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NAMED(8)			    BIND 9			      NAMED(8)

NAME
       named - Internet	domain name server

SYNOPSIS
       named  [	 [-4]  |  [-6]	]  [-c	config-file] [-C] [-d debug-level] [-D
       string] [-E engine-name]	[-f] [-g] [-L logfile] [-M option]  [-m	 flag]
       [-n #cpus] [-p port] [-s] [-t directory]	[-U #listeners]	[-u user] [-v]
       [-V] [-X	lock-file]

DESCRIPTION
       named is	a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part	of the BIND 9  distri-
       bution  from  ISC.  For	more information on the	DNS, see RFC 1033, RFC
       1034, and RFC 1035.

       When invoked without arguments, named reads the	default	 configuration
       file /usr/local/etc/namedb/named.conf, reads any	initial	data, and lis-
       tens for	queries.

OPTIONS
       -4     This option tells	named to use only IPv4,	even if	the  host  ma-
	      chine is capable of IPv6.	-4 and -6 are mutually exclusive.

       -6     This  option  tells named	to use only IPv6, even if the host ma-
	      chine is capable of IPv4.	-4 and -6 are mutually exclusive.

       -c config-file
	      This option tells	named to use config-file as its	 configuration
	      file  instead  of	the default, /usr/local/etc/namedb/named.conf.
	      To ensure	that the configuration file can	be reloaded after  the
	      server  has  changed  its	working	directory due to to a possible
	      directory	option in the configuration file,  config-file	should
	      be an absolute pathname.

       -C     This  option  prints  out	the default built-in configuration and
	      exits.

	      NOTE: This is for	debugging purposes only	and is not an accurate
	      representation of	the actual configuration used by named at run-
	      time.

       -d debug-level
	      This option sets the daemon's debug level	to debug-level.	Debug-
	      ging  traces  from  named	become more verbose as the debug level
	      increases.

       -D string
	      This option specifies a string that is used to  identify	a  in-
	      stance of	named in a process listing. The	contents of string are
	      not examined.

       -E engine-name
	      When applicable, this option specifies the hardware to  use  for
	      cryptographic  operations,  such	as a secure key	store used for
	      signing.

	      When BIND	9 is built with	OpenSSL, this needs to be set  to  the
	      OpenSSL engine identifier	that drives the	cryptographic acceler-
	      ator or hardware service module (usually pkcs11).

       -f     This option runs the server in the foreground (i.e., do not dae-
	      monize).

       -g     This  option  runs  the  server in the foreground	and forces all
	      logging to stderr.

       -L logfile
	      This option sets the log to the file logfile by default, instead
	      of the system log.

       -M option
	      This  option  sets the default memory context options. If	set to
	      external,	the internal memory manager is bypassed	 in  favor  of
	      system-provided  memory  allocation  functions.  If set to fill,
	      blocks of	memory are filled with tag values  when	 allocated  or
	      freed,  to  assist debugging of memory problems. nofill disables
	      this behavior, and is the	default	unless named has been compiled
	      with developer options.

       -m flag
	      This  option  turns  on  memory  usage debugging flags. Possible
	      flags are	usage, trace, record, size, and	mctx. These correspond
	      to the ISC_MEM_DEBUGXXXX flags described in <isc/mem.h>.

       -n #cpus
	      This  option  creates  #cpus worker threads to take advantage of
	      multiple CPUs. If	not specified, named tries  to	determine  the
	      number  of CPUs present and creates one thread per CPU. If it is
	      unable to	determine the number of	CPUs, a	single	worker	thread
	      is created.

       -p value
	      This  option specifies the port(s) on which the server will lis-
	      ten for queries. If value	is of the form <portnum> or dns=<port-
	      num>,  the server	will listen for	DNS queries on portnum;	if not
	      not specified, the default is port 53. If	value is of  the  form
	      tls=<portnum>,  the  server will listen for TLS queries on port-
	      num; the default is 853.	If value is of the  form  https=<port-
	      num>,  the  server will listen for HTTPS queries on portnum; the
	      default is 443.  If value	is of  the  form  http=<portnum>,  the
	      server  will  listen for HTTP queries on portnum;	the default is
	      80.

       -s     This option writes memory	usage statistics to stdout on exit.

       NOTE:
	  This option is mainly	of interest to BIND 9 developers  and  may  be
	  removed or changed in	a future release.

       -S #max-socks
	      This option is deprecated	and no longer has any function.

       WARNING:
	  This	option	should	be unnecessary for the vast majority of	users.
	  The use of this option could even be harmful,	because	the  specified
	  value	 may exceed the	limitation of the underlying system API. It is
	  therefore set	only when the default configuration causes  exhaustion
	  of file descriptors and the operational environment is known to sup-
	  port the specified number of sockets.	Note also that the actual max-
	  imum number is normally slightly fewer than the specified value, be-
	  cause	named reserves some file descriptors for its internal use.

       -t directory
	      This option tells	named to chroot	to directory after  processing
	      the command-line arguments, but before reading the configuration
	      file.

       WARNING:
	  This option should be	used in	conjunction with the -u	option,	as ch-
	  rooting  a  process running as root doesn't enhance security on most
	  systems; the way chroot is defined allows a process with root	privi-
	  leges	to escape a chroot jail.

       -U #listeners
	      This  option tells named the number of #listeners	worker threads
	      to listen	on, for	incoming UDP packets on	each address.  If  not
	      specified,  named	calculates a default value based on the	number
	      of detected CPUs:	1 for 1	CPU, and the number of	detected  CPUs
	      minus one	for machines with more than 1 CPU.  This cannot	be in-
	      creased to a value higher	than the number	of CPUs.   If  -n  has
	      been  set	 to  a	higher value than the number of	detected CPUs,
	      then -U may be increased as high as that value, but no higher.

       -u user
	      This option sets the setuid to user after	completing  privileged
	      operations,  such	 as creating sockets that listen on privileged
	      ports.

       NOTE:
	  On Linux, named uses the kernel's capability mechanism to  drop  all
	  root	privileges except the ability to bind to a privileged port and
	  set process resource limits. Unfortunately, this means that  the  -u
	  option  only	works  when named is run on kernel 2.2.18 or later, or
	  kernel 2.3.99-pre3 or	later, since previous kernels  did  not	 allow
	  privileges to	be retained after setuid.

       -v     This option reports the version number and exits.

       -V     This  option  reports  the version number	and build options, and
	      exits.

       -X lock-file
	      This option acquires a lock on the specified  file  at  runtime;
	      this helps to prevent duplicate named instances from running si-
	      multaneously.  Use of this option	overrides the lock-file	option
	      in named.conf. If	set to none, the lock file check is disabled.

SIGNALS
       In  routine  operation, signals should not be used to control the name-
       server; rndc should be used instead.

       SIGHUP This signal forces a reload of the server.

       SIGINT, SIGTERM
	      These signals shut down the server.

       The result of sending any other signals to the server is	undefined.

CONFIGURATION
       The named configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here.
       A  complete  description	is provided in the BIND	9 Administrator	Refer-
       ence Manual.

       named inherits the umask	(file creation	mode  mask)  from  the	parent
       process.	If files created by named, such	as journal files, need to have
       custom permissions, the umask should be set explicitly  in  the	script
       used to start the named process.

FILES
       /usr/local/etc/namedb/named.conf
	      The default configuration	file.

       /var/run/named.pid
	      The default process-id file.

SEE ALSO
       RFC  1033,  RFC 1034, RFC 1035, named-checkconf(8), named-checkzone(8),
       rndc(8),	named.conf(5), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual.

AUTHOR
       Internet	Systems	Consortium

COPYRIGHT
       2022, Internet Systems Consortium

9.18.5				  2022-07-07			      NAMED(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | SIGNALS | CONFIGURATION | FILES | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR | COPYRIGHT

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