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NAMED(8)			    BIND 9			      NAMED(8)

NAME
       named - Internet	domain name server

SYNOPSIS
       named [ [-4] | [-6] ] [-c config-file] [-d debug-level] [-D string] [-E
       engine-name] [-f] [-g] [-L logfile] [-M option] [-m  flag]  [-n	#cpus]
       [-p port] [-s] [-S #max-socks] [-t directory] [-U #listeners] [-u user]
       [-v] [-V] [-X lock-file]	[-x cache-file]

DESCRIPTION
       named is	a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part	of the BIND 9  distri-
       bution  from  ISC.  For	more information on the	DNS, see RFC 1033, RFC
       1034, and RFC 1035.

       When invoked without arguments, named will read the default  configura-
       tion  file /usr/local/etc/namedb/named.conf, read any initial data, and
       listen for queries.

OPTIONS
       -4     Use IPv4 only even if the	host machine is	capable	 of  IPv6.  -4
	      and -6 are mutually exclusive.

       -6     Use  IPv6	 only  even if the host	machine	is capable of IPv4. -4
	      and -6 are mutually exclusive.

       -c config-file
	      Use config-file as the configuration file	 instead  of  the  de-
	      fault,  /usr/local/etc/namedb/named.conf.	To ensure that reload-
	      ing the configuration file continues to work  after  the	server
	      has changed its working directory	due to to a possible directory
	      option in	the configuration file,	config-file should be an abso-
	      lute pathname.

       -d debug-level
	      Set  the	daemon's  debug	level to debug-level. Debugging	traces
	      from named become	more verbose as	the debug level	increases.

       -D string
	      Specifies	a string that is used to identify a instance of	 named
	      in a process listing. The	contents of string are not examined.

       -E engine-name
	      When applicable, specifies the hardware to use for cryptographic
	      operations, such as a secure key store used for signing.

	      When BIND	is built with OpenSSL PKCS#11 support,	this  defaults
	      to  the string "pkcs11", which identifies	an OpenSSL engine that
	      can drive	a cryptographic	accelerator or hardware	 service  mod-
	      ule.  When BIND is built with native PKCS#11 cryptography	(--en-
	      able-native-pkcs11), it defaults to  the	path  of  the  PKCS#11
	      provider library specified via "--with-pkcs11".

       -f     Run the server in	the foreground (i.e. do	not daemonize).

       -g     Run  the	server	in  the	 foreground  and  force	all logging to
	      stderr.

       -L logfile
	      Log to the file logfile by default instead of the	system log.

       -M option
	      Sets the default memory context options.	If  set	 to  external,
	      this  causes the internal	memory manager to be bypassed in favor
	      of system-provided memory	allocation functions. If set to	 fill,
	      blocks  of  memory will be filled	with tag values	when allocated
	      or freed,	to assist debugging of memory problems.	 (nofill  dis-
	      ables  this  behavior,  and is the default unless	named has been
	      compiled with developer options.)

       -m flag
	      Turn on memory usage debugging flags. Possible flags are	usage,
	      trace,   record,	 size,	and  mctx.  These  correspond  to  the
	      ISC_MEM_DEBUGXXXX	flags described	in <isc/mem.h>.

       -n #cpus
	      Create #cpus worker threads to take advantage of multiple	 CPUs.
	      If not specified,	named will try to determine the	number of CPUs
	      present and create one thread per	CPU. If	it is unable to	deter-
	      mine the number of CPUs, a single	worker thread will be created.

       -p port
	      Listen  for  queries on port port. If not	specified, the default
	      is port 53.

       -s     Write memory usage statistics to stdout on exit.

       NOTE:
	  This option is mainly	of interest to BIND 9 developers  and  may  be
	  removed or changed in	a future release.

       -S #max-socks
	      Allow  named  to use up to #max-socks sockets. The default value
	      is 21000 on systems built	with  default  configuration  options,
	      and 4096 on systems built	with "configure	--with-tuning=small".

       WARNING:
	  This	option	should	be unnecessary for the vast majority of	users.
	  The use of this option could even be harmful because	the  specified
	  value	 may exceed the	limitation of the underlying system API. It is
	  therefore set	only when the default configuration causes  exhaustion
	  of file descriptors and the operational environment is known to sup-
	  port the specified number of sockets.	Note also that the actual max-
	  imum	number is normally a little fewer than the specified value be-
	  cause	named reserves some file descriptors for its internal use.

       -t directory
	      Chroot to	directory after	processing the command line arguments,
	      but before reading the configuration file.

       WARNING:
	  This option should be	used in	conjunction with the -u	option,	as ch-
	  rooting a process running as root doesn't enhance security  on  most
	  systems;  the	 way  chroot(2)	 is defined allows a process with root
	  privileges to	escape a chroot	jail.

       -U #listeners
	      Use #listeners worker threads to listen for incoming UDP packets
	      on  each	address.  If not specified, named will calculate a de-
	      fault value based	on the number of detected CPUs:	1 for  1  CPU,
	      and the number of	detected CPUs minus one	for machines with more
	      than 1 CPU.  This	cannot be increased to a value higher than the
	      number  of  CPUs.	 If -n has been	set to a higher	value than the
	      number of	detected CPUs, then -U may be  increased  as  high  as
	      that value, but no higher. On Windows, the number	of UDP listen-
	      ers is hardwired to 1 and	this option has	no effect.

       -u user
	      Setuid to	user after completing privileged operations,  such  as
	      creating sockets that listen on privileged ports.

       NOTE:
	  On  Linux,  named uses the kernel's capability mechanism to drop all
	  root privileges except the ability to	bind(2)	to a  privileged  port
	  and  set process resource limits. Unfortunately, this	means that the
	  -u option only works when named is run on kernel 2.2.18 or later, or
	  kernel  2.3.99-pre3  or  later, since	previous kernels did not allow
	  privileges to	be retained after setuid(2).

       -v     Report the version number	and exit.

       -V     Report the version number	and build options, and exit.

       -X lock-file
	      Acquire a	lock on	the specified file at runtime; this  helps  to
	      prevent  duplicate  named	instances from running simultaneously.
	      Use of this option overrides the lock-file option	in named.conf.
	      If set to	none, the lock file check is disabled.

       -x cache-file
	      Load data	from cache-file	into the cache of the default view.

       WARNING:
	  This	option	must not be used. It is	only of	interest to BIND 9 de-
	  velopers and may be removed or changed in a future release.

SIGNALS
       In routine operation, signals should not	be used	to control  the	 name-
       server; rndc should be used instead.

       SIGHUP Force a reload of	the server.

       SIGINT, SIGTERM
	      Shut down	the server.

       The result of sending any other signals to the server is	undefined.

CONFIGURATION
       The named configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here.
       A complete description is provided in the BIND 9	 Administrator	Refer-
       ence Manual.

       named  inherits	the  umask  (file  creation mode mask) from the	parent
       process.	If files created by named, such	as journal files, need to have
       custom  permissions,  the  umask	should be set explicitly in the	script
       used to start the named process.

FILES
       /usr/local/etc/namedb/named.conf
	      The default configuration	file.

       /var/run/named/pid
	      The default process-id file.

SEE ALSO
       RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035,  named-checkconf(8),  named-checkzone(8),
       rndc(8),	 :manpage:`named.conf(5),  BIND	9 Administrator	Reference Man-
       ual.

AUTHOR
       Internet	Systems	Consortium

COPYRIGHT
       2020, Internet Systems Consortium

9.16.6				  2020-08-10			      NAMED(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | SIGNALS | CONFIGURATION | FILES | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR | COPYRIGHT

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