X)
                     scanw                   curs_scanw(3X)
                     scr_dump                curs_scr_dump(3X)
                     scr_init                curs_scr_dump(3X)
                     scr_restore             curs_scr_dump(3X)
                     scr_set                 curs_scr_dump(3X)
                     scrl                    curs_scroll(3X)
                     scroll                  curs_scroll(3X)
                     scrollok                curs_outopts(3X)
                     set_curterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                     set_term                curs_initscr(3X)
                     setscrreg               curs_outopts(3X)
                     setsyx                  curs_kernel(3X)
                     setterm                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                     setupterm               curs_terminfo(3X)
                     slk_attr                curs_slk(3X)*
                     slk_attr_off            curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_attr_on             curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_attr_set            curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_attroff             curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_attron              curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_attrset             curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_clear               curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_color               curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_init                curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_label               curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_noutrefresh         curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_refresh             curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_restore             curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_set                 curs_slk(3X)
                     slk_touch               curs_slk(3X)
                     standend                curs_attr(3X)
                     standout                curs_attr(3X)
                     start_color             curs_color(3X)
                     subpad                  curs_pad(3X)
                     subwin                  curs_window(3X)
                     syncok                  curs_window(3X)
                     termattrs               curs_termattrs(3X)
                     termname                curs_termattrs(3X)
                     tgetent                 curs_termcap(3X)
                     tgetflag                curs_termcap(3X)
                     tgetnum                 curs_termcap(3X)
                     tgetstr                 curs_termcap(3X)
                     tgoto                   curs_termcap(3X)
                     tigetflag               curs_terminfo(3X)
                     tigetnum                curs_terminfo(3X)
                     tigetstr                curs_terminfo(3X)
                     timeout                 curs_inopts(3X)
                     touchline               curs_touch(3X)
                     touchwin                curs_touch(3X)
                     tparm                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                     tputs                   curs_termcap(3X)
                     tputs                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                     trace                   curs_trace(3X)*
                     typeahead               curs_inopts(3X)
                     unctrl                  curs_util(3X)
                     ungetch                 curs_getch(3X)
                     ungetmouse              curs_mouse(3X)*
                     untouchwin              curs_touch(3X)
                     use_default_colors      default_colors(3X)*
                     use_env                 curs_util(3X)
                     use_extended_names      curs_extend(3X)*
                     vidattr                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                     vidputs                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                     vline                   curs_border(3X)
                     vw_printw               curs_printw(3X)
                     vw_scanw                curs_scanw(3X)
                     vwprintw                curs_printw(3X)
                     vwscanw                 curs_scanw(3X)
                     waddch                  curs_addch(3X)
                     waddchnstr              curs_addchstr(3X)
                     waddchstr               curs_addchstr(3X)
                     waddnstr                curs_addstr(3X)
                     waddstr                 curs_addstr(3X)
                     wattr_get               curs_attr(3X)
                     wattr_off               curs_attr(3X)
                     wattr_on                curs_attr(3X)
                     wattr_set               curs_attr(3X)
                     wattroff                curs_attr(3X)
                     wattron                 curs_attr(3X)
                     wattrset                curs_attr(3X)
                     wbkgd                   curs_bkgd(3X)
                     wbkgdset                curs_bkgd(3X)
                     wborder                 curs_border(3X)
                     wchgat                  curs_attr(3X)
                     wclear                  curs_clear(3X)
                     wclrtobot               curs_clear(3X)
                     wclrtoeol               curs_clear(3X)
                     wcolor_set              curs_attr(3X)
                     wcursyncup              curs_window(3X)
                     wdelch                  curs_delch(3X)
                     wdeleteln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                     wechochar               curs_addch(3X)
                     wenclose                curs_mouse(3X)*
                     werase                  curs_clear(3X)
                     wgetch                  curs_getch(3X)
                     wgetnstr                curs_getstr(3X)
                     wgetstr                 curs_getstr(3X)
                     whline                  curs_border(3X)
                     winch                   curs_inch(3X)
                     winchnstr               curs_inchstr(3X)
                     winchstr                curs_inchstr(3X)
                     winnstr                 curs_instr(3X)
                     winsch                  curs_insch(3X)
                     winsdelln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                     winsertln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                     winsnstr                curs_insstr(3X)
                     winsstr                 curs_insstr(3X)
                     winstr                  curs_instr(3X)
                     wmouse_trafo            curs_mouse(3X)*
                     wmove                   curs_move(3X)
                     wnoutrefresh            curs_refresh(3X)
                     wprintw                 curs_printw(3X)
                     wredrawln               curs_refresh(3X)
                     wrefresh                curs_refresh(3X)
                     wresize                 wresize(3X)*
                     wscanw                  curs_scanw(3X)
                     wscrl                   curs_scroll(3X)
                     wsetscrreg              curs_outopts(3X)
                     wstandend               curs_attr(3X)
                     wstandout               curs_attr(3X)
                     wsyncdown               curs_window(3X)
                     wsyncup                 curs_window(3X)
                     wtimeout                curs_inopts(3X)
                     wtouchln                curs_touch(3X)
                     wvline                  curs_border(3X)

       Routines that return an integer return ERR upon failure and an integer
       value other than ERR upon successful completion, unless otherwise noted
       in the routine descriptions.

       All macros return the value of the w version, except setscrreg,
       wsetscrreg, getyx, getbegyx, getmaxyx.  The return values of setscrreg,
       wsetscrreg, getyx, getbegyx, and getmaxyx are undefined (i.e., these
       should not be used as the right-hand side of assignment statements).

       Routines that return pointers return NULL on error.

       The following environment symbols are useful for customizing the
       runtime behavior of the ncurses library.  The most important ones have
       been already discussed in detail.

            The debugging library checks this environment symbol when the
            application has redirected output to a file.  The symbol's numeric
            value is used for the baudrate.  If no value is found ncurses uses
            9600.  This allows testers to construct repeatable test-cases that
            take into account costs that depend on baudrate.

       CC   When set, change occurrences of the command_character (i.e., the
            cmdch capability) of the loaded terminfo entries to the value of
            this symbol.  Very few terminfo entries provide this feature.

            Specify the width of the screen in characters.  Applications
            running in a windowing environment usually are able to obtain the
            width of the window in which they are executing.  If neither the
            $COLUMNS value nor the terminal's screen size is available,
            ncurses uses the size which may be specified in the terminfo
            database (i.e., the cols capability).

            It is important that your application use a correct size for the
            screen.  However, this is not always possible because your
            application may be running on a host which does not honor NAWS
            (Negotiations About Window Size), or because you are temporarily
            running as another user.

            Either COLUMNS or LINES symbols may be specified independently.
            This is mainly useful to circumvent legacy misfeatures of terminal
            descriptions, e.g., xterm which commonly specifies a 65 line
            screen.  For best results, lines and cols should not be specified
            in a terminal description for terminals which are run as

            Use the use_env function to disable this feature.

            Specifies the total time, in milliseconds, for which ncurses will
            await a character sequence, e.g., a function key.  The default
            value, 1000 milliseconds, is enough for most uses.  However, it is
            made a variable to accommodate unusual applications.

            The most common instance where you may wish to change this value
            is to work with slow hosts, e.g., running on a network.  If the
            host cannot read characters rapidly enough, it will have the same
            effect as if the terminal did not send characters rapidly enough.
            The library will still see a timeout.

            Note that xterm mouse events are built up from character sequences
            received from the xterm.  If your application makes heavy use of
            multiple-clicking, you may wish to lengthen this default value
            because the timeout applies to the composed multi-click event as
            well as the individual clicks.

       HOME Tells ncurses where your home directory is.  That is where it may
            read and write auxiliary terminal descriptions:


            Like COLUMNS, specify the height of the screen in characters.  See
            COLUMNS for a detailed description.

            This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port.  It specifies the order of
            buttons on the mouse.  OS/2 numbers a 3-button mouse
            inconsistently from other platforms:

            1 = left
            2 = right
            3 = middle.

            This symbol lets you customize the mouse.  The symbol must be
            three numeric digits 1-3 in any order, e.g., 123 or 321.  If it is
            not specified, ncurses uses 132.

            Most of the terminal descriptions in the terminfo database are
            written for real "hardware" terminals.  Many people use terminal
            emulators which run in a windowing environment and use curses-
            based applications.  Terminal emulators can duplicate all of the
            important aspects of a hardware terminal, but they do not have the
            same limitations.  The chief limitation of a hardware terminal
            from the standpoint of your application is the management of
            dataflow, i.e., timing.  Unless a hardware terminal is interfaced
            into a terminal concentrator (which does flow control), it (or
            your application) must manage dataflow, preventing overruns.  The
            cheapest solution (no hardware cost) is for your program to do
            this by pausing after operations that the terminal does slowly,
            such as clearing the display.

            As a result, many terminal descriptions (including the vt100) have
            delay times embedded.  You may wish to use these descriptions, but
            not want to pay the performance penalty.

            Set the NCURSES_NO_PADDING symbol to disable all but mandatory
            padding.  Mandatory padding is used as a part of special control
            sequences such as flash.

            Normally ncurses enables buffered output during terminal
            initialization.  This is done (as in SVr4 curses) for performance
            reasons.  For testing purposes, both of ncurses and certain
            applications, this feature is made optional.  Setting the
            NCURSES_NO_SETBUF variable disables output buffering, leaving the
            output in the original (usually line buffered) mode.

            During initialization, the ncurses debugging library checks the
            NCURSES_TRACE symbol.  If it is defined, to a numeric value,
            ncurses calls the trace function, using that value as the

            The argument values, which are defined in curses.h, provide
            several types of information.  When running with traces enabled,
            your application will write the file trace to the current

       TERM Denotes your terminal type.  Each terminal type is distinct,
            though many are similar.

            If the ncurses library has been configured with termcap support,
            ncurses will check for a terminal's description in termcap form if
            it is not available in the terminfo database.

            The TERMCAP symbol contains either a terminal description (with
            newlines stripped out), or a file name telling where the
            information denoted by the TERM symbol exists.  In either case,
            setting it directs ncurses to ignore the usual place for this
            information, e.g., /etc/termcap.

            Overrides the directory in which ncurses searches for your
            terminal description.  This is the simplest, but not the only way
            to change the list of directories.  The complete list of
            directories in order follows:

            -  the last directory to which ncurses wrote, if any, is searched

            -  the directory specified by the TERMINFO symbol

            -  $HOME/.terminfo

            -  directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS symbol

            -  one or more directories whose names are configured and compiled
               into the ncurses library, e.g., /usr/share/misc/terminfo

            Specifies a list of directories to search for terminal
            descriptions.  The list is separated by colons (i.e., ":").  All
            of the terminal descriptions are in terminfo form, which makes a
            subdirectory named for the first letter of the terminal names

            If TERMCAP does not hold a file name then ncurses checks the
            TERMPATH symbol.  This is a list of filenames separated by colons
            (i.e., ":").  If the TERMPATH symbol is not set, ncurses looks in
            the files /etc/termcap, /usr/share/misc/termcap and
            $HOME/.termcap, in that order.

       The library may be configured to disregard the following variables when
       the current user is the superuser (root), or if the application uses
       setuid or setgid permissions: $TERMINFO, $TERMINFO_DIRS, $TERMPATH, as
       well as $HOME.

            directory containing initialization files for the terminal
            capability database /usr/share/misc/terminfo terminal capability

       terminfo(5) and 3X pages whose names begin "curs_" for detailed routine

       The ncurses library can be compiled with an option (-DUSE_GETCAP) that
       falls back to the old-style /etc/termcap file if the terminal setup
       code cannot find a terminfo entry corresponding to TERM.  Use of this
       feature is not recommended, as it essentially includes an entire
       termcap compiler in the ncurses startup code, at significant cost in
       core and startup cycles.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for capturing mouse events on
       certain terminals (including xterm). See the curs_mouse(3X) manual page
       for details.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for responding to window
       resizing events, e.g., when running in an xterm.  See the
       resizeterm(3X) and wresize(3X) manual pages for details.  In addition,
       the library may be configured with a SIGWINCH handler.

       The ncurses library extends the fixed set of function key capabilities
       of terminals by allowing the application designer to define additional
       key sequences at runtime.  See the define_key(3X) and keyok(3X) manual
       pages for details.

       The ncurses library can exploit the capabilities of terminals which
       implement the ISO-6429 SGR 39 and SGR 49 controls, which allow an
       application to reset the terminal to its original foreground and
       background colors.  From the users' perspective, the application is
       able to draw colored text on a background whose color is set
       independently, providing better control over color contrasts.  See the
       use_default_colors(3X) manual page for details.

       The ncurses library includes a function for directing application
       output to a printer attached to the terminal device.  See the
       curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

       The ncurses library is intended to be BASE-level conformant with the
       XSI Curses standard.  Certain portions of the EXTENDED XSI Curses
       functionality (including color support) are supported.  The following
       EXTENDED XSI Curses calls in support of wide (multibyte) characters are
       not yet implemented: add_wch, add_wchnstr, add_wchstr, addnwstr,
       addwstr, bkgrnd, bkgrndset, border_set, box_set, echo_wchar,
       erasewchar, get_wch, get_wstr, getbkgrnd, getcchar, getn_wstr,
       getwchtype, hline_set, in_wch, in_wchnstr, in_wchstr, innwstr,
       ins_nwstr, ins_wch, ins_wstr, inwchnstr, inwchstr, inwstr, key_name,
       killwchar, mvadd_wch, mvadd_wchnstr, mvadd_wchstr, mvaddnwstr,
       mvaddwstr, mvget_wch, mvget_wstr, mvgetn_wstr, mvhline_set, mvin_wch,
       mvinnwstr, mvins_nwstr, mvins_wch, mvins_wstr, mvinwchnstr, mvinwchstr,
       mvinwchstr, mvinwstr, mvvline_set, mvwadd_wch, mvwadd_wchnstr,
       mvwadd_wchstr, mvwaddnwstr, mvwaddwstr, mvwget_ch, mvwget_wch,
       mvwget_wstr, mvwgetn_wstr, mvwhline_set, mvwin_wch, mvwin_wchnstr,
       mvwin_wchstr, mvwinnwstr, mvwins_nwstr, mvwins_wch, mvwins_wstr,
       mvwinwchnstr.  mvwinwstr, mvwvline_set, pecho_wchar, setcchar,
       slk_wset, term_attrs, unget_wch, vhline_set, vid_attr, vid_puts,
       vline_set, wadd_wch, wadd_wchnstr, wadd_wchstr, waddnwstr, waddwstr,
       waddwstr, wbkgrnd, wbkgrndset, wbkgrndset, wborder_set, wecho_wchar,
       wecho_wchar, wget_wch, wget_wstr, wgetbkgrnd, wgetn_wstr, whline_set,
       win_wch, win_wchnstr, win_wchstr, winnwstr, wins_nwstr, wins_wch,
       wins_wstr, winwchnstr, winwchstr, winwstr, wunctrl, wvline_set,

       A small number of local differences (that is, individual differences
       between the XSI Curses and ncurses calls) are described in PORTABILITY
       sections of the library man pages.

       The routine has_key is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
       See the curs_getch(3X) manual page for details.

       The routine slk_attr is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
       See the curs_slk(3X) manual page for details.

       The routines getmouse, mousemask, ungetmouse, mouseinterval, and
       wenclose relating to mouse interfacing are not part of XPG4, nor are
       they present in SVr4.  See the curs_mouse(3X) manual page for details.

       The routine mcprint was not present in any previous curses
       implementation.  See the curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

       The routine wresize is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
       See the wresize(3X) manual page for details.

       In historic curses versions, delays embedded in the capabilities cr,
       ind, cub1, ff and tab activated corresponding delay bits in the UNIX
       tty driver.  In this implementation, all padding is done by NUL sends.
       This method is slightly more expensive, but narrows the interface to
       the UNIX kernel significantly and increases the package's portability

       In the XSI standard and SVr4 manual pages, many entry points have
       prototype arguments of the for char *const (or cchar_t *const, or
       wchar_t *const, or void *const).  Depending on one's interpretation of
       the ANSI C standard (see section, these declarations are
       either (a) meaningless, or (b) meaningless and illegal.  The
       declaration const char *x is a modifiable pointer to unmodifiable data,
       but char *const x' is an unmodifiable pointer to modifiable data.
       Given that C passes arguments by value, <type> *const as a formal type
       is at best dubious.  Some compilers choke on the prototypes.
       Therefore, in this implementation, they have been changed to const
       <type> * globally.

       The header file <curses.h> automatically includes the header files
       <stdio.h> and <unctrl.h>.

       If standard output from a ncurses program is re-directed to something
       which is not a tty, screen updates will be directed to standard error.
       This was an undocumented feature of AT&T System V Release 3 curses.

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.



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