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       ncgen  -	From a CDL file	generate a netCDF-3 file, a netCDF-4 file or a
       C program

       ncgen [-format_code] [-1|3|4|5|6|7] [-b]	[-B buffersize]	[-c] [-d]  [-D
	      debuglevel]  [-f]	 [-h]  [-H] [-k	format_name] [-l b|c|f77|java]
	      [-L   loglevel]	[-M   name]   [-n]   [-N   datasetname]	   [-o
	      netcdf_filename] [-P] [-x]

       ncgen  generates	 either	 a  netCDF-3 (i.e. classic) binary .nc file, a
       netCDF-4	(i.e. enhanced)	binary .nc file	or a file in some source  lan-
       guage  that  when  executed will	construct the corresponding binary .nc
       file.  The input	to ncgen is a description of a netCDF file in a	 small
       language	 known	as  CDL	(network Common	Data form Language), described
       below.  Input is	read from standard input if no	input_file  is	speci-
       fied.   If no options are specified in invoking ncgen, it merely	checks
       the syntax of the input CDL file, producing error messages for any vio-
       lations of CDL syntax.  Other options can be used, for example, to cre-
       ate the corresponding netCDF file, or to	generate a C program that uses
       the netCDF C interface to create	the netCDF file.

       Note that this version of ncgen was originally called ncgen4.  The old-
       er ncgen	program	has been renamed to ncgen3.

       ncgen may be used with the companion program  ncdump  to	 perform  some
       simple  operations on netCDF files.  For	example, to rename a dimension
       in a netCDF file, use ncdump to get a CDL version of the	 netCDF	 file,
       edit  the  CDL file to change the name of the dimensions, and use ncgen
       to generate the corresponding netCDF file from the edited CDL file.

	      Alternate	method to specify the format.

		     3 => netcdf classic format

		     4 => netCDF-4 format (enhanced data model)

		     5 => netcdf 5 format

		     6 => netCDF 64-bit	format

		     7 => netCDF-4 classic model format	(3+4 ==	7)
       See the -k flag.

       -b     Create a (binary)	netCDF file.  If the -o	option	is  absent,  a
	      default  file  name will be constructed from the basename	of the
	      CDL file,	with any suffix	replaced by the	`.nc' extension.  If a
	      file  already  exists  with the specified	name, it will be over-

       -B buffersize
	      Specify the internal iterator buffer size.

       -c     Generate C source	code that will create a	netCDF	file  matching
	      the netCDF specification.	 The C source code is written to stan-
	      dard output; equivalent to -lc.

       -d     Same as -D1.

       -D debuglevel
	      Set the level of debug output.

       -f     Generate FORTRAN 77 source code that will	create a  netCDF  file
	      matching	the  netCDF specification.  The	source code is written
	      to standard output; equivalent to	-lf77.

       -h     Output help information.

       -H     Output the header	only; ignore the data section.

       -k format_name

	      The -k flag specifies the	format of the file to be created  and,
	      by  inference,  the  data	model accepted by ncgen	(i.e. netcdf-3
	      (classic)	versus netcdf-4	vs netcdf-5). As a shortcut, a numeric
	      format_code  may be specified instead.  The possible format_name
	      values for the -k	option are:

		     'classic' or 'nc3'	=> netCDF classic format

		     '64-bit offset' or	'nc6' => netCDF	64-bit format

		     '64-bit data or 'nc5' => netCDF-5 (64-bit data) format

		     'netCDF-4'	0r 'nc4' =>  netCDF-4  format  (enhanced  data

		     'netCDF-4	classic	 model'	 or  'nc7' => netCDF-4 classic
		     model format
       Accepted	format_number arguments, just shortcuts	for format_names, are:

		     3 => netcdf classic format

		     5 => netcdf 5 format

		     6 => netCDF 64-bit	format

		     4 => netCDF-4 format (enhanced data model)

		     7 => netCDF-4 classic model format
       The numeric code	"7" is used because "7=3+4", a mnemonic	for the	format
       that  uses  the netCDF-3	data model for compatibility with the netCDF-4
       storage format for performance. Credit is due to	NCO for	use  of	 these
       numeric codes instead of	the old	and confusing format numbers.

       Note:  The old version format numbers '1', '2', '3', '4', equivalent to
       the format names	'nc3', 'nc6', 'nc4', or	'nc7' respectively,  are  also
       still  accepted	but  deprecated,  due to easy confusion	between	format
       numbers and format names. Various old format name aliases are also  ac-
       cepted  but  deprecated,	 e.g. 'hdf5', 'enhanced-nc3', etc.  Also, note
       that -v is accepted to mean the same thing as -k	for backward  compati-

       -l b|c|f77|java
	      The -l flag specifies the	output language	to use when generating
	      source code that will create or define a	netCDF	file  matching
	      the  netCDF  specification.   The	 output	is written to standard
	      output.  The currently supported languages  have	the  following

		     c|C' => C language	output.

		     f77|fortran77' => FORTRAN 77 language output
			    ;  note  that  currently only the classic model is

		     j|java' =>	(experimental) Java language output
			    ; targets the  existing  Unidata  Java  interface,
			    which  means  that	only the classic model is sup-

Choosing the output format
       The choice of output format is determined by three flags.

       -k flag.

       _Format attribute (see below).

       Occurrence of CDF-5 (64-bit data) or
	      netcdf-4 constructs in the input CDL."  The term "netCDF-4  con-
	      structs" means constructs	from the enhanced data model, not just
	      special performance-related attributes such as
	       _ChunkSizes, _DeflateLevel, _Endianness,	etc.  The term	"CDF-5
	      constructs" means	extended unsigned integer types	allowed	in the
	      64-bit data model.

       Note that there is an ambiguity between the netCDF-4 case and the CDF-5
       case is only an unsigned	type is	seen in	the input.

       The rules are as	follows, in order of application.

       1.     If either	Fortran	or Java	output is specified, then -k flag val-
	      ue of 1 (classic model) will be used.  Conflicts with the	use of
	      enhanced constructs in the CDL will report an error.

       2.     If  both	the  -k	 flag and _Format attribute are	specified, the
	      _Format flag will	be ignored.  If	no -k flag is specified, and a
	      _Format  attribute  value	 is  specified,	then the -k flag value
	      will be set to that of the _Format attribute.  Otherwise the  -k
	      flag is undefined.

       3.     If  the -k option	is defined and is consistent with the CDL, nc-
	      gen will output a	file in	the requested form, else an error will
	      be reported.

       4.     If  the -k flag is undefined, and	if there are CDF-5 constructs,
	      only, in the CDL,	a -k flag value	of 5 (64-bit data model)  will
	      be used.	If there are true netCDF-4 constructs in the CDL, a -k
	      flag value of 3 (enhanced	model) will be used.

       5.     If special performance-related attributes	are specified  in  the
	      CDL, a -k	flag value of 4	(netCDF-4 classic model) will be used.

       6.     Otherwise	ncgen will set the -k flag to 1	(classic model).

       -L loglevel

       -M name
	      Specify the name for the main function for C, F77, or Java.


       -N datasetname

       -o netcdf_file
	      Name of the file to pass to calls	to "nc_create()".  If this op-
	      tion is specified	it implies (in the absence of any explicit  -l
	      flag)  the "-b" option.  This option is necessary	because	netCDF
	      files cannot be written directly to standard output, since stan-
	      dard output is not seekable.

       -P     Use NC_DISKLESS mode to create the file totally in memory	before
	      persisting it to disk.

       -x     Don't initialize data with fill values.  This can	speed up  cre-
	      ation  of	large netCDF files greatly, but	later attempts to read
	      unwritten	data from the generated	file will not  be  easily  de-

       Check the syntax	of the CDL file	`foo.cdl':

	      ncgen foo.cdl

       From  the CDL file `foo.cdl', generate an equivalent binary netCDF file
       named `':

	      ncgen -o foo.cdl

       From the	CDL file `foo.cdl', generate a C program containing the	netCDF
       function	 invocations  necessary	 to create an equivalent binary	netCDF
       file named `':

	      ncgen -lc	foo.cdl	>x.c

   CDL Syntax Overview
       Below is	an example of CDL syntax, describing a netCDF file with	sever-
       al  named dimensions (lat, lon, and time), variables (Z,	t, p, rh, lat,
       lon, time), variable attributes (units, long_name, valid_range,	_Fill-
       Value), and some	data.  CDL keywords are	in boldface.  (This example is
       intended	to illustrate the syntax; a real CDL file would	 have  a  more
       complete	 set  of  attributes so	that the data would be more completely
	      netcdf foo {  // an example netCDF specification in CDL

		  ubyte	enum enum_t {Clear = 0,	Cumulonimbus = 1, Stratus = 2};
		  opaque(11) opaque_t;
		  int(*) vlen_t;

		   lat = 10, lon = 5, time = unlimited ;

		   long	   lat(lat), lon(lon), time(time);
		   float   Z(time,lat,lon), t(time,lat,lon);
		   double  p(time,lat,lon);
		   long	   rh(time,lat,lon);

		   string  country(time,lat,lon);
		   ubyte   tag;

		   // variable attributes
		   lat:long_name = "latitude";
		   lat:units = "degrees_north";
		   lon:long_name = "longitude";
		   lon:units = "degrees_east";
		   time:units =	"seconds since 1992-1-1	00:00:00";

		   // typed variable attributes
		   string Z:units = "geopotential meters";
		   float Z:valid_range = 0., 5000.;
		   double p:_FillValue = -9999.;
		   long	rh:_FillValue =	-1;
		   vlen_t :globalatt = {17, 18,	19};
		   lat	 = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90;
		   lon	 = -140, -118, -96, -84, -52;
	      group: g {
		  compound cmpd_t { vlen_t f1; enum_t f2;};
	      }	// group g
	      group: h {
		   /g/cmpd_t  compoundvar;
		      compoundvar = { {3,4,5}, enum_t.Stratus }	;
	      }	// group h

       All CDL statements are terminated by a semicolon.   Spaces,  tabs,  and
       newlines	 can  be used freely for readability.  Comments	may follow the
       characters `//' on any line.

       A CDL description consists of five optional parts:  types,  dimensions,
       variables,  data,  beginning  with the keyword `types:',	`dimensions:',
       `variables:', and `data:', respectively.	 Note several things: (1)  the
       keyword includes	the trailing colon, so there must not be any space be-
       fore the	colon character, and (2) the keywords are required to be lower

       The  variables: section may contain variable declarations and attribute
       assignments.  All sections may contain global attribute assignments.

       In addition, after the data: section, the user may define a  series  of
       groups  (see  the example above).  Groups themselves can	contain	types,
       dimensions, variables, data, and	other (nested) groups.

       The netCDF types: section declares the user defined types.   These  may
       be constructed using any	of the following types:	enum, vlen, opaque, or

       A netCDF	dimension is used to define the	shape of one or	 more  of  the
       multidimensional	 variables contained in	the netCDF file.  A netCDF di-
       mension has a name and a	size.  A  dimension  can  have	the  unlimited
       size,  which  means  a  variable	 using	this dimension can grow	to any
       length in that dimension.

       A variable represents a multidimensional	array of values	 of  the  same
       type.  A	variable has a name, a data type, and a	shape described	by its
       list of dimensions.  Each variable may also have	associated  attributes
       (see  below) as well as data values.  The name, data type, and shape of
       a variable are specified	by its declaration in the variable section  of
       a  CDL  description.  A variable	may have the same name as a dimension;
       by convention such a variable is	one-dimensional	and  contains  coordi-
       nates  of the dimension it names.  Dimensions need not have correspond-
       ing variables.

       A netCDF	attribute contains information	about  a  netCDF  variable  or
       about  the  whole  netCDF dataset.  Attributes are used to specify such
       properties as units, special values, maximum and	minimum	valid  values,
       scaling	factors,  offsets,  and	 parameters.  Attribute	information is
       represented by single values or arrays of values.  For example, "units"
       is an attribute represented by a	character array	such as	"celsius".  An
       attribute has an	associated variable, a name, a data  type,  a  length,
       and  a value.  In contrast to variables that are	intended for data, at-
       tributes	are intended for metadata (data	about data).  Unlike netCDF-3,
       attribute  types	 can  be  any  user  defined type as well as the usual
       built-in	types.

       In CDL, an attribute is designated by a a type, a variable, a ':',  and
       then  an	 attribute name.  The type is optional and if missing, it will
       be inferred from	the values assigned to the attribute.  It is  possible
       to  assign  global  attributes  not associated with any variable	to the
       netCDF as a whole by omitting the variable name in the attribute	decla-
       ration.	 Notice	that there is a	potential ambiguity in a specification
       such as
       x : a = ...
       In this situation, x could be either a type for a global	attribute,  or
       the  variable  name  for	an attribute. Since there could	both be	a type
       named x and a variable named x, there is	an  ambiguity.	 The  rule  is
       that  in	 this  situation, x will be interpreted	as a type if possible,
       and otherwise as	a variable.

       If not specified, the data type of an attribute in CDL is derived  from
       the type	of the value(s)	assigned to it.	 The length of an attribute is
       the number of data values assigned to it, or the	number	of  characters
       in  the	character string assigned to it.  Multiple values are assigned
       to non-character	attributes by separating the values with commas.   All
       values assigned to an attribute must be of the same type.

       The  names for CDL dimensions, variables, attributes, types, and	groups
       may contain any non-control utf-8 character except  the	forward	 slash
       character  (`/').  However, certain characters must escaped if they are
       used in a name, where the escape	character is the backward  slash  `\'.
       In  particular, if the leading character	off the	name is	a digit	(0-9),
       then it must be preceded	by the escape  character.   In	addition,  the
       characters  ` !"#$%&()*,:;<=>?[]^`'{}|~\' must be escaped if they occur
       anywhere	in a name.  Note also that attribute names that	begin with  an
       underscore  (`_') are reserved for the use of Unidata and should	not be
       used in user defined attributes.

       Note also that the words	`variable', `dimension', `data', `group',  and
       `types'	are  legal CDL names, but be careful that there	is a space be-
       tween them and any following colon character when used  as  a  variable
       name.   This is mostly an issue with attribute declarations.  For exam-
       ple, consider this.

	       netcdf ... {
		  int dimensions;
		      dimensions: attribute=0 ;	// this	will cause an error
		      dimensions : attribute=0 ; // this is ok.

       The optional data: section of a CDL specification is where netCDF vari-
       ables may be initialized.  The syntax of	an initialization is simple: a
       variable	name, an equals	sign, and a comma-delimited list of  constants
       (possibly  separated  by	 spaces,  tabs and newlines) terminated	with a
       semicolon.  For multi-dimensional arrays,  the  last  dimension	varies
       fastest.	 Thus row-order	rather than column order is used for matrices.
       If fewer	values are supplied than are needed to fill a variable,	it  is
       extended	with a type-dependent `fill value', which can be overridden by
       supplying a value for a distinguished variable attribute	named  `_Fill-
       Value'.	 The types of constants	need not match the type	declared for a
       variable; coercions are done to convert integers	to floating point, for
       example.	  The constant `_' can be used to designate the	fill value for
       a variable.  If the type	of the variable	is explicitly  `string',  then
       the special constant `NIL` can be used to represent a nil string, which
       is not the same as a zero length	string.

   Primitive Data Types
	      char characters
	      byte 8-bit data
	      short	16-bit signed integers
	      int  32-bit signed integers
	      long (synonymous with int)
	      int64	64-bit signed integers
	      float	IEEE single precision floating point (32 bits)
	      real (synonymous with float)
	      double	IEEE double precision floating point (64 bits)
	      ubyte	unsigned 8-bit data
	      ushort	16-bit unsigned	integers
	      uint 32-bit unsigned integers
	      uint64	64-bit unsigned	integers
	      string	arbitrary length strings

       CDL supports a superset of the primitive	data types of  C.   The	 names
       for the primitive data types are	reserved words in CDL, so the names of
       variables, dimensions, and attributes must not be primitive type	names.
       In  declarations,  type names may be specified in either	upper or lower

       Bytes are intended to hold a full eight bits of data, and the zero byte
       has no special significance, as it mays for character data.  ncgen con-
       verts byte declarations to char declarations in the output C  code  and
       to the nonstandard BYTE declaration in output Fortran code.

       Shorts  can hold	values between -32768 and 32767.  ncgen	converts short
       declarations to short declarations in the output	C code and to the non-
       standard	INTEGER*2 declaration in output	Fortran	code.

       Ints  can  hold	values between -2147483648 and 2147483647.  ncgen con-
       verts int declarations to int declarations in the output	C code and  to
       INTEGER	declarations  in  output  Fortran code.	 long is accepted as a
       synonym for int in CDL declarations, but	is deprecated since there  are
       now platforms with 64-bit representations for C longs.

       Int64	can    hold    values	 between    -9223372036854775808   and
       9223372036854775807.  ncgen converts  int64  declarations  to  longlong
       declarations in the output C code.

       Floats  can hold	values between about -3.4+38 and 3.4+38.  Their	exter-
       nal representation is as	32-bit IEEE normalized single-precision	float-
       ing point numbers.  ncgen converts float	declarations to	float declara-
       tions in	the output C code and to REAL declarations in  output  Fortran
       code.  real is accepted as a synonym for	float in CDL declarations.

       Doubles	can hold values	between	about -1.7+308 and 1.7+308.  Their ex-
       ternal representation is	as 64-bit IEEE standard	normalized double-pre-
       cision  floating	 point numbers.	 ncgen converts	double declarations to
       double declarations in the output C code	and to DOUBLE PRECISION	decla-
       rations in output Fortran code.

       The  unsigned counterparts of the above integer types are mapped	to the
       corresponding unsigned C	types.	Their ranges are suitably modified  to
       start at	zero.

       The technical interpretation of the char	type is	that it	is an unsigned
       8-bit value. The	encoding of the	256 possible values is unspecified  by
       default.	 A variable of char type may be	marked with an "_Encoding" at-
       tribute to indicate the character set to	be used: US-ASCII, ISO-8859-1,
       etc.  Note that specifying the encoding of UTF-8	is equivalent to spec-
       ifying US-ASCII This is because multi-byte UTF-8	characters  cannot  be
       stored  in  an 8-bit character. The only	legal single byte UTF-8	values
       are by definition the 7-bit US-ASCII encoding with the top bit  set  to

       Strings	are  assumed  by default to be encoded using UTF-8.  Note that
       this means that multi-byte  UTF-8  encodings  may  be  present  in  the
       string,	so it is possible that the number of distinct UTF-8 characters
       in a string is smaller than the number of 8-bit bytes used to store the

   CDL Constants
       Constants  assigned to attributes or variables may be of	any of the ba-
       sic netCDF types.  The syntax for constants is similar to C syntax, ex-
       cept  that  type	suffixes must be appended to shorts and	floats to dis-
       tinguish	them from longs	and doubles.

       A byte constant is represented by an integer constant with  a  `b'  (or
       `B')  appended.	 In the	old netCDF-2 API, byte constants could also be
       represented using single	characters or standard C character escape  se-
       quences	such  as `a' or	`0.  This is still supported for backward com-
       patibility, but deprecated to make the distinction  clear  between  the
       numeric	byte  type  and	the textual char type.	Example	byte constants
	       0b	      // a zero	byte
	       -1b	      // -1 as an 8-bit	byte
	       255b	      // also -1 as a signed 8-bit byte

       short integer constants are intended  for  representing	16-bit	signed
       quantities.   The  form of a short constant is an integer constant with
       an `s' or `S' appended.	If a short constant begins with	`0', it	is in-
       terpreted  as  octal,  except that if it	begins with `0x', it is	inter-
       preted as a hexadecimal constant.  For example:
	      -2s  // a	short -2
	      0123s	// octal
	      0x7ffs  //hexadecimal

       int integer constants are intended for representing 32-bit signed quan-
       tities.	 The  form of an int constant is an ordinary integer constant,
       although	it is acceptable to optionally append  a  single  `l'  or  `L'
       (again, deprecated). Be careful,	though,	the L suffix is	interpreted as
       a 32 bit	integer, and never as a	64 bit integer.	This can be  confusing
       since the C long	type can ambigously be either 32 bit or	64 bit.

       If  an int constant begins with `0', it is interpreted as octal,	except
       that if it begins with `0x', it is interpreted as  a  hexadecimal  con-
       stant  (but  see	 opaque	 constants below).  Examples of	valid int con-
       stants include:
	      0123	// octal
	      0x7ff	     //	hexadecimal

       int64 integer constants are intended  for  representing	64-bit	signed
       quantities.   The form of an int64 constant is an integer constant with
       an `ll' or `LL' appended.  If an	int64 constant begins with `0',	it  is
       interpreted  as octal, except that if it	begins with `0x', it is	inter-
       preted as a hexadecimal constant.  For example:
	      -2ll // an unsigned -2
	      0123LL	// octal
	      0x7ffLL  //hexadecimal

       Floating	point constants	of type	float are appropriate for representing
       floating	 point	data with about	seven significant digits of precision.
       The form	of a float constant is the same	as a C floating	point constant
       with an `f' or `F' appended.  For example the following are all accept-
       able float constants:
	      3.14159265358979f	  // will be truncated to less precision

       Floating	point constants	of type	double are appropriate for  represent-
       ing floating point data with about sixteen significant digits of	preci-
       sion.  The form of a double constant is the same	as a C floating	 point
       constant.   An  optional	 `d'  or `D' may be appended.  For example the
       following are all acceptable double constants:

       Unsigned	integer	constants can be created by  appending	the  character
       'U' or 'u' between the constant and any trailing	size specifier,	or im-
       mediately at the	end of the size	specifier.  Thus one  could  say  10U,
       100su, 100000ul,	or 1000000llu, for example.

       Single  character constants may be enclosed in single quotes.  If a se-
       quence of one or	more characters	is enclosed in double quotes, then its
       interpretation  must  be	 inferred  from	the context. If	the dataset is
       created using the netCDF	classic	model, then all	such constants are in-
       terpreted  as  a	 character array, so each character in the constant is
       interpreted as if it were a single character.  If the dataset is	netCDF
       extended, then the constant may be interpreted as for the classic model
       or as a true string (see	below) depending on the	type of	the  attribute
       or variable into	which the string is contained.

       The  interpretation  of	char  constants	 is that those that are	in the
       printable ASCII range ('	'..'~')	are  assumed  to  be  encoded  as  the
       1-byte  subset ofUTF-8, which is	equivalent to US-ASCII.	 In all	cases,
       the usual C string escape conventions are honored  for  values  from  0
       thru  127.  Values  greater than	127 are	allowed, but their encoding is
       undefined.  For netCDF extended,	the use	of the char type is deprecated
       in favor	of the string type.

       Some character constant examples	are as follows.
	       'a'	// ASCII `a'
	       "a"	// equivalent to 'a'
	       "Two\nlines\n"	  // a 10-character string with	two embedded newlines
	       "a bell:\007" //	a string containing an ASCII bell
       Note  that  the	netCDF	character array	"a" would fit in a one-element
       variable, since no terminating NULL character is	assumed.   However,  a
       zero byte in a character	array is interpreted as	the end	of the signif-
       icant characters	by the ncdump program,	following  the	C  convention.
       Therefore, a NULL byte should not be embedded in	a character string un-
       less at the end:	use the	byte data type instead for  byte  arrays  that
       contain the zero	byte.

       String  constants are, like character constants,	represented using dou-
       ble quotes. This	represents a potential ambiguity since a multi-charac-
       ter string may also indicate a dimensioned character value. Disambigua-
       tion usually occurs by context, but care	should	be  taken  to  specify
       thestring  type	to ensure the proper choice.  String constants are as-
       sumed to	always be UTF-8	encoded.  This	specifically  means  that  the
       string  constant	may actually contain multi-byte	UTF-8 characters.  The
       special constant	`NIL` can be used to represent a nil string, which  is
       not the same as a zero length string.

       Opaque  constants  are  represented  as sequences of hexadecimal	digits
       preceded	by 0X or 0x: 0xaa34ffff, for  example.	 These	constants  can
       still  be used as integer constants and will be either truncated	or ex-
       tended as necessary.

   Compound Constant Expressions
       In order	to assign values to variables (or attributes)  whose  type  is
       user-defined  type,  the	constant notation has been extended to include
       sequences of constants enclosed in  curly  brackets  (e.g.  "{"..."}").
       Such  a	constant is called a compound constant,	and compound constants
       can be nested.

       Given a type "T(*) vlen_t", where T is some other arbitrary base	 type,
       constants for this should be specified as follows.
	   vlen_t var[2] = {t11,t12,...t1N}, {t21,t22,...t2m};
       The values tij, are assumed to be constants of type T.

       Given a type "compound cmpd_t {T1 f1; T2	f2...Tn	fn}", where the	Ti are
       other arbitrary base types, constants for this should be	 specified  as
	   cmpd_t var[2] = {t11,t12,...t1N}, {t21,t22,...t2n};
       The  values tij,	are assumed to be constants of type Ti.	 If the	fields
       are missing, then they will be set using	any specified or default  fill
       value for the field's base type.

       The general set of rules	for using braces are defined in	the Specifying
       Datalists section below.

   Scoping Rules
       With the	addition of groups, the	name space for defined objects	is  no
       longer flat. References (names) of any type, dimension, or variable may
       be prefixed with	the absolute path specifying a	specific  declaration.
       Thus one	might say
	       /g1/g2/t1 v1;
       The  type  being	 referenced  (t1) is the one within group g2, which in
       turn is nested in group g1.  The	similarity of this  notation  to  Unix
       file  paths is deliberate, and one can consider groups as a form	of di-
       rectory structure.

       When name is not	prefixed, then scope rules are applied to  locate  the
       specified declaration. Currently, there are three rules:	one for	dimen-
       sions, one for types and	enumeration constants, and one for all others.

       When an unprefixed name of a dimension is used (as in a variable	decla-
	      ration),	ncgen  first  looks in the immediately enclosing group
	      for the dimension.  If it	is not found there, then it  looks  in
	      the group	enclosing this group.  This continues up the group hi-
	      erarchy until the	dimension is  found,  or  there	 are  no  more
	      groups to	search.

       2.  When	 an  unprefixed	 name  of a type or an enumeration constant is
	      used, ncgen searches the group tree  using  a  pre-order	depth-
	      first  search.  This  essentially	 means	that  it will find the
	      matching declaration that	precedes the  reference	 textually  in
	      the cdl file and that is "highest" in the	group hierarchy.

       3.  For	all  other  names,  only  the  immediately  enclosing group is

       One final note. Forward references are not allowed.   This  means  that
       specifying,  for	 example, /g1/g2/t1 will fail if this reference	occurs
       before g1 and/or	g2 are defined.

   Specifying Enumeration Constants
       References to Enumeration constants (in data lists)  can	 be  ambiguous
       since  the  same	 enumeration constant name can be defined in more than
       one enumeration.	If a cdl file specified	an  ambiguous  constant,  then
       ncgen  will signal an error. Such constants can be disambiguated	in two

       1.     Prefix the enumeration constant with the name of the enumeration
	      separated	by a dot: enum.econst, for example.

       2.     If  case	one  is	not sufficient to disambiguate the enumeration
	      constant,	then one must specify the precise enumeration type us-
	      ing a group path:	/g1/g2/enum.econst, for	example.

   Special Attributes
       Special,	 virtual,  attributes can be specified to provide performance-
       related information about the file format and  about  variable  proper-
       ties.  The file must be a netCDF-4 file for these to take effect.

       These  special  virtual	attributes  are	not actually part of the file,
       they are	merely a convenient way	to set miscellaneous properties	of the
       data in CDL

       The  special  attributes	currently supported are	as follows: `_Format',
       `_Fletcher32, `_ChunkSizes',  `_Endianness',  `_DeflateLevel',  `_Shuf-
       fle', and `_Storage'.

       `_Format'  is  a	global attribute specifying the	netCDF format variant.
       Its value must be a single string matching one  of  `classic',  `64-bit
       offset',	`64-bit	data', `netCDF-4', or `netCDF-4	classic	model'.

       The rest	of the special attributes are all variable attributes.	Essen-
       tially all of then map to some corresponding `nc_def_var_XXX'  function
       as defined in the netCDF-4 API.	For the	attributes that	are essential-
       ly boolean (_Fletcher32,	_Shuffle, and _NOFILL),	the value true can  be
       specified  by  using the	strings	`true' or `1', or by using the integer
       1.  The value false expects either `false', `0',	or the integer 0.  The
       actions associated with these attributes	are as follows.

       1. `_Fletcher32 sets the	`fletcher32' property for a variable.

       2. `_Endianness'	 is  either  `little'  or  `big', depending on how the
	  variable is stored when first	written.

       3. `_DeflateLevel' is an	integer	between	0 and 9	inclusive if  compres-
	  sion has been	specified for the variable.

       4. `_Shuffle' specifies if the the shuffle filter should	be used.

       5. `_Storage' is	`contiguous' or	`chunked'.

       6. `_ChunkSizes'	 is  a	list  of chunk sizes for each dimension	of the

       Note that attributes such as "add_offset"  or  "scale_factor"  have  no
       special	meaning	to ncgen.  These attributes are	currently conventions,
       handled above the library layer by other	utility	packages, for  example

   Specifying Datalists
       Specifying  datalists for variables in the `data:` section can be some-
       what complicated. There are some	rules that must	be followed to	ensure
       that datalists are parsed correctly by ncgen.

       First, the top level is automatically assumed to	be a list of items, so
       it should not be	inside {...}.  That means that if the  variable	 is  a
       scalar, there will be a single top-level	element	and if the variable is
       an array, there will be N top-level elements.  For each element of  the
       top level list, the following rules should be applied.

       1. Instances  of	 UNLIMITED dimensions (other than the first dimension)
	  must be surrounded by	{...} in order to specify the size.

       2. Compound instances must be embedded in {...}

       3. Non-scalar fields of compound	instances must be embedded in {...}.

       4. Instances of vlens must be surrounded	by {...} in order  to  specify
	  the size.

       Datalists  associated  with attributes are implicitly a vector (i.e., a
       list) of	values of the type of the attribute and	the above  rules  must
       apply with that in mind.

       7. No other use of braces is allowed.

       Note  that one consequence of these rules is that arrays	of values can-
       not  have  subarrays  within  braces.   Consider,  for	example,   int
       var(d1)(d2)...(dn),  where  none	 of d2...dn are	unlimited.  A datalist
       for this	variable must be a single list of integers, where  the	number
       of  integers  is	 no more than D=d1*d2*...dn values; note that the list
       can be less than	D, in which case fill values will be used to  pad  the

       Rule  6 about attribute datalist	has the	following consequence.	If the
       type of the attribute is	a compound (or vlen) type, and if  the	number
       of  entries in the list is one, then the	compound instances must	be en-
       closed in braces.

   Specifying Character	Datalists
       Specifying datalists for	variables of type char also has	some complica-
       tions. consider,	for example
	      dimensions: u=UNLIMITED; d1=1; d2=2; d3=3;
			  d4=4;	d5=5; u2=UNLIMITED;
	      variables: char var(d4,d5);
	      datalist:	var="1", "two",	"three";

       We  have	 twenty	 elements  of  var to fill (d5 X d4) and we have three
       strings of length 1, 3, 5.  How do we  assign  the  characters  in  the
       strings to the twenty elements?

       This is challenging because it is desirable to mimic the	original ncgen
       (ncgen3).  The core algorithm is	notionally as follows.

       1. Assume we have a set of dimensions D1..Dn, where D1  may  optionally
	  be  an  Unlimited dimension.	It is assumed that the sizes of	the Di
	  are all known	(including unlimited dimensions).

       2. Given	a sequence of string or	character constants C1..Cm,  our  goal
	  is to	construct a single string whose	length is the cross product of
	  D1 thru Dn.  Note that for purposes  of  this	 algorithm,  character
	  constants are	treated	as strings of size 1.

       3. Construct Dx = cross product of D1 thru D(n-1).

       4. For  each  constant  Ci,  add	 fill characters as needed so that its
	  length is a multiple of Dn.

       5. Concatenate the modified C1..Cm to produce string S.

       6. Add fill characters to S to make its length be a multiple of Dn.

       8. If S is longer than the Dx * Dn, then	truncate and generate a	 warn-

       There are three other cases of note.

       1. If there is only a single, unlimited dimension, then all of the con-
	  stants are concatenated and fill characters are added	to the end  of
	  the resulting	string to make its length be that of the unlimited di-
	  mension.  If the length is larger than the unlimited dimension, then
	  it is	truncated with a warning.

       2. For the case of  character typed vlen, "char(*) vlen_t" for example.
	  we simply concatenate	all the	constants with no filling at all.

       3. For the case of a character typed attribute, we  simply  concatenate
	  all the constants.

       In  netcdf-4,  dimensions  other	 than  the first can be	unlimited.  Of
       course by the rules above, the interior unlimited instances must	be de-
       limited by {...}. For example.
	    variables: char var(u,u2);
	    datalist: var={"1",	"two"},	{"three"};
       In  this	case u will have the effective length of two.  Within each in-
       stance of u2, the rules above will apply, leading to this.
	    datalist: var={"1","t","w","o"}, {"t","h","r","e","e"};
       The effective size of u2	will be	the max	of the	two  instance  lengths
       (five in	this case) and the shorter will	be padded to produce this.
	    datalist: var={"1","t","w","o","\0"}, {"t","h","r","e","e"};

       Consider	an even	more complicated case.
	    variables: char var(u,u2,u3);
	    datalist: var={{"1", "two"}}, {{"three"},{"four","xy"}};
       In this case u again will have the effective length of two.  The	u2 di-
       mensions	will have a size = max(1,2) = 2; Within	each instance  of  u2,
       the rules above will apply, leading to this.
	    datalist: var={{"1","t","w","o"}}, {{"t","h","r","e","e"},{"f","o","u","r","x","y"}};
       The  effective  size  of	u3 will	be the max of the two instance lengths
       (six in this case) and the shorter ones will be padded to produce this.
	    datalist: var={{"1","t","w","o"," "," "}}, {{"t","h","r","e","e"," "},{"f","o","u","r","x","y"}};
       Note however that the first instance of u2 is less than the max	length
       of u2, so we need to add	a filler for another instance of u2, producing
	    datalist: var={{"1","t","w","o"," "," "},{"	"," ","	"," ","	"," "}}, {{"t","h","r","e","e"," "},{"f","o","u","r","x","y"}};

       The programs generated by ncgen when using the -c flag use  initializa-
       tion  statements	 to  store data	in variables, and will fail to produce
       compilable programs if you try to use them for  large  datasets,	 since
       the  resulting  statements may exceed the line length or	number of con-
       tinuation statements permitted by the compiler.

       The CDL syntax makes it easy to assign what  looks  like	 an  array  of
       variable-length	strings	to a netCDF variable, but the strings may sim-
       ply be concatenated into	a single array of characters.  Specific	use of
       the string type specifier may solve the problem

CDL Grammar
       The file	ncgen.y	is the definitive grammar for CDL, but a stripped down
       version is included here	for completeness.
	      ncdesc: NETCDF

	      datasetid: DATASETID

	      rootgroup: '{'


		   | subgrouplist namedgroup

	      namedgroup: GROUP	ident '{'

	      typesection:    /* empty */
			      |	TYPES
			| TYPES	typedecls

		   | typedecls type_or_attr_decl

	      typename:	ident ;

		   | attrdecl ';'

		     enumdecl optsemicolon
		   | compounddecl optsemicolon
		   | vlendecl optsemicolon
		   | opaquedecl	optsemicolon

		   | ';'

	      enumdecl:	primtype ENUM typename ;

	      enumidlist:   enumid
		       | enumidlist ','	enumid

	      enumid: ident '='	constint ;

	      opaquedecl: OPAQUE '(' INT_CONST ')' typename ;

	      vlendecl:	typeref	'(' '*'	')' typename ;

	      compounddecl: COMPOUND typename '{' fields '}' ;

	      fields:	field ';'
		   | fields field ';'

	      field: typeref fieldlist ;

	      primtype:		CHAR_K
			      |	BYTE_K
			      |	SHORT_K
			      |	INT_K
			      |	FLOAT_K
			      |	DOUBLE_K
			      |	UBYTE_K
			      |	USHORT_K
			      |	UINT_K
			      |	INT64_K
			      |	UINT64_K

	      dimsection:     /* empty */
			      |	DIMENSIONS
			| DIMENSIONS dimdecls

	      dimdecls:	      dim_or_attr_decl ';'
			      |	dimdecls dim_or_attr_decl ';'

	      dim_or_attr_decl:	dimdeclist  | attrdecl	;

	      dimdeclist:     dimdecl
			      |	dimdeclist ',' dimdecl

		     dimd '=' UINT_CONST
		   | dimd '=' INT_CONST
		      |	dimd '=' DOUBLE_CONST
		      |	dimd '=' NC_UNLIMITED_K

	      dimd:	      ident ;

	      vasection:      /* empty */
			      |	VARIABLES
			      |	VARIABLES vadecls

	      vadecls:	      vadecl_or_attr ';'
			      |	vadecls	vadecl_or_attr ';'

	      vadecl_or_attr: vardecl  | attrdecl  ;

	      vardecl:	      typeref varlist ;

	      varlist:	    varspec
			  | varlist ','	varspec

	      varspec:	      ident dimspec ;

	      dimspec:	      /* empty */
			      |	'(' dimlist ')'

	      dimlist:	      dimref
			      |	dimlist	',' dimref

	      dimref: path ;

		   | fieldlist ',' fieldspec

	      fieldspec: ident fielddimspec ;

	      fielddimspec:	/* empty */
			      |	'(' fielddimlist ')'

		   | fielddimlist ',' fielddim

		   | INT_CONST

	      /* Use this when referencing defined objects */
	      varref: type_var_ref ;

	      typeref: type_var_ref	  ;

		   | primtype

	      /* Use this for all attribute decls */
	      /* Watch out; this is left recursive */
	      attrdecllist: /*empty*/  | attrdecl ';' attrdecllist  ;

		     ':' ident '=' datalist
		   | typeref type_var_ref ':' ident '='	datalist
		   | type_var_ref ':' ident '='	datalist
		   | type_var_ref ':' _FILLVALUE '=' datalist
		   | typeref type_var_ref ':' _FILLVALUE '=' datalist
		   | type_var_ref ':' _STORAGE '=' conststring
		   | type_var_ref ':' _CHUNKSIZES '=' intlist
		   | type_var_ref ':' _FLETCHER32 '=' constbool
		   | type_var_ref ':' _DEFLATELEVEL '='	constint
		   | type_var_ref ':' _SHUFFLE '=' constbool
		   | type_var_ref ':' _ENDIANNESS '=' conststring
		   | type_var_ref ':' _NOFILL '=' constbool
		   | ':' _FORMAT '=' conststring

		   | PATH

	      datasection:    /* empty */
			      |	DATA
			      |	DATA datadecls

		     datadecl ';'
		   | datadecls datadecl	';'

	      datadecl:	varref '=' datalist ;
		   | datalist1


	      /* Must have at least 1 element */
		   | datalist ',' dataitem

		   | '{' datalist '}'

		   | NIL
		   | econstref
		   | function

	      econstref: path ;

	      function:	ident '(' arglist ')' ;

		   | arglist ',' simpleconstant

		     CHAR_CONST	/* never used apparently*/
		   | INT_CONST
		   | INT64_CONST
		   | UINT64_CONST

		   | intlist ',' constint

		   | INT64_CONST
		   | UINT64_CONST

	      conststring: TERMSTRING ;

		   | constint

	      /* Push all idents thru here for tracking	*/
	      ident: IDENT ;

Printed: 121-9-25	 $Date:	2010/04/29 16:38:55 $		      NCGEN(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | Choosing the output format | EXAMPLES | USAGE | BUGS | CDL Grammar

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