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NAMED(8)							      NAMED(8)

       named - Internet	domain name server

       named  [	 -c  config-file  ]   [	-d debug-level ]  [ -f ]  [ -g ]  [ -n
       #cpus ]	[ -p port ]  [ -s ]  [ -t directory ]  [ -u user ]  [ -v ]   [
       -x cache-file ]

       named  is a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part of the	BIND 9 distri-
       bution from ISC.	For more information on	the DNS, see RFCs 1033,	 1034,
       and 1035.

       When  invoked without arguments,	named will read	the default configura-
       tion file /etc/named.conf,  read	 any  initial  data,  and  listen  for

       -c config-file
	      Use  config-file	as  the	 configuration file instead of the de-
	      fault, /etc/named.conf. To ensure	that reloading the  configura-
	      tion  file  continues  to	 work after the	server has changed its
	      working directory	due to to a possible directory option  in  the
	      configuration file, config-file should be	an absolute pathname.

       -d debug-level
	      Set  the	daemon's debug level to	debug-level.  Debugging	traces
	      from named become	more verbose as	the debug level	increases.

       -f     Run the server in	the foreground (i.e. do	not daemonize).

       -g     Run the server in	 the  foreground  and  force  all  logging  to

       -n #cpus
	      Create  #cpus worker threads to take advantage of	multiple CPUs.
	      If not specified,	named will try to determine the	number of CPUs
	      present  and  create one thread per CPU.	If it is unable	to de-
	      termine the number of CPUs, a single worker thread will be  cre-

       -p port
	      Listen  for  queries on port port. If not	specified, the default
	      is port 53.

       -s     Write memory usage statistics to stdout on exit.

	      Note: This option	is mainly of interest to BIND 9	developers and
	      may be removed or	changed	in a future release.

       -t directory
	      chroot()	to  directory  after processing	the command line argu-
	      ments, but before	reading	the configuration file.

	      Warning: This option should be used in conjunction with  the  -u
	      option,  as  chrooting a process running as root doesn't enhance
	      security on most systems;	the way	chroot() is defined  allows  a
	      process with root	privileges to escape a chroot jail.

       -u user
	      setuid() to user after completing	privileged operations, such as
	      creating sockets that listen on privileged ports.

	      Note: On Linux, named uses the kernel's capability mechanism  to
	      drop all root privileges except the ability to bind() to a priv-
	      ileged port and set  process  resource  limits.	Unfortunately,
	      this  means  that	 the -u	option only works when named is	run on
	      kernel 2.2.18 or later, or kernel	2.3.99-pre3  or	 later,	 since
	      previous	kernels	 did not allow privileges to be	retained after

       -v     Report the version number	and exit.

       -x cache-file
	      Load data	from cache-file	into the cache of the default view.

	      Warning: This option must	not be used. It	is only	of interest to
	      BIND  9 developers and may be removed or changed in a future re-

       In routine operation, signals should not	be used	to control  the	 name-
       server; rndc should be used instead.

       SIGHUP Force a reload of	the server.

	      Shut down	the server.

       The result of sending any other signals to the server is	undefined.

       The named configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here.
       A complete description is provided in the BIND 9	 Administrator	Refer-
       ence Manual.

	      The default configuration	file.

	      The default process-id file.

       RFC  1033, RFC 1034, RFC	1035, rndc(8), lwresd(8), BIND 9 Administrator
       Reference Manual.

       Internet	Software Consortium

BIND9				 June 30, 2000			      NAMED(8)


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