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NAMED(8)							      NAMED(8)

       named - Internet	domain name server

       named  [	 -c  config-file  ]   [	-d debug-level ]  [ -f ]  [ -g ]  [ -n
       #cpus ]	[ -p port ]  [ -s ]  [ -t directory ]  [ -u user ]  [ -v ]   [
       -x cache-file ]

       named  is a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part of the	BIND 9 distri-
       bution from ISC.	For more information on	the DNS, see RFCs 1033,	 1034,
       and 1035.

       When  invoked without arguments,	named will read	the default configura-
       tion file /etc/named.conf,  read	 any  initial  data,  and  listen  for

       -c config-file
	      Use  config-file	as  the	 configuration	file  instead  of  the
	      default, /etc/named.conf.	To ensure that reloading the  configu-
	      ration  file  continues to work after the	server has changed its
	      working directory	due to to a possible directory option  in  the
	      configuration  file, config-file should be an absolute pathname.

       -d debug-level
	      Set the daemon's debug level to debug-level.   Debugging	traces
	      from named become	more verbose as	the debug level	increases.

       -f     Run the server in	the foreground (i.e. do	not daemonize).

       -g     Run  the	server	in  the	 foreground  and  force	all logging to

       -n #cpus
	      Create #cpus worker threads to take advantage of multiple	 CPUs.
	      If not specified,	named will try to determine the	number of CPUs
	      present and create one thread per	 CPU.	If  it	is  unable  to
	      determine	 the  number  of  CPUs,	a single worker	thread will be

       -p port
	      Listen for queries on port port. If not specified,  the  default
	      is port 53.

       -s     Write memory usage statistics to stdout on exit.

	      Note: This option	is mainly of interest to BIND 9	developers and
	      may be removed or	changed	in a future release.

       -t directory
	      chroot() to directory after processing the  command  line	 argu-
	      ments, but before	reading	the configuration file.

	      Warning:	This  option should be used in conjunction with	the -u
	      option, as chrooting a process running as	root  doesn't  enhance
	      security	on  most systems; the way chroot() is defined allows a
	      process with root	privileges to escape a chroot jail.

       -u user
	      setuid() to user after completing	privileged operations, such as
	      creating sockets that listen on privileged ports.

	      Note:  On	Linux, named uses the kernel's capability mechanism to
	      drop all root privileges except the ability to bind() to a priv-
	      ileged  port  and	 set  process resource limits.	Unfortunately,
	      this means that the -u option only works when named  is  run  on
	      kernel  2.2.18  or  later, or kernel 2.3.99-pre3 or later, since
	      previous kernels did not allow privileges	to be  retained	 after

       -v     Report the version number	and exit.

       -x cache-file
	      Load data	from cache-file	into the cache of the default view.

	      Warning: This option must	not be used. It	is only	of interest to
	      BIND 9 developers	and may	be removed  or	changed	 in  a	future

       In  routine  operation, signals should not be used to control the name-
       server; rndc should be used instead.

       SIGHUP Force a reload of	the server.

	      Shut down	the server.

       The result of sending any other signals to the server is	undefined.

       The named configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here.
       A  complete  description	is provided in the BIND	9 Administrator	Refer-
       ence Manual.

	      The default configuration	file.

	      The default process-id file.

       RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035, rndc(8), lwresd(8), BIND 9	 Administrator
       Reference Manual.

       Internet	Software Consortium

BIND9				 June 30, 2000			      NAMED(8)


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