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NAMED(8)			    BIND 9			      NAMED(8)

       named - Internet	domain name server

       named [ [-4] | [-6] ] [-c config-file] [-d debug-level] [-D string] [-E
       engine-name] [-f] [-g] [-L logfile] [-M option] [-m  flag]  [-n	#cpus]
       [-p  port]  [-s]	[-t directory] [-U #listeners] [-u user] [-v] [-V] [-X

       named is	a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part	of the BIND 9  distri-
       bution  from  ISC.  For	more information on the	DNS, see RFC 1033, RFC
       1034, and RFC 1035.

       When invoked without arguments, named reads the	default	 configuration
       file /usr/local/etc/namedb/named.conf, reads any	initial	data, and lis-
       tens for	queries.

       -4     This option tells	named to use only IPv4,	even if	the  host  ma-
	      chine is capable of IPv6.	-4 and -6 are mutually exclusive.

       -6     This  option  tells named	to use only IPv6, even if the host ma-
	      chine is capable of IPv4.	-4 and -6 are mutually exclusive.

       -c config-file
	      This option tells	named to use config-file as its	 configuration
	      file  instead  of	the default, /usr/local/etc/namedb/named.conf.
	      To ensure	that the configuration file can	be reloaded after  the
	      server  has  changed  its	working	directory due to to a possible
	      directory	option in the configuration file,  config-file	should
	      be an absolute pathname.

       -d debug-level
	      This option sets the daemon's debug level	to debug-level.	Debug-
	      ging traces from named become more verbose as  the  debug	 level

       -D string
	      This  option  specifies  a string	that is	used to	identify a in-
	      stance of	named in a process listing. The	contents of string are
	      not examined.

       -E engine-name
	      When  applicable,	 this option specifies the hardware to use for
	      cryptographic operations,	such as	a secure key  store  used  for

	      When  BIND  9 is built with OpenSSL, this	needs to be set	to the
	      OpenSSL engine identifier	that drives the	cryptographic acceler-
	      ator or hardware service module (usually pkcs11).

       -f     This option runs the server in the foreground (i.e., do not dae-

       -g     This option runs the server in the  foreground  and  forces  all
	      logging to stderr.

       -L logfile
	      This option sets the log to the file logfile by default, instead
	      of the system log.

       -M option
	      This option sets the default memory context options. If  set  to
	      external,	 the  internal	memory manager is bypassed in favor of
	      system-provided memory allocation	functions.  If	set  to	 fill,
	      blocks  of  memory  are filled with tag values when allocated or
	      freed, to	assist debugging of memory problems.  nofill  disables
	      this behavior, and is the	default	unless named has been compiled
	      with developer options.

       -m flag
	      This option turns	on  memory  usage  debugging  flags.  Possible
	      flags are	usage, trace, record, size, and	mctx. These correspond
	      to the ISC_MEM_DEBUGXXXX flags described in <isc/mem.h>.

       -n #cpus
	      This option creates #cpus	worker threads to  take	 advantage  of
	      multiple	CPUs.  If  not specified, named	tries to determine the
	      number of	CPUs present and creates one thread per	CPU. If	it  is
	      unable  to  determine the	number of CPUs,	a single worker	thread
	      is created.

       -p value
	      This option specifies the	port(s)	on which the server will  lis-
	      ten for queries. If value	is of the form <portnum> or dns=<port-
	      num>, the	server will listen for DNS queries on portnum; if  not
	      not  specified,  the default is port 53. If value	is of the form
	      tls=<portnum>, the server	will listen for	TLS queries  on	 port-
	      num;  the	 default is 853.  If value is of the form https=<port-
	      num>, the	server will listen for HTTPS queries on	 portnum;  the
	      default  is  443.	  If  value is of the form http=<portnum>, the
	      server will listen for HTTP queries on portnum; the  default  is

       -s     This option writes memory	usage statistics to stdout on exit.

	  This	option	is  mainly of interest to BIND 9 developers and	may be
	  removed or changed in	a future release.

       -S #max-socks
	      This option is deprecated	and no longer has any function.

	  This option should be	unnecessary for	the vast  majority  of	users.
	  The  use of this option could	even be	harmful, because the specified
	  value	may exceed the limitation of the underlying system API.	It  is
	  therefore  set only when the default configuration causes exhaustion
	  of file descriptors and the operational environment is known to sup-
	  port the specified number of sockets.	Note also that the actual max-
	  imum number is normally slightly fewer than the specified value, be-
	  cause	named reserves some file descriptors for its internal use.

       -t directory
	      This  option tells named to chroot to directory after processing
	      the command-line arguments, but before reading the configuration

	  This option should be	used in	conjunction with the -u	option,	as ch-
	  rooting a process running as root doesn't enhance security  on  most
	  systems; the way chroot is defined allows a process with root	privi-
	  leges	to escape a chroot jail.

       -U #listeners
	      This option tells	named the number of #listeners worker  threads
	      to  listen  on, for incoming UDP packets on each address.	If not
	      specified, named calculates a default value based	on the	number
	      of  detected  CPUs: 1 for	1 CPU, and the number of detected CPUs
	      minus one	for machines with more than 1 CPU.  This cannot	be in-
	      creased  to  a  value higher than	the number of CPUs.  If	-n has
	      been set to a higher value than the  number  of  detected	 CPUs,
	      then -U may be increased as high as that value, but no higher.

       -u user
	      This  option sets	the setuid to user after completing privileged
	      operations, such as creating sockets that	listen	on  privileged

	  On  Linux,  named uses the kernel's capability mechanism to drop all
	  root privileges except the ability to	bind to	a privileged port  and
	  set  process	resource limits. Unfortunately,	this means that	the -u
	  option only works when named is run on kernel	2.2.18	or  later,  or
	  kernel  2.3.99-pre3  or  later, since	previous kernels did not allow
	  privileges to	be retained after setuid.

       -v     This option reports the version number and exits.

       -V     This option reports the version number and  build	 options,  and

       -X lock-file
	      This  option  acquires  a	lock on	the specified file at runtime;
	      this helps to prevent duplicate named instances from running si-
	      multaneously.  Use of this option	overrides the lock-file	option
	      in named.conf. If	set to none, the lock file check is disabled.

       In routine operation, signals should not	be used	to control  the	 name-
       server; rndc should be used instead.

       SIGHUP This signal forces a reload of the server.

	      These signals shut down the server.

       The result of sending any other signals to the server is	undefined.

       The named configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here.
       A complete description is provided in the BIND 9	 Administrator	Refer-
       ence Manual.

       named  inherits	the  umask  (file  creation mode mask) from the	parent
       process.	If files created by named, such	as journal files, need to have
       custom  permissions,  the  umask	should be set explicitly in the	script
       used to start the named process.

	      The default configuration	file.

	      The default process-id file.

       RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035,  named-checkconf(8),  named-checkzone(8),
       rndc(8),	named.conf(5), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual.

       Internet	Systems	Consortium

       2022, Internet Systems Consortium

9.18.1				  2022-03-07			      NAMED(8)


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