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ncurses(3X)							   ncurses(3X)

       ncurses - CRT screen handling and optimization package

       #include	<curses.h>

       The  ncurses  library  routines	give  the  user	a terminal-independent
       method of updating  character  screens  with  reasonable	 optimization.
       This  implementation  is	 "new  curses"	(ncurses)  and is the approved
       replacement for 4.4BSD classic curses,  which  has  been	 discontinued.
       This describes ncurses version 5.9 (patch 20140222).

       The  ncurses  library emulates the curses library of System V Release 4
       UNIX, and XPG4 (X/Open Portability Guide) curses	 (also	known  as  XSI
       curses).	  XSI  stands  for  X/Open  System  Interfaces Extension.  The
       ncurses library is freely redistributable in source form.   Differences
       from  the SVr4 curses are summarized under the EXTENSIONS and PORTABIL-
       ITY sections below and described	in detail  in  the  respective	EXTEN-
       SIONS, PORTABILITY and BUGS sections of individual man pages.

       The  ncurses  library  also provides many useful	extensions, i.e., fea-
       tures which cannot be implemented by a simple add-on library but	 which
       require access to the internals of the library.

       A  program  using  these	 routines  must	 be  linked with the -lncurses
       option, or (if it  has  been  generated)	 with  the  debugging  library
       -lncurses_g.   (Your  system  integrator	 may also have installed these
       libraries under the names  -lcurses  and	 -lcurses_g.)	The  ncurses_g
       library	generates  trace logs (in a file called	'trace'	in the current
       directory) that describe	curses	actions.   See	also  the  section  on

       The  ncurses package supports: overall screen, window and pad manipula-
       tion; output to windows and pads; reading terminal input; control  over
       terminal	 and  curses  input and	output options;	environment query rou-
       tines; color manipulation; use of soft label keys;  terminfo  capabili-
       ties; and access	to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.

       The  library uses the locale which the calling program has initialized.
       That is normally	done with setlocale:

	     setlocale(LC_ALL, "");

       If the locale is	not initialized, the library assumes  that  characters
       are  printable  as in ISO-8859-1, to work with certain legacy programs.
       You should initialize the locale	and not	rely on	 specific  details  of
       the library when	the locale has not been	setup.

       The  function  initscr  or  newterm  must  be  called to	initialize the
       library before any of the other routines	that  deal  with  windows  and
       screens are used.  The routine endwin must be called before exiting.

       To  get	character-at-a-time  input  without echoing (most interactive,
       screen oriented programs	want this), the	following sequence  should  be

	     initscr();	cbreak(); noecho();

       Most programs would additionally	use the	sequence:

	     intrflush(stdscr, FALSE);
	     keypad(stdscr, TRUE);

       Before a	curses program is run, the tab stops of	the terminal should be
       set and its initialization strings, if defined, must be	output.	  This
       can  be done by executing the @TPUT@ init command after the shell envi-
       ronment variable	TERM has been exported.	 @TSET@(1) is usually  respon-
       sible for doing this.  [See terminfo(5) for further details.]

       The  ncurses  library  permits  manipulation of data structures,	called
       windows,	which can be thought of	as two-dimensional arrays  of  charac-
       ters representing all or	part of	a CRT screen.  A default window	called
       stdscr, which is	the size of the	terminal screen, is supplied.	Others
       may be created with newwin.

       Note  that  curses  does	not handle overlapping windows,	that's done by
       the panel(3X) library.  This means that you can either  use  stdscr  or
       divide the screen into tiled windows and	not using stdscr at all.  Mix-
       ing the two will	result in unpredictable, and undesired,	effects.

       Windows are referred to by variables declared as	WINDOW *.  These  data
       structures  are	manipulated with routines described here and elsewhere
       in the ncurses manual pages.  Among those, the most basic routines  are
       move  and  addch.  More general versions	of these routines are included
       with names beginning with w, allowing the user  to  specify  a  window.
       The routines not	beginning with w affect	stdscr.

       After using routines to manipulate a window, refresh is called, telling
       curses to make the user's CRT screen look like stdscr.  The  characters
       in a window are actually	of type	chtype,	(character and attribute data)
       so that other information about the character may also be  stored  with
       each character.

       Special windows called pads may also be manipulated.  These are windows
       which are not constrained to the	size of	the screen and whose  contents
       need  not  be completely	displayed.  See	curs_pad(3X) for more informa-

       In addition to drawing characters on the	screen,	video  attributes  and
       colors  may  be	supported,  causing  the characters to show up in such
       modes as	underlined, in reverse video, or in color  on  terminals  that
       support	such  display  enhancements.   Line  drawing characters	may be
       specified to be output.	On input, curses is  also  able	 to  translate
       arrow and function keys that transmit escape sequences into single val-
       ues.  The video attributes, line	drawing	characters, and	 input	values
       use  names,  defined  in	 <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE,	ACS_HLINE, and

       If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or if the  pro-
       gram  is	executing in a window environment, line	and column information
       in the environment will override	information read  by  terminfo.	  This
       would affect a program running in an AT&T 630 layer, for	example, where
       the size	of a screen is changeable (see ENVIRONMENT).

       If the environment variable TERMINFO  is	 defined,  any	program	 using
       curses  checks  for  a local terminal definition	before checking	in the
       standard	place.	For example, if	TERM is	set to att4424,	then the  com-
       piled terminal definition is found in


       (The  a is copied from the first	letter of att4424 to avoid creation of
       huge directories.)  However,  if	 TERMINFO  is  set  to	$HOME/myterms,
       curses first checks


       and if that fails, it then checks


       This  is	 useful	 for developing	experimental definitions or when write
       permission in /usr/share/misc/terminfo is not available.

       The integer variables LINES and COLS are	defined	in <curses.h> and will
       be  filled  in  by  initscr with	the size of the	screen.	 The constants
       TRUE and	FALSE have the values 1	and 0, respectively.

       The curses routines also	define the WINDOW * variable curscr  which  is
       used  for  certain  low-level  operations like clearing and redrawing a
       screen containing garbage.  The curscr can be used in only a  few  rou-

   Routine and Argument	Names
       Many  curses routines have two or more versions.	 The routines prefixed
       with w require a	window argument.  The routines prefixed	with p require
       a pad argument.	Those without a	prefix generally use stdscr.

       The  routines  prefixed with mv require a y and x coordinate to move to
       before performing the appropriate action.  The mv routines imply	a call
       to  move	before the call	to the other routine.  The coordinate y	always
       refers to the row (of the window), and x	always refers to  the  column.
       The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

       The  routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument and x and y
       coordinates.  The window	argument is always specified before the	 coor-

       In  each	case, win is the window	affected, and pad is the pad affected;
       win and pad are always pointers to type WINDOW.

       Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the  value  TRUE
       or  FALSE;  bf  is always of type bool.	Most of	the data types used in
       the library routines, such as WINDOW,  SCREEN,  bool,  and  chtype  are
       defined	in  <curses.h>.	  Types	used for the terminfo routines such as
       TERMINAL	are defined in <term.h>.

       This manual page	describes functions which may appear in	any configura-
       tion  of	 the  library.	 There	are  two  common configurations	of the

		   the "normal"	library, which handles 8-bit characters.   The
		   normal  (8-bit)  library  stores  characters	 combined with
		   attributes in chtype	data.

		   Attributes alone (no	corresponding character) may be	stored
		   in  chtype  or the equivalent attr_t	data.  In either case,
		   the data is stored in something like	an integer.

		   Each	cell (row and column) in  a  WINDOW  is	 stored	 as  a

		   the so-called "wide"	library, which handles multibyte char-
		   acters (see the section on ALTERNATE	CONFIGURATIONS).   The
		   "wide"  library includes all	of the calls from the "normal"
		   library.  It	adds about one third  more  calls  using  data
		   types which store multibyte characters:

			corresponds  to	 chtype.   However  it is a structure,
			because	more data is stored than can fit into an inte-
			ger.   The  characters	are  large enough to require a
			full integer value - and there may be  more  than  one
			character  per	cell.	The video attributes and color
			are stored in separate fields of the structure.

			Each cell (row and column) in a	WINDOW is stored as  a

			stores	a  "wide" character.  Like chtype, this	may be
			an integer.

			stores a wchar_t or WEOF - not the same,  though  both
			may have the same size.

		   The	"wide" library provides	new functions which are	analo-
		   gous	to functions in	the "normal" library.  There is	a nam-
		   ing	convention which relates many of the normal/wide vari-
		   ants: a "_w"	is inserted into the name.  For	example,  wad-
		   dch becomes wadd_wch.

   Routine Name	Index
       The  following table lists each curses routine and the name of the man-
       ual page	on which it is	described.   Routines  flagged	with  `*'  are
       ncurses-specific, not described by XPG4 or present in SVr4.

		     curses Routine Name     Manual Page Name
		     COLOR_PAIR		     curs_color(3X)
		     PAIR_NUMBER	     curs_attr(3X)
		     _nc_free_and_exit	     curs_memleaks(3X)*
		     _nc_freeall	     curs_memleaks(3X)*
		     _nc_tracebits	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _traceattr		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _traceattr2	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracechar		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracechtype	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracechtype2	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracedump		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracef		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracemouse	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     add_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     add_wchnstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     add_wchstr		     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     addch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     addchnstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     addchstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     addnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     addnwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     addstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     addwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     assume_default_colors   default_colors(3X)*
		     attr_get		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attr_off		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attr_on		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attr_set		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attroff		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attron		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attrset		     curs_attr(3X)
		     baudrate		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     beep		     curs_beep(3X)
		     bkgd		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     bkgdset		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     bkgrnd		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     bkgrndset		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)

		     border		     curs_border(3X)
		     border_set		     curs_border_set(3X)
		     box		     curs_border(3X)
		     box_set		     curs_border_set(3X)
		     can_change_color	     curs_color(3X)
		     cbreak		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     chgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     clear		     curs_clear(3X)
		     clearok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     clrtobot		     curs_clear(3X)
		     clrtoeol		     curs_clear(3X)
		     color_content	     curs_color(3X)
		     color_set		     curs_attr(3X)
		     copywin		     curs_overlay(3X)
		     curs_set		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     curses_version	     curs_extend(3X)*
		     def_prog_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     def_shell_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     define_key		     define_key(3X)*
		     del_curterm	     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     delay_output	     curs_util(3X)
		     delch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     deleteln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     delscreen		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     delwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     derwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     doupdate		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     dupwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     echo		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     echo_wchar		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     echochar		     curs_addch(3X)
		     endwin		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     erase		     curs_clear(3X)
		     erasechar		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     erasewchar		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     filter		     curs_util(3X)
		     flash		     curs_beep(3X)
		     flushinp		     curs_util(3X)
		     get_wch		     curs_get_wch(3X)
		     get_wstr		     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     getattrs		     curs_attr(3X)
		     getbegx		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getbegy		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getbegyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     getbkgd		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     getbkgrnd		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     getcchar		     curs_getcchar(3X)
		     getch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     getcurx		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getcury		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getmaxx		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getmaxy		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getmaxyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     getmouse		     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     getn_wstr		     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     getnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     getparx		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getpary		     curs_legacy(3X)*
		     getparyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     getstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     getsyx		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     getwin		     curs_util(3X)
		     getyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     halfdelay		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     has_colors		     curs_color(3X)
		     has_ic		     curs_termattrs(3X)

		     has_il		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     has_key		     curs_getch(3X)*
		     hline		     curs_border(3X)
		     hline_set		     curs_border_set(3X)
		     idcok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     idlok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     immedok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     in_wch		     curs_in_wch(3X)
		     in_wchnstr		     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     in_wchstr		     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     inch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     inchnstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     inchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     init_color		     curs_color(3X)
		     init_pair		     curs_color(3X)
		     initscr		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     innstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     innwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     ins_nwstr		     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     ins_wch		     curs_ins_wch(3X)
		     ins_wstr		     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     insch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     insdelln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     insertln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     insnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     insstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     instr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     intrflush		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     inwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     is_cleared		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_idcok		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_idlok		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_immedok		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_keypad		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_leaveok		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_linetouched	     curs_touch(3X)
		     is_nodelay		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_notimeout	     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_scrollok	     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_syncok		     curs_opaque(3X)*
		     is_term_resized	     resizeterm(3X)*
		     is_wintouched	     curs_touch(3X)
		     isendwin		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     key_defined	     key_defined(3X)*
		     key_name		     curs_util(3X)
		     keybound		     keybound(3X)*
		     keyname		     curs_util(3X)
		     keyok		     keyok(3X)*
		     keypad		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     killchar		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     killwchar		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     leaveok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     longname		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     mcprint		     curs_print(3X)*
		     meta		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     mouse_trafo	     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     mouseinterval	     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     mousemask		     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     move		     curs_move(3X)
		     mvadd_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     mvadd_wchnstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     mvadd_wchstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     mvaddch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     mvaddchnstr	     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvaddchstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvaddnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)

		     mvaddnwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     mvaddstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     mvaddwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     mvchgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     mvcur		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     mvdelch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     mvderwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     mvget_wch		     curs_get_wch(3X)
		     mvget_wstr		     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     mvgetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     mvgetn_wstr	     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     mvgetnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvgetstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvhline		     curs_border(3X)
		     mvhline_set	     curs_border_set(3X)
		     mvin_wch		     curs_in_wch(3X)
		     mvin_wchnstr	     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     mvin_wchstr	     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     mvinch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     mvinchnstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvinchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvinnstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvinnwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     mvins_nwstr	     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     mvins_wch		     curs_ins_wch(3X)
		     mvins_wstr		     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     mvinsch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     mvinsnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvinsstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvinstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvinwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     mvprintw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     mvscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     mvvline		     curs_border(3X)
		     mvvline_set	     curs_border_set(3X)
		     mvwadd_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     mvwadd_wchnstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     mvwadd_wchstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     mvwaddch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     mvwaddchnstr	     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvwaddchstr	     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvwaddnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     mvwaddnwstr	     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     mvwaddstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     mvwaddwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     mvwchgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     mvwdelch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     mvwget_wch		     curs_get_wch(3X)
		     mvwget_wstr	     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     mvwgetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     mvwgetn_wstr	     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     mvwgetnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvwgetstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvwhline		     curs_border(3X)
		     mvwhline_set	     curs_border_set(3X)
		     mvwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     mvwin_wch		     curs_in_wch(3X)
		     mvwin_wchnstr	     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     mvwin_wchstr	     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     mvwinch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     mvwinchnstr	     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvwinchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvwinnstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvwinnwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     mvwins_nwstr	     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     mvwins_wch		     curs_ins_wch(3X)

		     mvwins_wstr	     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     mvwinsch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     mvwinsnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvwinsstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvwinstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvwinwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     mvwprintw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     mvwscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     mvwvline		     curs_border(3X)
		     mvwvline_set	     curs_border_set(3X)
		     napms		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     newpad		     curs_pad(3X)
		     newterm		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     newwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     nl			     curs_outopts(3X)
		     nocbreak		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     nodelay		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     noecho		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     nofilter		     curs_util(3X)*
		     nonl		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     noqiflush		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     noraw		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     notimeout		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     overlay		     curs_overlay(3X)
		     overwrite		     curs_overlay(3X)
		     pair_content	     curs_color(3X)
		     pechochar		     curs_pad(3X)
		     pnoutrefresh	     curs_pad(3X)
		     prefresh		     curs_pad(3X)
		     printw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     putp		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     putwin		     curs_util(3X)
		     qiflush		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     raw		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     redrawwin		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     refresh		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     reset_prog_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     reset_shell_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     resetty		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     resizeterm		     resizeterm(3X)*
		     restartterm	     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     ripoffline		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     savetty		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     scanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     scr_dump		     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scr_init		     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scr_restore	     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scr_set		     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scrl		     curs_scroll(3X)
		     scroll		     curs_scroll(3X)
		     scrollok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     set_curterm	     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     set_term		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     setcchar		     curs_getcchar(3X)
		     setscrreg		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     setsyx		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     setterm		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     setupterm		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     slk_attr		     curs_slk(3X)*
		     slk_attr_off	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attr_on	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attr_set	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attroff	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attron		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attrset	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_clear		     curs_slk(3X)

		     slk_color		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_init		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_label		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_noutrefresh	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_refresh	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_restore	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_set		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_touch		     curs_slk(3X)
		     standend		     curs_attr(3X)
		     standout		     curs_attr(3X)
		     start_color	     curs_color(3X)
		     subpad		     curs_pad(3X)
		     subwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     syncok		     curs_window(3X)
		     term_attrs		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     termattrs		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     termname		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     tgetent		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgetflag		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgetnum		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgetstr		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgoto		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tigetflag		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     tigetnum		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     tigetstr		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     timeout		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     touchline		     curs_touch(3X)
		     touchwin		     curs_touch(3X)
		     tparm		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     tputs		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tputs		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     trace		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     typeahead		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     unctrl		     curs_util(3X)
		     unget_wch		     curs_get_wch(3X)
		     ungetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     ungetmouse		     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     untouchwin		     curs_touch(3X)
		     use_default_colors	     default_colors(3X)*
		     use_env		     curs_util(3X)
		     use_extended_names	     curs_extend(3X)*
		     use_legacy_coding	     legacy_coding(3X)*
		     use_tioctl		     curs_util(3X)
		     vid_attr		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     vid_puts		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     vidattr		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     vidputs		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     vline		     curs_border(3X)
		     vline_set		     curs_border_set(3X)
		     vw_printw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     vw_scanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     vwprintw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     vwscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     wadd_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     wadd_wchnstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     wadd_wchstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     waddch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     waddchnstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     waddchstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     waddnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     waddnwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     waddstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     waddwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     wattr_get		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattr_off		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattr_on		     curs_attr(3X)

		     wattr_set		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattroff		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattron		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattrset		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wbkgd		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     wbkgdset		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     wbkgrnd		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     wbkgrndset		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     wborder		     curs_border(3X)
		     wborder_set	     curs_border_set(3X)
		     wchgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wclear		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wclrtobot		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wclrtoeol		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wcolor_set		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wcursyncup		     curs_window(3X)
		     wdelch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     wdeleteln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     wecho_wchar	     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     wechochar		     curs_addch(3X)
		     wenclose		     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     werase		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wget_wch		     curs_get_wch(3X)
		     wget_wstr		     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     wgetbkgrnd		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     wgetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     wgetn_wstr		     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     wgetnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     wgetstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     whline		     curs_border(3X)
		     whline_set		     curs_border_set(3X)
		     win_wch		     curs_in_wch(3X)
		     win_wchnstr	     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     win_wchstr		     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     winch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     winchnstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     winchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     winnstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     winnwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     wins_nwstr		     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     wins_wch		     curs_ins_wch(3X)
		     wins_wstr		     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     winsch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     winsdelln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     winsertln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     winsnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     winsstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     winstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     winwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     wmouse_trafo	     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     wmove		     curs_move(3X)
		     wnoutrefresh	     curs_refresh(3X)
		     wprintw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     wredrawln		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     wrefresh		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     wresize		     wresize(3X)*
		     wscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     wscrl		     curs_scroll(3X)
		     wsetscrreg		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     wstandend		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wstandout		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wsyncdown		     curs_window(3X)
		     wsyncup		     curs_window(3X)
		     wtimeout		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     wtouchln		     curs_touch(3X)
		     wunctrl		     curs_util(3X)

		     wvline		     curs_border(3X)
		     wvline_set		     curs_border_set(3X)

       Routines	 that return an	integer	return ERR upon	failure	and an integer
       value other than	ERR upon successful completion,	unless otherwise noted
       in the routine descriptions.

       As  a  general rule, routines check for null pointers passed as parame-
       ters, and handle	this as	an error.

       All macros return  the  value  of  the  w  version,  except  setscrreg,
       wsetscrreg,  getyx,  getbegyx,  and  getmaxyx.	The  return  values of
       setscrreg, wsetscrreg, getyx,  getbegyx,	 and  getmaxyx	are  undefined
       (i.e.,  these  should  not be used as the right-hand side of assignment

       Routines	that return pointers return NULL on error.

       The following environment symbols are useful for	customizing  the  run-
       time  behavior  of  the	ncurses	library.  The most important ones have
       been already discussed in detail.

	    The	debugging library checks this environment  variable  when  the
	    application	 has  redirected  output  to  a	 file.	The variable's
	    numeric value is used for the baudrate.  If	 no  value  is	found,
	    ncurses  uses  9600.   This	allows testers to construct repeatable
	    test-cases that take into account costs that depend	on baudrate.

       CC   When set, change occurrences of the	command_character  (i.e.,  the
	    cmdch  capability)	of the loaded terminfo entries to the value of
	    this variable.  Very few terminfo entries provide this feature.

	    Because this name is also used in development environments to rep-
	    resent  the	 C  compiler's name, ncurses ignores it	if it does not
	    happen to be a single character.

	    Specify the	width of the screen in characters.  Applications  run-
	    ning  in  a	 windowing  environment	usually	are able to obtain the
	    width of the window	in which they are executing.  If  neither  the
	    COLUMNS value nor the terminal's screen size is available, ncurses
	    uses the size which	may be	specified  in  the  terminfo  database
	    (i.e., the cols capability).

	    It	is  important that your	application use	a correct size for the
	    screen.  This is not always	possible because your application  may
	    be running on a host which does not	honor NAWS (Negotiations About
	    Window Size), or because you are temporarily  running  as  another
	    user.    However,  setting	COLUMNS	 and/or	 LINES	overrides  the
	    library's use of the screen	size obtained from the operating  sys-

	    Either  COLUMNS  or	 LINES symbols may be specified	independently.
	    This is mainly useful to circumvent	legacy misfeatures of terminal
	    descriptions,  e.g.,  xterm	 which	commonly  specifies  a 65 line
	    screen.  For best results, lines and cols should not be  specified
	    in	a  terminal  description for terminals which are run as	emula-

	    Use	the use_env function to	disable	all use	of  external  environ-
	    ment  (but	not  including	system	calls) to determine the	screen
	    size.  Use the use_tioctl function to update COLUMNS or  LINES  to
	    match  the	screen size obtained from system calls or the terminal

	    Specifies the total	time, in milliseconds, for which ncurses  will
	    await  a  character	 sequence,  e.g., a function key.  The default
	    value, 1000	milliseconds, is enough	for most uses.	However, it is
	    made a variable to accommodate unusual applications.

	    The	 most  common instance where you may wish to change this value
	    is to work with slow hosts,	e.g., running on a  network.   If  the
	    host  cannot read characters rapidly enough, it will have the same
	    effect as if the terminal did not send characters rapidly  enough.
	    The	library	will still see a timeout.

	    Note that xterm mouse events are built up from character sequences
	    received from the xterm.  If your application makes	heavy  use  of
	    multiple-clicking,	you  may  wish	to lengthen this default value
	    because the	timeout	applies	to the composed	multi-click  event  as
	    well as the	individual clicks.

	    In	addition to the	environment variable, this implementation pro-
	    vides a global variable with the same name.	 Portable applications
	    should  not	rely upon the presence of ESCDELAY in either form, but
	    setting the	environment variable rather than the  global  variable
	    does not create problems when compiling an application.

       HOME Tells  ncurses where your home directory is.  That is where	it may
	    read and write auxiliary terminal descriptions:


	    Like COLUMNS, specify the height of	the screen in characters.  See
	    COLUMNS for	a detailed description.

	    This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port.  It	specifies the order of
	    buttons on the mouse.  OS/2	numbers	 a  3-button  mouse  inconsis-
	    tently from	other platforms:

	    1 =	left
	    2 =	right
	    3 =	middle.

	    This  variable lets	you customize the mouse.  The variable must be
	    three numeric digits 1-3 in	any order, e.g., 123 or	321.  If it is
	    not	specified, ncurses uses	132.

	    Override  the  compiled-in	assumption that	the terminal's default
	    colors are white-on-black (see default_colors(3X)).	 You  may  set
	    the	 foreground  and background color values with this environment
	    variable by	proving	a 2-element list: foreground,background.   For
	    example,  to tell ncurses to not assume anything about the colors,
	    set	this to	"-1,-1".  To make it green-on-black, set it to	"2,0".
	    Any	 positive  value from zero to the terminfo max_colors value is

	    This applies only to ncurses configured to use the GPM interface.

	    If present,	the environment	variable is a list of one or more ter-
	    minal  names  against  which  the  TERM  environment  variable  is
	    matched.  Setting it to an empty value disables the	GPM interface;
	    using the built-in support for xterm, etc.

	    If	the  environment  variable  is absent, ncurses will attempt to
	    open GPM if	TERM contains "linux".

	    Ncurses may	use tabs as part of the	cursor movement	 optimization.
	    In some cases, your	terminal driver	may not	handle these properly.
	    Set	this environment variable to disable  the  feature.   You  can
	    also adjust	your stty settings to avoid the	problem.

	    Some  terminals  use a magic-cookie	feature	which requires special
	    handling to	make highlighting and other video  attributes  display
	    properly.	You  can  suppress the highlighting entirely for these
	    terminals by setting this environment variable.

	    Most of the	terminal descriptions in  the  terminfo	 database  are
	    written  for  real "hardware" terminals.  Many people use terminal
	    emulators which run	in a windowing	environment  and  use  curses-
	    based  applications.   Terminal emulators can duplicate all	of the
	    important aspects of a hardware terminal, but they do not have the
	    same  limitations.	 The  chief  limitation	of a hardware terminal
	    from the standpoint	of  your  application  is  the	management  of
	    dataflow,  i.e., timing.  Unless a hardware	terminal is interfaced
	    into a terminal concentrator (which	does  flow  control),  it  (or
	    your  application) must manage dataflow, preventing	overruns.  The
	    cheapest solution (no hardware cost) is for	 your  program	to  do
	    this  by  pausing  after operations	that the terminal does slowly,
	    such as clearing the display.

	    As a result, many terminal descriptions (including the vt100) have
	    delay times	embedded.  You may wish	to use these descriptions, but
	    not	want to	pay the	performance penalty.

	    Set	the NCURSES_NO_PADDING environment variable to disable all but
	    mandatory padding.	Mandatory padding is used as a part of special
	    control sequences such as flash.

	    This setting is obsolete.  Before changes

	    o	started	with 5.9 patch 20120825	and

	    o	continued though 5.9 patch 20130126

	    ncurses enabled buffered output  during  terminal  initialization.
	    This  was  done  (as in SVr4 curses) for performance reasons.  For
	    testing purposes, both of ncurses and certain  applications,  this
	    feature was	made optional.	Setting	the NCURSES_NO_SETBUF variable
	    disabled output buffering, leaving	the  output  in	 the  original
	    (usually line buffered) mode.

	    In	the current implementation, ncurses performs its own buffering
	    and	does not require this workaround.   It	does  not  modify  the
	    buffering of the standard output.

	    The	 reason	for the	change was to make the behavior	for interrupts
	    and	other signals more robust.  One	drawback is that certain  non-
	    conventional  programs would mix ordinary stdio calls with ncurses
	    calls and (usually)	 work.	 This  is  no  longer  possible	 since
	    ncurses is not using the buffered standard output but its own out-
	    put	(to the	same file descriptor).	As a special  case,  the  low-
	    level calls	such as	putp still use the standard output.  But high-
	    level curses calls do not.

	    During initialization, the	ncurses	 library  checks  for  special
	    cases  where  VT100	 line-drawing (and the corresponding alternate
	    character set capabilities)	described in the terminfo are known to
	    be	missing.   Specifically,  when	running	in a UTF-8 locale, the
	    Linux console emulator and the GNU screen  program	ignore	these.
	    Ncurses checks the TERM environment	variable for these.  For other
	    special cases, you should set this	environment  variable.	 Doing
	    this  tells	 ncurses to use	Unicode	values which correspond	to the
	    VT100 line-drawing glyphs.	 That  works  for  the	special	 cases
	    cited, and is likely to work for terminal emulators.

	    When  setting this variable, you should set	it to a	nonzero	value.
	    Setting it to zero (or to a	nonnumber) disables the	special	 check
	    for	"linux"	and "screen".

	    As	an alternative to the environment variable, ncurses checks for
	    an extended	terminfo capability U8.	 This is a numeric  capability
	    which can be compiled using	tic -x.	 For example

	    # linux console, if	patched	to provide working
	    # VT100 shift-in/shift-out,	with corresponding font.
	    linux-vt100|linux console with VT100 line-graphics,
		    U8#0, use=linux,

	    # uxterm with vt100Graphics	resource set to	false
	    xterm-utf8|xterm relying on	UTF-8 line-graphics,
		    U8#1, use=xterm,

	    The	 name  "U8" is chosen to be two	characters, to permit it to be
	    used by applications that use ncurses' termcap interface.

	    During initialization, the ncurses debugging  library  checks  the
	    NCURSES_TRACE  environment	variable.   If	it  is	defined,  to a
	    numeric value, ncurses calls the trace function, using that	 value
	    as the argument.

	    The	 argument  values, which are defined in	curses.h, provide sev-
	    eral types of information.	When running with traces enabled, your
	    application	will write the file trace to the current directory.

       TERM Denotes  your  terminal  type.   Each  terminal  type is distinct,
	    though many	are similar.

	    If the ncurses library has been configured with  termcap  support,
	    ncurses will check for a terminal's	description in termcap form if
	    it is not available	in the terminfo	database.

	    The	 TERMCAP  environment  variable	 contains  either  a  terminal
	    description	 (with	newlines stripped out),	or a file name telling
	    where the information denoted by  the  TERM	 environment  variable
	    exists.   In either	case, setting it directs ncurses to ignore the
	    usual place	for this information, e.g., /etc/termcap.

	    Overrides the directory in which ncurses searches for your	termi-
	    nal	 description.	This  is the simplest, but not the only	way to
	    change the list of directories.  The complete list of  directories
	    in order follows:

	    o	the last directory to which ncurses wrote, if any, is searched

	    o	the directory specified	by the TERMINFO	environment variable

	    o	$HOME/.terminfo

	    o	directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS	environment variable

	    o	one or more directories	whose names are	 configured  and  com-
		piled into the ncurses library,	i.e.,

		o   @TERMINFO_DIRS@  (corresponding to the TERMINFO_DIRS vari-

		o   /usr/share/misc/terminfo (corresponding  to	 the  TERMINFO

	    Specifies  a  list	of directories to search for terminal descrip-
	    tions.  The	list is	separated by colons (i.e., ":")	on Unix, semi-
	    colons on OS/2 EMX.

	    All	 of  the terminal descriptions are in terminfo form.  Normally
	    these are stored in	a directory tree, using	 subdirectories	 named
	    by the first letter	of the terminal	names therein.

	    If	ncurses	 is  built  with a hashed database, then each entry in
	    this list can also be the path of the corresponding	database file.

	    If ncurses is built	with  a	 support  for  reading	termcap	 files
	    directly,  then an entry in	this list may be the path of a termcap

	    If TERMCAP does not	hold a	file  name  then  ncurses  checks  the
	    TERMPATH  environment variable.  This is a list of filenames sepa-
	    rated by spaces or colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on  OS/2

	    If	the TERMPATH environment variable is not set, ncurses looks in
	    the	files /etc/termcap, /usr/share/misc/termcap  and  $HOME/.term-
	    cap, in that order.

       The library may be configured to	disregard the following	variables when
       the current user	is the superuser (root), or if	the  application  uses
       setuid or setgid	permissions:


       Several different configurations	are possible, depending	on the config-
       ure script options used when building ncurses.  There are  a  few  main
       options	whose  effects are visible to the applications developer using

	    The	standard include for ncurses is	as noted in SYNOPSIS:

	    #include <curses.h>

	    This option	is used	to avoid filename conflicts  when  ncurses  is
	    not	the main implementation	of curses of the computer.  If ncurses
	    is installed disabling overwrite, it puts its headers in a	subdi-
	    rectory, e.g.,

	    #include <ncurses/curses.h>

	    It	also  omits  a	symbolic  link	which  would  allow you	to use
	    -lcurses to	build executables.

	    The	configure script  renames  the	library	 and  (if  the	--dis-
	    able-overwrite  option is used) puts the header files in a differ-
	    ent	subdirectory.  All of the library names	have a "w" appended to
	    them, i.e.,	instead	of


	    you	link with


	    You	must also define _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED	when compiling for the
	    wide-character library to use the extended (wide-character)	 func-
	    tions.   The curses.h file which is	installed for the wide-charac-
	    ter	library	is designed to be compatible with the normal library's
	    header.   Only  the	size of	the WINDOW structure differs, and very
	    few	applications require more than a pointer to WINDOWs.   If  the
	    headers  are  installed  allowing  overwrite,  the	wide-character
	    library's headers should be	installed last,	to allow  applications
	    to be built	using either library from the same set of headers.




	    The	 shared	and normal (static) library names differ by their suf-
	    fixes, e.g., and libncurses.a.  The debug  and  pro-
	    filing  libraries  add a "_g" and a	"_p" to	the root names respec-
	    tively, e.g., libncurses_g.a and libncurses_p.a.

	    The	trace function normally	resides	in the debug library,  but  it
	    is sometimes useful	to configure this in the shared	library.  Con-
	    figure scripts should check	for the	 function's  existence	rather
	    than assuming it is	always in the debug library.

	    directory  containing  initialization files	for the	terminal capa-
	    bility database /usr/share/misc/terminfo terminal capability data-

       terminfo(5)  and	 related  pages	whose names begin "curs_" for detailed
       routine descriptions.

       The ncurses library can be compiled with	an option (-DUSE_GETCAP)  that
       falls  back  to	the  old-style /etc/termcap file if the	terminal setup
       code cannot find	a terminfo entry corresponding to TERM.	 Use  of  this
       feature	is not recommended, as it essentially includes an entire term-
       cap compiler in the ncurses startup code, at significant	cost  in  core
       and startup cycles.

       The  ncurses  library includes facilities for capturing mouse events on
       certain terminals (including xterm).   See  the	curs_mouse(3X)	manual
       page for	details.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for responding to window	resiz-
       ing events, e.g., when running in an xterm.  See	the resizeterm(3X) and
       wresize(3X)  manual pages for details.  In addition, the	library	may be
       configured with a SIGWINCH handler.

       The ncurses library extends the fixed set of function key  capabilities
       of  terminals by	allowing the application designer to define additional
       key sequences at	runtime.  See the define_key(3X) key_defined(3X),  and
       keyok(3X) manual	pages for details.

       The  ncurses  library  can  exploit the capabilities of terminals which
       implement the ISO-6429 SGR 39 and  SGR  49  controls,  which  allow  an
       application  to reset the terminal to its original foreground and back-
       ground colors.  From the	users' perspective, the	application is able to
       draw  colored  text  on	a background whose color is set	independently,
       providing better	control	over color contrasts.	See  the  default_col-
       ors(3X) manual page for details.

       The  ncurses library includes a function	for directing application out-
       put  to	a  printer  attached  to  the  terminal	  device.    See   the
       curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

       The  ncurses  library  is intended to be	BASE-level conformant with XSI
       Curses.	The EXTENDED XSI Curses	functionality  (including  color  sup-
       port) is	supported.

       A  small	 number	 of local differences (that is,	individual differences
       between the XSI Curses and ncurses calls) are described in  PORTABILITY
       sections	of the library man pages.

       Unlike other implementations, this one checks parameters	such as	point-
       ers to WINDOW structures	to ensure they are not null.  The main	reason
       for  providing this behavior is to guard	against	programmer error.  The
       standard	interface does not provide a way for the library  to  tell  an
       application which of several possible errors were detected.  Relying on
       this (or	some other) extension will adversely affect the	portability of
       curses applications.

       This implementation also	contains several extensions:

       o   The routine has_key is not part of XPG4, nor	is it present in SVr4.
	   See the curs_getch(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The routine slk_attr	is not part of XPG4,  nor  is  it  present  in
	   SVr4.  See the curs_slk(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The	routines  getmouse,  mousemask,	ungetmouse, mouseinterval, and
	   wenclose relating to	mouse interfacing are not part	of  XPG4,  nor
	   are	they  present in SVr4.	See the	curs_mouse(3X) manual page for

       o   The routine mcprint was not present in any previous	curses	imple-
	   mentation.  See the curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The routine wresize is not part of XPG4, nor	is it present in SVr4.
	   See the wresize(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The WINDOW structure's internal details can be hidden from applica-
	   tion	programs.  See curs_opaque(3X) for the discussion of is_scrol-
	   lok,	etc.

       o   This	implementation can be configured to provide  rudimentary  sup-
	   port	 for  multi-threaded  applications.   See curs_threads(3X) for

       o   This	implementation can also	be configured  to  provide  a  set  of
	   functions  which  improve  the  ability to manage multiple screens.
	   See curs_sp_funcs(3X) for details.

       In historic curses versions, delays embedded in	the  capabilities  cr,
       ind,  cub1,  ff	and tab	activated corresponding	delay bits in the UNIX
       tty driver.  In this implementation, all	padding	is done	by sending NUL
       bytes.	This method is slightly	more expensive,	but narrows the	inter-
       face to the UNIX	 kernel	 significantly	and  increases	the  package's
       portability correspondingly.

       The  header  file  <curses.h>  automatically  includes the header files
       <stdio.h> and <unctrl.h>.

       If standard output from a ncurses program is re-directed	 to  something
       which  is not a tty, screen updates will	be directed to standard	error.
       This was	an undocumented	feature	of AT&T	System V Release 3 curses.

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel	Curtis.



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