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MYSQL(1)		     MySQL Database System		      MYSQL(1)

NAME
       mysql - the MySQL command-line client

SYNOPSIS
       mysql [options] db_name

DESCRIPTION
       mysql is	a simple SQL shell with	input line editing capabilities. It
       supports	interactive and	noninteractive use. When used interactively,
       query results are presented in an ASCII-table format. When used
       noninteractively	(for example, as a filter), the	result is presented in
       tab-separated format. The output	format can be changed using command
       options.

       If you have problems due	to insufficient	memory for large result	sets,
       use the --quick option. This forces mysql to retrieve results from the
       server a	row at a time rather than retrieving the entire	result set and
       buffering it in memory before displaying	it. This is done by returning
       the result set using the	mysql_use_result() C API function in the
       client/server library rather than mysql_store_result().

	   Note
	   Alternatively, MySQL	Shell offers access to the X DevAPI. For
	   details, see	MySQL Shell 8.0	(part of MySQL 8.0)[1].

       Using mysql is very easy. Invoke	it from	the prompt of your command
       interpreter as follows:

	   shell> mysql	db_name

       Or:

	   shell> mysql	--user=user_name --password db_name
	   Enter password: your_password

       Then type an SQL	statement, end it with ;, \g, or \G and	press Enter.

       Typing Control+C	interrupts the current statement if there is one, or
       cancels any partial input line otherwise.

       You can execute SQL statements in a script file (batch file) like this:

	   shell> mysql	db_name	< script.sql > output.tab

       On Unix,	the mysql client logs statements executed interactively	to a
       history file. See the section called "MYSQL CLIENT LOGGING".

MYSQL CLIENT OPTIONS
       mysql supports the following options, which can be specified on the
       command line or in the [mysql] and [client] groups of an	option file.
       For information about option files used by MySQL	programs, see
       Section 4.2.2.2,	"Using Option Files".

       o   --help, -?

	   Display a help message and exit.

       o   --auto-rehash

	   Enable automatic rehashing. This option is on by default, which
	   enables database, table, and	column name completion.	Use
	   --disable-auto-rehash to disable rehashing. That causes mysql to
	   start faster, but you must issue the	rehash command or its \#
	   shortcut if you want	to use name completion.

	   To complete a name, enter the first part and	press Tab. If the name
	   is unambiguous, mysql completes it. Otherwise, you can press	Tab
	   again to see	the possible names that	begin with what	you have typed
	   so far. Completion does not occur if	there is no default database.

	       Note
	       This feature requires a MySQL client that is compiled with the
	       readline	library. Typically, the	readline library is not
	       available on Windows.

       o   --auto-vertical-output

	   Cause result	sets to	be displayed vertically	if they	are too	wide
	   for the current window, and using normal tabular format otherwise.
	   (This applies to statements terminated by ; or \G.)

       o   --batch, -B

	   Print results using tab as the column separator, with each row on a
	   new line. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

	   Batch mode results in nontabular output format and escaping of
	   special characters. Escaping	may be disabled	by using raw mode; see
	   the description for the --raw option.

       o   --binary-as-hex

	   When	this option is given, mysql displays binary data using
	   hexadecimal notation	(0xvalue). This	occurs whether the overall
	   output dislay format	is tabular, vertical, HTML, or XML.

	   This	option was added in MySQL 5.7.19.

       o   --binary-mode

	   This	option helps when processing mysqlbinlog output	that may
	   contain BLOB	values.	By default, mysql translates \r\n in statement
	   strings to \n and interprets	\0 as the statement terminator.
	   --binary-mode disables both features. It also disables all mysql
	   commands except charset and delimiter in noninteractive mode	(for
	   input piped to mysql	or loaded using	the source command).

       o   --bind-address=ip_address

	   On a	computer having	multiple network interfaces, use this option
	   to select which interface to	use for	connecting to the MySQL
	   server.

       o   --character-sets-dir=dir_name

	   The directory where character sets are installed. See
	   Section 10.15, "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --column-names

	   Write column	names in results.

       o   --column-type-info

	   Display result set metadata.

       o   --comments, -c

	   Whether to strip or preserve	comments in statements sent to the
	   server. The default is --skip-comments (strip comments), enable
	   with	--comments (preserve comments).

	       Note
	       In MySQL	5.7, the mysql client always passes optimizer hints to
	       the server, regardless of whether this option is	given. To
	       ensure that optimizer hints are not stripped if you are using
	       an older	version	of the mysql client with a version of the
	       server that understands optimizer hints,	invoke mysql with the
	       --comments option.

	       Comment stripping is deprecated as of MySQL 5.7.20. This
	       feature and the options to control it will be removed in	a
	       future MySQL release.

       o   --compress, -C

	   Compress all	information sent between the client and	the server if
	   possible. See Section 4.2.5,	"Connection Compression	Control".

       o   --connect-expired-password

	   Indicate to the server that the client can handle sandbox mode if
	   the account used to connect has an expired password.	This can be
	   useful for noninteractive invocations of mysql because normally the
	   server disconnects noninteractive clients that attempt to connect
	   using an account with an expired password. (See Section 6.2.12,
	   "Server Handling of Expired Passwords".)

       o   --connect-timeout=value The number of seconds before	connection
	   timeout. (Default value is 0.)

       o   --database=db_name, -D db_name

	   The database	to use.	This is	useful primarily in an option file.

       o   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

	   Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is
	   d:t:o,file_name. The	default	is d:t:o,/tmp/mysql.trace.

	   This	option is available only if MySQL was built using WITH_DEBUG.
	   MySQL release binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this
	   option.

       o   --debug-check

	   Print some debugging	information when the program exits.

	   This	option is available only if MySQL was built using WITH_DEBUG.
	   MySQL release binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this
	   option.

       o   --debug-info, -T

	   Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage	statistics
	   when	the program exits.

	   This	option is available only if MySQL was built using WITH_DEBUG.
	   MySQL release binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this
	   option.

       o   --default-auth=plugin

	   A hint about	which client-side authentication plugin	to use.	See
	   Section 6.2.13, "Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --default-character-set=charset_name

	   Use charset_name as the default character set for the client	and
	   connection.

	   This	option can be useful if	the operating system uses one
	   character set and the mysql client by default uses another. In this
	   case, output	may be formatted incorrectly. You can usually fix such
	   issues by using this	option to force	the client to use the system
	   character set instead.

	   For more information, see Section 10.4, "Connection Character Sets
	   and Collations", and	Section	10.15, "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --defaults-extra-file=file_name

	   Read	this option file after the global option file but (on Unix)
	   before the user option file.	If the file does not exist or is
	   otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.  file_name is interpreted
	   relative to the current directory if	given as a relative path name
	   rather than a full path name.

	   For additional information about this and other option-file
	   options, see	Section	4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
	   Option-File Handling".

       o   --defaults-file=file_name

	   Use only the	given option file. If the file does not	exist or is
	   otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.  file_name is interpreted
	   relative to the current directory if	given as a relative path name
	   rather than a full path name.

	   Exception: Even with	--defaults-file, client	programs read
	   .mylogin.cnf.

	   For additional information about this and other option-file
	   options, see	Section	4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
	   Option-File Handling".

       o   --defaults-group-suffix=str

	   Read	not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the
	   usual names and a suffix of str. For	example, mysql normally	reads
	   the [client]	and [mysql] groups. If the
	   --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysql also reads
	   the [client_other] and [mysql_other]	groups.

	   For additional information about this and other option-file
	   options, see	Section	4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
	   Option-File Handling".

       o   --delimiter=str

	   Set the statement delimiter.	The default is the semicolon character
	   (;).

       o   --disable-named-commands

	   Disable named commands. Use the \* form only, or use	named commands
	   only	at the beginning of a line ending with a semicolon (;).	 mysql
	   starts with this option enabled by default. However,	even with this
	   option, long-format commands	still work from	the first line.	See
	   the section called "MYSQL CLIENT COMMANDS".

       o   --enable-cleartext-plugin

	   Enable the mysql_clear_password cleartext authentication plugin.
	   (See	Section	6.4.1.6, "Client-Side Cleartext	Pluggable
	   Authentication".)

       o   --execute=statement,	-e statement

	   Execute the statement and quit. The default output format is	like
	   that	produced with --batch. See Section 4.2.2.1, "Using Options on
	   the Command Line", for some examples. With this option, mysql does
	   not use the history file.

       o   --force, -f

	   Continue even if an SQL error occurs.

       o   --get-server-public-key

	   Request from	the server the public key required for RSA key
	   pair-based password exchange. This option applies to	clients	that
	   authenticate	with the caching_sha2_password authentication plugin.
	   For that plugin, the	server does not	send the public	key unless
	   requested. This option is ignored for accounts that do not
	   authenticate	with that plugin. It is	also ignored if	RSA-based
	   password exchange is	not used, as is	the case when the client
	   connects to the server using	a secure connection.

	   If --server-public-key-path=file_name is given and specifies	a
	   valid public	key file, it takes precedence over
	   --get-server-public-key.

	   For information about the caching_sha2_password plugin, see
	   Section 6.4.1.4, "Caching SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication".

	   The --get-server-public-key option was added	in MySQL 5.7.23.

       o   --histignore

	   A list of one or more colon-separated patterns specifying
	   statements to ignore	for logging purposes. These patterns are added
	   to the default pattern list ("*IDENTIFIED*:*PASSWORD*"). The	value
	   specified for this option affects logging of	statements written to
	   the history file, and to syslog if the --syslog option is given.
	   For more information, see the section called	"MYSQL CLIENT
	   LOGGING".

       o   --host=host_name, -h	host_name

	   Connect to the MySQL	server on the given host.

       o   --html, -H

	   Produce HTML	output.

       o   --ignore-spaces, -i

	   Ignore spaces after function	names. The effect of this is described
	   in the discussion for the IGNORE_SPACE SQL mode (see
	   Section 5.1.10, "Server SQL Modes").

       o   --init-command=str

	   SQL statement to execute after connecting to	the server. If
	   auto-reconnect is enabled, the statement is executed	again after
	   reconnection	occurs.

       o   --line-numbers

	   Write line numbers for errors. Disable this with
	   --skip-line-numbers.

       o   --local-infile[={0|1}]

	   By default, LOCAL capability	for LOAD DATA is determined by the
	   default compiled into the MySQL client library. To enable or
	   disable LOCAL data loading explicitly, use the --local-infile
	   option. When	given with no value, the option	enables	LOCAL data
	   loading. When given as --local-infile=0 or --local-infile=1,	the
	   option disables or enables LOCAL data loading.

	   Successful use of LOCAL load	operations within mysql	also requires
	   that	the server permits local loading; see Section 6.1.6, "Security
	   Considerations for LOAD DATA	LOCAL"

       o   --login-path=name

	   Read	options	from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login
	   path	file. A	"login path" is	an option group	containing options
	   that	specify	which MySQL server to connect to and which account to
	   authenticate	as. To create or modify	a login	path file, use the
	   mysql_config_editor utility.	See mysql_config_editor(1).

	   For additional information about this and other option-file
	   options, see	Section	4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
	   Option-File Handling".

       o   --max-allowed-packet=value The maximum size of the buffer for
	   client/server communication.	The default is 16MB, the maximum is
	   1GB.

       o   --max-join-size=value The automatic limit for rows in a join	when
	   using --safe-updates. (Default value	is 1,000,000.)

       o   --named-commands, -G

	   Enable named	mysql commands.	Long-format commands are permitted,
	   not just short-format commands. For example,	quit and \q both are
	   recognized. Use --skip-named-commands to disable named commands.
	   See the section called "MYSQL CLIENT	COMMANDS".

       o   --net-buffer-length=value The buffer	size for TCP/IP	and socket
	   communication. (Default value is 16KB.)

       o   --no-auto-rehash, -A

	   This	has the	same effect as --skip-auto-rehash. See the description
	   for --auto-rehash.

       o   --no-beep, -b

	   Do not beep when errors occur.

       o   --no-defaults

	   Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to
	   reading unknown options from	an option file,	--no-defaults can be
	   used	to prevent them	from being read.

	   The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file,	if it exists, is read
	   in all cases. This permits passwords	to be specified	in a safer way
	   than	on the command line even when --no-defaults is used.
	   (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility.	See
	   mysql_config_editor(1).)

	   For additional information about this and other option-file
	   options, see	Section	4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
	   Option-File Handling".

       o   --one-database, -o

	   Ignore statements except those that occur while the default
	   database is the one named on	the command line. This option is
	   rudimentary and should be used with care. Statement filtering is
	   based only on USE statements.

	   Initially, mysql executes statements	in the input because
	   specifying a	database db_name on the	command	line is	equivalent to
	   inserting USE db_name at the	beginning of the input.	Then, for each
	   USE statement encountered, mysql accepts or rejects following
	   statements depending	on whether the database	named is the one on
	   the command line. The content of the	statements is immaterial.

	   Suppose that	mysql is invoked to process this set of	statements:

	       DELETE FROM db2.t2;
	       USE db2;
	       DROP TABLE db1.t1;
	       CREATE TABLE db1.t1 (i INT);
	       USE db1;
	       INSERT INTO t1 (i) VALUES(1);
	       CREATE TABLE db2.t1 (j INT);

	   If the command line is mysql	--force	--one-database db1, mysql
	   handles the input as	follows:

	   o   The DELETE statement is executed	because	the default database
	       is db1, even though the statement names a table in a different
	       database.

	   o   The DROP	TABLE and CREATE TABLE statements are not executed
	       because the default database is not db1,	even though the
	       statements name a table in db1.

	   o   The INSERT and CREATE TABLE statements are executed because the
	       default database	is db1,	even though the	CREATE TABLE statement
	       names a table in	a different database.

       o   --pager[=command]

	   Use the given command for paging query output. If the command is
	   omitted, the	default	pager is the value of your PAGER environment
	   variable. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename], and	so
	   forth. This option works only on Unix and only in interactive mode.
	   To disable paging, use --skip-pager.	 the section called "MYSQL
	   CLIENT COMMANDS", discusses output paging further.

       o   --password[=password], -p[password]

	   The password	of the MySQL account used for connecting to the
	   server. The password	value is optional. If not given, mysql prompts
	   for one. If given, there must be no space between --password= or -p
	   and the password following it. If no	password option	is specified,
	   the default is to send no password.

	   Specifying a	password on the	command	line should be considered
	   insecure. To	avoid giving the password on the command line, use an
	   option file.	See Section 6.1.2.1, "End-User Guidelines for Password
	   Security".

	   To explicitly specify that there is no password and that mysql
	   should not prompt for one, use the --skip-password option.

       o   --pipe, -W

	   On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option
	   applies only	if the server was started with the named_pipe system
	   variable enabled to support named-pipe connections. In addition,
	   the user making the connection must be a member of the Windows
	   group specified by the named_pipe_full_access_group system
	   variable.

       o   --plugin-dir=dir_name

	   The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if
	   the --default-auth option is	used to	specify	an authentication
	   plugin but mysql does not find it. See Section 6.2.13, "Pluggable
	   Authentication".

       o   --port=port_num, -P port_num

	   For TCP/IP connections, the port number to use.

       o   --print-defaults

	   Print the program name and all options that it gets from option
	   files.

	   For additional information about this and other option-file
	   options, see	Section	4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
	   Option-File Handling".

       o   --prompt=format_str

	   Set the prompt to the specified format. The default is mysql>. The
	   special sequences that the prompt can contain are described in the
	   section called "MYSQL CLIENT	COMMANDS".

       o   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

	   The connection protocol to use for connecting to the	server.	It is
	   useful when the other connection parameters normally	result in use
	   of a	protocol other than the	one you	want. For details on the
	   permissible values, see Section 4.2.4, "Connecting to the MySQL
	   Server Using	Command	Options".

       o   --quick, -q

	   Do not cache	each query result, print each row as it	is received.
	   This	may slow down the server if the	output is suspended. With this
	   option, mysql does not use the history file.

       o   --raw, -r

	   For tabular output, the "boxing" around columns enables one column
	   value to be distinguished from another. For nontabular output (such
	   as is produced in batch mode	or when	the --batch or --silent	option
	   is given), special characters are escaped in	the output so they can
	   be identified easily. Newline, tab, NUL, and	backslash are written
	   as \n, \t, \0, and \\. The --raw option disables this character
	   escaping.

	   The following example demonstrates tabular versus nontabular	output
	   and the use of raw mode to disable escaping:

	       % mysql
	       mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
	       +----------+
	       | CHAR(92) |
	       +----------+
	       | \	  |
	       +----------+
	       % mysql -s
	       mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
	       CHAR(92)
	       \\
	       % mysql -s -r
	       mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
	       CHAR(92)
	       \

       o   --reconnect

	   If the connection to	the server is lost, automatically try to
	   reconnect. A	single reconnect attempt is made each time the
	   connection is lost. To suppress reconnection	behavior, use
	   --skip-reconnect.

       o   --safe-updates, --i-am-a-dummy, -U

	   If this option is enabled, UPDATE and DELETE	statements that	do not
	   use a key in	the WHERE clause or a LIMIT clause produce an error.
	   In addition,	restrictions are placed	on SELECT statements that
	   produce (or are estimated to	produce) very large result sets. If
	   you have set	this option in an option file, you can use
	   --skip-safe-updates on the command line to override it. For more
	   information about this option, see Using Safe-Updates Mode (--safe-
	   updates).

       o   --secure-auth

	   Do not send passwords to the	server in old (pre-4.1)	format.	This
	   prevents connections	except for servers that	use the	newer password
	   format.

	   As of MySQL 5.7.5, this option is deprecated	and will be removed in
	   a future MySQL release. It is always	enabled	and attempting to
	   disable it (--skip-secure-auth, --secure-auth=0) produces an	error.
	   Before MySQL	5.7.5, this option is enabled by default but can be
	   disabled.

	       Note
	       Passwords that use the pre-4.1 hashing method are less secure
	       than passwords that use the native password hashing method and
	       should be avoided. Pre-4.1 passwords are	deprecated and support
	       for them	was removed in MySQL 5.7.5. For	account	upgrade
	       instructions, see Section 6.4.1.3, "Migrating Away from Pre-4.1
	       Password	Hashing	and the	mysql_old_password Plugin".

       o   --select-limit=value	The automatic limit for	SELECT statements when
	   using --safe-updates. (Default value	is 1,000.)

       o   --server-public-key-path=file_name

	   The path name to a file containing a	client-side copy of the	public
	   key required	by the server for RSA key pair-based password
	   exchange. The file must be in PEM format. This option applies to
	   clients that	authenticate with the sha256_password or
	   caching_sha2_password authentication	plugin.	This option is ignored
	   for accounts	that do	not authenticate with one of those plugins. It
	   is also ignored if RSA-based	password exchange is not used, as is
	   the case when the client connects to	the server using a secure
	   connection.

	   This	option is available only if MySQL was built using OpenSSL.

	   For information about the sha256_password and caching_sha2_password
	   plugins, see	Section	6.4.1.5, "SHA-256 Pluggable Authentication",
	   and Section 6.4.1.4,	"Caching SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --shared-memory-base-name=name

	   On Windows, the shared-memory name to use for connections made
	   using shared	memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL.
	   The shared-memory name is case-sensitive.

	   This	option applies only if the server was started with the
	   shared_memory system	variable enabled to support shared-memory
	   connections.

       o   --show-warnings

	   Cause warnings to be	shown after each statement if there are	any.
	   This	option applies to interactive and batch	mode.

       o   --sigint-ignore

	   Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the	result of typing Control+C).

	   Without this	option,	typing Control+C interrupts the	current
	   statement if	there is one, or cancels any partial input line
	   otherwise.

       o   --silent, -s

	   Silent mode.	Produce	less output. This option can be	given multiple
	   times to produce less and less output.

	   This	option results in nontabular output format and escaping	of
	   special characters. Escaping	may be disabled	by using raw mode; see
	   the description for the --raw option.

       o   --skip-column-names,	-N

	   Do not write	column names in	results.

       o   --skip-line-numbers,	-L

	   Do not write	line numbers for errors. Useful	when you want to
	   compare result files	that include error messages.

       o   --socket=path, -S path

	   For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
	   Windows, the	name of	the named pipe to use.

	   On Windows, this option applies only	if the server was started with
	   the named_pipe system variable enabled to support named-pipe
	   connections.	In addition, the user making the connection must be a
	   member of the Windows group specified by the
	   named_pipe_full_access_group	system variable.

       o   --ssl*

	   Options that	begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the
	   server using	SSL and	indicate where to find SSL keys	and
	   certificates. See the section called	"Command Options for Encrypted
	   Connections".

       o   --syslog, -j

	   This	option causes mysql to send interactive	statements to the
	   system logging facility. On Unix, this is syslog; on	Windows, it is
	   the Windows Event Log. The destination where	logged messages	appear
	   is system dependent.	On Linux, the destination is often the
	   /var/log/messages file.

	   Here	is a sample of output generated	on Linux by using --syslog.
	   This	output is formatted for	readability; each logged message
	   actually takes a single line.

	       Mar  7 12:39:25 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
		 SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
		 DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1',	DB:'--', QUERY:'USE test;'
	       Mar  7 12:39:28 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
		 SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
		 DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1',	DB:'test', QUERY:'SHOW TABLES;'

	   For more information, see the section called	"MYSQL CLIENT
	   LOGGING".

       o   --table, -t

	   Display output in table format. This	is the default for interactive
	   use,	but can	be used	to produce table output	in batch mode.

       o   --tee=file_name

	   Append a copy of output to the given	file. This option works	only
	   in interactive mode.	 the section called "MYSQL CLIENT COMMANDS",
	   discusses tee files further.

       o   --tls-version=protocol_list

	   The permissible TLS protocols for encrypted connections. The	value
	   is a	list of	one or more comma-separated protocol names. The
	   protocols that can be named for this	option depend on the SSL
	   library used	to compile MySQL. For details, see Section 6.3.2,
	   "Encrypted Connection TLS Protocols and Ciphers".

	   This	option was added in MySQL 5.7.10.

       o   --unbuffered, -n

	   Flush the buffer after each query.

       o   --user=user_name, -u	user_name

	   The user name of the	MySQL account to use for connecting to the
	   server.

       o   --verbose, -v

	   Verbose mode. Produce more output about what	the program does. This
	   option can be given multiple	times to produce more and more output.
	   (For	example, -v -v -v produces table output	format even in batch
	   mode.)

       o   --version, -V

	   Display version information and exit.

       o   --vertical, -E

	   Print query output rows vertically (one line	per column value).
	   Without this	option,	you can	specify	vertical output	for individual
	   statements by terminating them with \G.

       o   --wait, -w

	   If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of
	   aborting.

       o   --xml, -X

	   Produce XML output.

	       <field name="column_name">NULL</field>

	   The output when --xml is used with mysql matches that of mysqldump
	   --xml. See mysqldump(1), for	details.

	   The XML output also uses an XML namespace, as shown here:

	       shell> mysql --xml -uroot -e "SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'"
	       <?xml version="1.0"?>
	       <resultset statement="SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
	       <row>
	       <field name="Variable_name">version</field>
	       <field name="Value">5.0.40-debug</field>
	       </row>
	       <row>
	       <field name="Variable_name">version_comment</field>
	       <field name="Value">Source distribution</field>
	       </row>
	       <row>
	       <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_machine</field>
	       <field name="Value">i686</field>
	       </row>
	       <row>
	       <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_os</field>
	       <field name="Value">suse-linux-gnu</field>
	       </row>
	       </resultset>

MYSQL CLIENT COMMANDS
       mysql sends each	SQL statement that you issue to	the server to be
       executed. There is also a set of	commands that mysql itself interprets.
       For a list of these commands, type help or \h at	the mysql> prompt:

	   mysql> help
	   List	of all MySQL commands:
	   Note	that all text commands must be first on	line and end with ';'
	   ?	     (\?) Synonym for `help'.
	   clear     (\c) Clear	the current input statement.
	   connect   (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host.
	   delimiter (\d) Set statement	delimiter.
	   edit	     (\e) Edit command with $EDITOR.
	   ego	     (\G) Send command to mysql	server,	display	result vertically.
	   exit	     (\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit.
	   go	     (\g) Send command to mysql	server.
	   help	     (\h) Display this help.
	   nopager   (\n) Disable pager, print to stdout.
	   notee     (\t) Don't	write into outfile.
	   pager     (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager].	Print the query	results	via PAGER.
	   print     (\p) Print	current	command.
	   prompt    (\R) Change your mysql prompt.
	   quit	     (\q) Quit mysql.
	   rehash    (\#) Rebuild completion hash.
	   source    (\.) Execute an SQL script	file. Takes a file name	as an argument.
	   status    (\s) Get status information from the server.
	   system    (\!) Execute a system shell command.
	   tee	     (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given
			  outfile.
	   use	     (\u) Use another database.	Takes database name as argument.
	   charset   (\C) Switch to another charset. Might be needed for processing
			  binlog with multi-byte charsets.
	   warnings  (\W) Show warnings	after every statement.
	   nowarning (\w) Don't	show warnings after every statement.
	   resetconnection(\x) Clean session context.
	   For server side help, type 'help contents'

       If mysql	is invoked with	the --binary-mode option, all mysql commands
       are disabled except charset and delimiter in noninteractive mode	(for
       input piped to mysql or loaded using the	source command).

       Each command has	both a long and	short form. The	long form is not
       case-sensitive; the short form is. The long form	can be followed	by an
       optional	semicolon terminator, but the short form should	not.

       The use of short-form commands within multiple-line /* ... */ comments
       is not supported. Short-form commands do	work within single-line	/*!
       ... */ version comments,	as do /*+ ... */ optimizer-hint	comments,
       which are stored	in object definitions. If there	is a concern that
       optimizer-hint comments may be stored in	object definitions so that
       dump files when reloaded	with mysql would result	in execution of	such
       commands, either	invoke mysql with the --binary-mode option or use a
       reload client other than	mysql.

       o   help	[arg], \h [arg], \? [arg], ? [arg]

	   Display a help message listing the available	mysql commands.

	   If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a
	   search string to access server-side help from the contents of the
	   MySQL Reference Manual. For more information, see the section
	   called "MYSQL CLIENT	SERVER-SIDE HELP".

       o   charset charset_name, \C charset_name

	   Change the default character	set and	issue a	SET NAMES statement.
	   This	enables	the character set to remain synchronized on the	client
	   and server if mysql is run with auto-reconnect enabled (which is
	   not recommended), because the specified character set is used for
	   reconnects.

       o   clear, \c

	   Clear the current input. Use	this if	you change your	mind about
	   executing the statement that	you are	entering.

       o   connect [db_name host_name]], \r [db_name host_name]]

	   Reconnect to	the server. The	optional database name and host	name
	   arguments may be given to specify the default database or the host
	   where the server is running.	If omitted, the	current	values are
	   used.

       o   delimiter str, \d str

	   Change the string that mysql	interprets as the separator between
	   SQL statements. The default is the semicolon	character (;).

	   The delimiter string	can be specified as an unquoted	or quoted
	   argument on the delimiter command line. Quoting can be done with
	   either single quote ('), double quote ("), or backtick (`)
	   characters. To include a quote within a quoted string, either quote
	   the string with a different quote character or escape the quote
	   with	a backslash (\)	character. Backslash should be avoided outside
	   of quoted strings because it	is the escape character	for MySQL. For
	   an unquoted argument, the delimiter is read up to the first space
	   or end of line. For a quoted	argument, the delimiter	is read	up to
	   the matching	quote on the line.

	   mysql interprets instances of the delimiter string as a statement
	   delimiter anywhere it occurs, except	within quoted strings. Be
	   careful about defining a delimiter that might occur within other
	   words. For example, if you define the delimiter as X, you will be
	   unable to use the word INDEX	in statements.	mysql interprets this
	   as INDE followed by the delimiter X.

	   When	the delimiter recognized by mysql is set to something other
	   than	the default of ;, instances of that character are sent to the
	   server without interpretation. However, the server itself still
	   interprets ;	as a statement delimiter and processes statements
	   accordingly.	This behavior on the server side comes into play for
	   multiple-statement execution	(see Section 27.7.15, "C API Multiple
	   Statement Execution Support"), and for parsing the body of stored
	   procedures and functions, triggers, and events (see Section 23.1,
	   "Defining Stored Programs").

       o   edit, \e

	   Edit	the current input statement.  mysql checks the values of the
	   EDITOR and VISUAL environment variables to determine	which editor
	   to use. The default editor is vi if neither variable	is set.

	   The edit command works only in Unix.

       o   ego,	\G

	   Send	the current statement to the server to be executed and display
	   the result using vertical format.

       o   exit, \q

	   Exit	mysql.

       o   go, \g

	   Send	the current statement to the server to be executed.

       o   nopager, \n

	   Disable output paging. See the description for pager.

	   The nopager command works only in Unix.

       o   notee, \t

	   Disable output copying to the tee file. See the description for
	   tee.

       o   nowarning, \w

	   Disable display of warnings after each statement.

       o   pager [command], \P [command]

	   Enable output paging. By using the --pager option when you invoke
	   mysql, it is	possible to browse or search query results in
	   interactive mode with Unix programs such as less, more, or any
	   other similar program. If you specify no value for the option,
	   mysql checks	the value of the PAGER environment variable and	sets
	   the pager to	that. Pager functionality works	only in	interactive
	   mode.

	   Output paging can be	enabled	interactively with the pager command
	   and disabled	with nopager. The command takes	an optional argument;
	   if given, the paging	program	is set to that.	With no	argument, the
	   pager is set	to the pager that was set on the command line, or
	   stdout if no	pager was specified.

	   Output paging works only in Unix because it uses the	popen()
	   function, which does	not exist on Windows. For Windows, the tee
	   option can be used instead to save query output, although it	is not
	   as convenient as pager for browsing output in some situations.

       o   print, \p

	   Print the current input statement without executing it.

       o   prompt [str], \R [str]

	   Reconfigure the mysql prompt	to the given string. The special
	   character sequences that can	be used	in the prompt are described
	   later in this section.

	   If you specify the prompt command with no argument, mysql resets
	   the prompt to the default of	mysql>.

       o   quit, \q

	   Exit	mysql.

       o   rehash, \#

	   Rebuild the completion hash that enables database, table, and
	   column name completion while	you are	entering statements. (See the
	   description for the --auto-rehash option.)

       o   resetconnection, \x

	   Reset the connection	to clear the session state.

	   Resetting a connection has effects similar to mysql_change_user()
	   or an auto-reconnect	except that the	connection is not closed and
	   reopened, and re-authentication is not done.	See Section 27.7.6.3,
	   "mysql_change_user()", and Section 27.7.19, "C API Automatic
	   Reconnection	Control".

	   This	example	shows how resetconnection clears a value maintained in
	   the session state:

	       mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID(3);
	       +-------------------+
	       | LAST_INSERT_ID(3) |
	       +-------------------+
	       |		 3 |
	       +-------------------+
	       mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID();
	       +------------------+
	       | LAST_INSERT_ID() |
	       +------------------+
	       |		3 |
	       +------------------+
	       mysql> resetconnection;
	       mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID();
	       +------------------+
	       | LAST_INSERT_ID() |
	       +------------------+
	       |		0 |
	       +------------------+

       o   source file_name, \.	file_name

	   Read	the named file and executes the	statements contained therein.
	   On Windows, specify path name separators as / or \\.

	   Quote characters are	taken as part of the file name itself. For
	   best	results, the name should not include space characters.

       o   status, \s

	   Provide status information about the	connection and the server you
	   are using. If you are running with --safe-updates enabled, status
	   also	prints the values for the mysql	variables that affect your
	   queries.

       o   system command, \! command

	   Execute the given command using your	default	command	interpreter.

	   The system command works only in Unix.

       o   tee [file_name], \T [file_name]

	   By using the	--tee option when you invoke mysql, you	can log
	   statements and their	output.	All the	data displayed on the screen
	   is appended into a given file. This can be very useful for
	   debugging purposes also.  mysql flushes results to the file after
	   each	statement, just	before it prints its next prompt. Tee
	   functionality works only in interactive mode.

	   You can enable this feature interactively with the tee command.
	   Without a parameter,	the previous file is used. The tee file	can be
	   disabled with the notee command. Executing tee again	re-enables
	   logging.

       o   use db_name,	\u db_name

	   Use db_name as the default database.

       o   warnings, \W

	   Enable display of warnings after each statement (if there are any).

       Here are	a few tips about the pager command:

       o   You can use it to write to a	file and the results go	only to	the
	   file:

	       mysql> pager cat	> /tmp/log.txt

	   You can also	pass any options for the program that you want to use
	   as your pager:

	       mysql> pager less -n -i -S

       o   In the preceding example, note the -S option. You may find it very
	   useful for browsing wide query results. Sometimes a very wide
	   result set is difficult to read on the screen. The -S option	to
	   less	can make the result set	much more readable because you can
	   scroll it horizontally using	the left-arrow and right-arrow keys.
	   You can also	use -S interactively within less to switch the
	   horizontal-browse mode on and off. For more information, read the
	   less	manual page:

	       shell> man less

       o   The -F and -X options may be	used with less to cause	it to exit if
	   output fits on one screen, which is convenient when no scrolling is
	   necessary:

	       mysql> pager less -n -i -S -F -X

       o   You can specify very	complex	pager commands for handling query
	   output:

	       mysql> pager cat	| tee /dr1/tmp/res.txt \
			 | tee /dr2/tmp/res2.txt | less	-n -i -S

	   In this example, the	command	would send query results to two	files
	   in two different directories	on two different file systems mounted
	   on /dr1 and /dr2, yet still display the results onscreen using
	   less.

       You can also combine the	tee and	pager functions. Have a	tee file
       enabled and pager set to	less, and you are able to browse the results
       using the less program and still	have everything	appended into a	file
       the same	time. The difference between the Unix tee used with the	pager
       command and the mysql built-in tee command is that the built-in tee
       works even if you do not	have the Unix tee available. The built-in tee
       also logs everything that is printed on the screen, whereas the Unix
       tee used	with pager does	not log	quite that much. Additionally, tee
       file logging can	be turned on and off interactively from	within mysql.
       This is useful when you want to log some	queries	to a file, but not
       others.

       The prompt command reconfigures the default mysql> prompt. The string
       for defining the	prompt can contain the following special sequences.

b
Option
| Description | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | The current connection | | | identifier | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | A counter that increments | | | for each statement you | | | issue | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | The full current date | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | The default database | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | The server host | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | The current delimiter | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | Minutes of the current | | | time | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | A newline character | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | The current month in | | | three-letter format (Jan, | | | Feb, ...) | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | The current month in | | | numeric format | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ |P | am/pm | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | The current TCP/IP port or | | | socket file | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | The current time, in | | | 24-hour military time | | | (0-23) | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | The current time, standard | | | 12-hour time (1-12) | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | Semicolon | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | Seconds of the current | | | time | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | A tab character | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ |U | | | | Your full | | | user_name@host_name | | | account name | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | Your user name | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | The server version | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | The current day of the | | | week in three-letter | | | format (Mon, Tue, ...) | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | The current year, four | | | digits | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ |y | The current year, two | | | digits | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ |_ | A space | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ |\ | A space (a space follows | | | the backslash) | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ |' | Single quote | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ | | Double quote | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ |T}:T{ A literal backslash | | |character | | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ |\fIx | | | | x, for any "x" not | | | listed above | +---------------------------+----------------------------+ You can set the prompt in several ways: o Use an environment variable. You can set the MYSQL_PS1 environment variable to a prompt string. For example: shell> export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> " o Use a command-line option. You can set the --prompt option on the command line to mysql. For example: shell> mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> " (user@host) [database]> o Use an option file. You can set the prompt option in the [mysql] group of any MySQL option file, such as /etc/my.cnf or the .my.cnf file in your home directory. For example: [mysql] prompt=(\\u@\\h) [\\d]>\\_ In this example, note that the backslashes are doubled. If you set the prompt using the prompt option in an option file, it is advisable to double the backslashes when using the special prompt options. There is some overlap in the set of permissible prompt options and the set of special escape sequences that are recognized in option files. (The rules for escape sequences in option files are listed in Section 4.2.2.2, "Using Option Files".) The overlap may cause you problems if you use single backslashes. For example, \s is interpreted as a space rather than as the current seconds value. The following example shows how to define a prompt within an option file to include the current time in hh:mm:ss> format: [mysql] prompt="\\r:\\m:\\s> " o Set the prompt interactively. You can change your prompt interactively by using the prompt (or \R) command. For example: mysql> prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_ PROMPT set to '(\u@\h) [\d]>\_' (user@host) [database]> (user@host) [database]> prompt Returning to default PROMPT of mysql> mysql> MYSQL CLIENT LOGGING The mysql client can do these types of logging for statements executed interactively: o On Unix, mysql writes the statements to a history file. By default, this file is named .mysql_history in your home directory. To specify a different file, set the value of the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable. o On all platforms, if the --syslog option is given, mysql writes the statements to the system logging facility. On Unix, this is syslog; on Windows, it is the Windows Event Log. The destination where logged messages appear is system dependent. On Linux, the destination is often the /var/log/messages file. The following discussion describes characteristics that apply to all logging types and provides information specific to each logging type. o How Logging Occurs o Controlling the History File o syslog Logging Characteristics How Logging Occurs For each enabled logging destination, statement logging occurs as follows: o Statements are logged only when executed interactively. Statements are noninteractive, for example, when read from a file or a pipe. It is also possible to suppress statement logging by using the --batch or --execute option. o Statements are ignored and not logged if they match any pattern in the "ignore" list. This list is described later. o mysql logs each nonignored, nonempty statement line individually. o If a nonignored statement spans multiple lines (not including the terminating delimiter), mysql concatenates the lines to form the complete statement, maps newlines to spaces, and logs the result, plus a delimiter. Consequently, an input statement that spans multiple lines can be logged twice. Consider this input: mysql> SELECT -> 'Today is' -> , -> CURDATE() -> ; In this case, mysql logs the "SELECT", "'Today is'", ",", "CURDATE()", and ";" lines as it reads them. It also logs the complete statement, after mapping SELECT\n'Today is'\n,\nCURDATE() to SELECT 'Today is' , CURDATE(), plus a delimiter. Thus, these lines appear in logged output: SELECT 'Today is' , CURDATE() ; SELECT 'Today is' , CURDATE(); mysql ignores for logging purposes statements that match any pattern in the "ignore" list. By default, the pattern list is "*IDENTIFIED*:*PASSWORD*", to ignore statements that refer to passwords. Pattern matching is not case-sensitive. Within patterns, two characters are special: o ? matches any single character. o * matches any sequence of zero or more characters. To specify additional patterns, use the --histignore option or set the MYSQL_HISTIGNORE environment variable. (If both are specified, the option value takes precedence.) The value should be a list of one or more colon-separated patterns, which are appended to the default pattern list. Patterns specified on the command line might need to be quoted or escaped to prevent your command interpreter from treating them specially. For example, to suppress logging for UPDATE and DELETE statements in addition to statements that refer to passwords, invoke mysql like this: shell> mysql --histignore="*UPDATE*:*DELETE*" Controlling the History File The .mysql_history file should be protected with a restrictive access mode because sensitive information might be written to it, such as the text of SQL statements that contain passwords. See Section 6.1.2.1, "End-User Guidelines for Password Security". Statements in the file are accessible from the mysql client when the up-arrow key is used to recall the history. See Disabling Interactive History. If you do not want to maintain a history file, first remove .mysql_history if it exists. Then use either of the following techniques to prevent it from being created again: o Set the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable to /dev/null. To cause this setting to take effect each time you log in, put it in one of your shell's startup files. o Create .mysql_history as a symbolic link to /dev/null; this need be done only once: shell> ln -s /dev/null $HOME/.mysql_history syslog Logging Characteristics If the --syslog option is given, mysql writes interactive statements to the system logging facility. Message logging has the following characteristics. Logging occurs at the "information" level. This corresponds to the LOG_INFO priority for syslog on Unix/Linux syslog capability and to EVENTLOG_INFORMATION_TYPE for the Windows Event Log. Consult your system documentation for configuration of your logging capability. Message size is limited to 1024 bytes. Messages consist of the identifier MysqlClient followed by these values: o SYSTEM_USER The operating system user name (login name) or -- if the user is unknown. o MYSQL_USER The MySQL user name (specified with the --user option) or -- if the user is unknown. o CONNECTION_ID: The client connection identifier. This is the same as the CONNECTION_ID() function value within the session. o DB_SERVER The server host or -- if the host is unknown. o DB The default database or -- if no database has been selected. o QUERY The text of the logged statement. Here is a sample of output generated on Linux by using --syslog. This output is formatted for readability; each logged message actually takes a single line. Mar 7 12:39:25 myhost MysqlClient[20824]: SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23, DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'--', QUERY:'USE test;' Mar 7 12:39:28 myhost MysqlClient[20824]: SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23, DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'test', QUERY:'SHOW TABLES;' MYSQL CLIENT SERVER-SIDE HELP mysql> help search_string If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a search string to access server-side help from the contents of the MySQL Reference Manual. The proper operation of this command requires that the help tables in the mysql database be initialized with help topic information (see Section 5.1.13, "Server-Side Help Support"). If there is no match for the search string, the search fails: mysql> help me Nothing found Please try to run 'help contents' for a list of all accessible topics Use help contents to see a list of the help categories: mysql> help contents You asked for help about help category: "Contents" For more information, type 'help <item>', where <item> is one of the following categories: Account Management Administration Data Definition Data Manipulation Data Types Functions Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY Geographic Features Language Structure Plugins Storage Engines Stored Routines Table Maintenance Transactions Triggers If the search string matches multiple items, mysql shows a list of matching topics: mysql> help logs Many help items for your request exist. To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>', where <item> is one of the following topics: SHOW SHOW BINARY LOGS SHOW ENGINE SHOW LOGS Use a topic as the search string to see the help entry for that topic: mysql> help show binary logs Name: 'SHOW BINARY LOGS' Description: Syntax: SHOW BINARY LOGS SHOW MASTER LOGS Lists the binary log files on the server. This statement is used as part of the procedure described in [purge-binary-logs], that shows how to determine which logs can be purged. mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS; +---------------+-----------+ | Log_name | File_size | +---------------+-----------+ | binlog.000015 | 724935 | | binlog.000016 | 733481 | +---------------+-----------+ The search string can contain the wildcard characters % and _. These have the same meaning as for pattern-matching operations performed with the LIKE operator. For example, HELP rep% returns a list of topics that begin with rep: mysql> HELP rep% Many help items for your request exist. To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>', where <item> is one of the following topics: REPAIR TABLE REPEAT FUNCTION REPEAT LOOP REPLACE REPLACE FUNCTION EXECUTING SQL STATEMENTS FROM A TEXT FILE The mysql client typically is used interactively, like this: shell> mysql db_name However, it is also possible to put your SQL statements in a file and then tell mysql to read its input from that file. To do so, create a text file text_file that contains the statements you wish to execute. Then invoke mysql as shown here: shell> mysql db_name < text_file If you place a USE db_name statement as the first statement in the file, it is unnecessary to specify the database name on the command line: shell> mysql < text_file If you are already running mysql, you can execute an SQL script file using the source command or \. command: mysql> source file_name mysql> \. file_name Sometimes you may want your script to display progress information to the user. For this you can insert statements like this: SELECT '<info_to_display>' AS ' '; The statement shown outputs <info_to_display>. You can also invoke mysql with the --verbose option, which causes each statement to be displayed before the result that it produces. mysql ignores Unicode byte order mark (BOM) characters at the beginning of input files. Previously, it read them and sent them to the server, resulting in a syntax error. Presence of a BOM does not cause mysql to change its default character set. To do that, invoke mysql with an option such as --default-character-set=utf8. For more information about batch mode, see Section 3.5, "Using mysql in Batch Mode". MYSQL CLIENT TIPS This section provides information about techniques for more effective use of mysql and about mysql operational behavior. o Input-Line Editing o Disabling Interactive History o Unicode Support on Windows o Displaying Query Results Vertically o Using Safe-Updates Mode (--safe-updates) o Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect o mysql Client Parser Versus Server Parser Input-Line Editing mysql supports input-line editing, which enables you to modify the current input line in place or recall previous input lines. For example, the left-arrow and right-arrow keys move horizontally within the current input line, and the up-arrow and down-arrow keys move up and down through the set of previously entered lines. Backspace deletes the character before the cursor and typing new characters enters them at the cursor position. To enter the line, press Enter. On Windows, the editing key sequences are the same as supported for command editing in console windows. On Unix, the key sequences depend on the input library used to build mysql (for example, the libedit or readline library). Documentation for the libedit and readline libraries is available online. To change the set of key sequences permitted by a given input library, define key bindings in the library startup file. This is a file in your home directory: .editrc for libedit and .inputrc for readline. For example, in libedit, Control+W deletes everything before the current cursor position and Control+U deletes the entire line. In readline, Control+W deletes the word before the cursor and Control+U deletes everything before the current cursor position. If mysql was built using libedit, a user who prefers the readline behavior for these two keys can put the following lines in the .editrc file (creating the file if necessary): bind "^W" ed-delete-prev-word bind "^U" vi-kill-line-prev To see the current set of key bindings, temporarily put a line that says only bind at the end of .editrc. mysql will show the bindings when it starts. Disabling Interactive History The up-arrow key enables you to recall input lines from current and previous sessions. In cases where a console is shared, this behavior may be unsuitable. mysql supports disabling the interactive history partially or fully, depending on the host platform. On Windows, the history is stored in memory. Alt+F7 deletes all input lines stored in memory for the current history buffer. It also deletes the list of sequential numbers in front of the input lines displayed with F7 and recalled (by number) with F9. New input lines entered after you press Alt+F7 repopulate the current history buffer. Clearing the buffer does not prevent logging to the Windows Event Viewer, if the --syslog option was used to start mysql. Closing the console window also clears the current history buffer. To disable interactive history on Unix, first delete the .mysql_history file, if it exists (previous entries are recalled otherwise). Then start mysql with the --histignore="*" option to ignore all new input lines. To re-enable the recall (and logging) behavior, restart mysql without the option. If you prevent the .mysql_history file from being created (see Controlling the History File) and use --histignore="*" to start the mysql client, the interactive history recall facility is disabled fully. Alternatively, if you omit the --histignore option, you can recall the input lines entered during the current session. Unicode Support on Windows Windows provides APIs based on UTF-16LE for reading from and writing to the console; the mysql client for Windows is able to use these APIs. The Windows installer creates an item in the MySQL menu named MySQL command line client - Unicode. This item invokes the mysql client with properties set to communicate through the console to the MySQL server using Unicode. To take advantage of this support manually, run mysql within a console that uses a compatible Unicode font and set the default character set to a Unicode character set that is supported for communication with the server: 1. Open a console window. 2. Go to the console window properties, select the font tab, and choose Lucida Console or some other compatible Unicode font. This is necessary because console windows start by default using a DOS raster font that is inadequate for Unicode. 3. Execute mysql.exe with the --default-character-set=utf8 (or utf8mb4) option. This option is necessary because utf16le is one of the character sets that cannot be used as the client character set. See the section called "Impermissible Client Character Sets". With those changes, mysql will use the Windows APIs to communicate with the console using UTF-16LE, and communicate with the server using UTF-8. (The menu item mentioned previously sets the font and character set as just described.) To avoid those steps each time you run mysql, you can create a shortcut that invokes mysql.exe. The shortcut should set the console font to Lucida Console or some other compatible Unicode font, and pass the --default-character-set=utf8 (or utf8mb4) option to mysql.exe. Alternatively, create a shortcut that only sets the console font, and set the character set in the [mysql] group of your my.ini file: [mysql] default-character-set=utf8 Displaying Query Results Vertically Some query results are much more readable when displayed vertically, instead of in the usual horizontal table format. Queries can be displayed vertically by terminating the query with \G instead of a semicolon. For example, longer text values that include newlines often are much easier to read with vertical output: mysql> SELECT * FROM mails WHERE LENGTH(txt) < 300 LIMIT 300,1\G *************************** 1. row *************************** msg_nro: 3068 date: 2000-03-01 23:29:50 time_zone: +0200 mail_from: Jones reply: jones@example.com mail_to: "John Smith" <smith@example.com> sbj: UTF-8 txt: >>>>> "John" == John Smith writes: John> Hi. I think this is a good idea. Is anyone familiar John> with UTF-8 or Unicode? Otherwise, I'll put this on my John> TODO list and see what happens. Yes, please do that. Regards, Jones file: inbox-jani-1 hash: 190402944 1 row in set (0.09 sec) Using Safe-Updates Mode (--safe-updates) For beginners, a useful startup option is --safe-updates (or --i-am-a-dummy, which has the same effect). Safe-updates mode is helpful for cases when you might have issued an UPDATE or DELETE statement but forgotten the WHERE clause indicating which rows to modify. Normally, such statements update or delete all rows in the table. With --safe-updates, you can modify rows only by specifying the key values that identify them, or a LIMIT clause, or both. This helps prevent accidents. Safe-updates mode also restricts SELECT statements that produce (or are estimated to produce) very large result sets. The --safe-updates option causes mysql to execute the following statement when it connects to the MySQL server, to set the session values of the sql_safe_updates, sql_select_limit, and max_join_size system variables: SET sql_safe_updates=1, sql_select_limit=1000, max_join_size=1000000; The SET statement affects statement processing as follows: o Enabling sql_safe_updates causes UPDATE and DELETE statements to produce an error if they do not specify a key constraint in the WHERE clause, or provide a LIMIT clause, or both. For example: UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val WHERE key_column=val; UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val LIMIT 1; o Setting sql_select_limit to 1,000 causes the server to limit all SELECT result sets to 1,000 rows unless the statement includes a LIMIT clause. o Setting max_join_size to 1,000,000 causes multiple-table SELECT statements to produce an error if the server estimates it must examine more than 1,000,000 row combinations. To specify result set limits different from 1,000 and 1,000,000, you can override the defaults by using the --select-limit and --max-join-size options when you invoke mysql: mysql --safe-updates --select-limit=500 --max-join-size=10000 It is possible for UPDATE and DELETE statements to produce an error in safe-updates mode even with a key specified in the WHERE clause, if the optimizer decides not to use the index on the key column: o Range access on the index cannot be used if memory usage exceeds that permitted by the range_optimizer_max_mem_size system variable. The optimizer then falls back to a table scan. See the section called "Limiting Memory Use for Range Optimization". o If key comparisons require type conversion, the index may not be used (see Section 8.3.1, "How MySQL Uses Indexes"). Suppose that an indexed string column c1 is compared to a numeric value using WHERE c1 = 2222. For such comparisons, the string value is converted to a number and the operands are compared numerically (see Section 12.2, "Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation"), preventing use of the index. If safe-updates mode is enabled, an error occurs. As of MySQL 5.7.25, safe-updates mode also includes these behaviors: o EXPLAIN with UPDATE and DELETE statements does not produce safe-updates errors. This enables use of EXPLAIN plus SHOW WARNINGS to see why an index is not used, which can be helpful in cases such as when a range_optimizer_max_mem_size violation or type conversion occurs and the optimizer does not use an index even though a key column was specified in the WHERE clause. o When a safe-updates error occurs, the error message includes the first diagnostic that was produced, to provide information about the reason for failure. For example, the message may indicate that the range_optimizer_max_mem_size value was exceeded or type conversion occurred, either of which can preclude use of an index. o For multiple-table deletes and updates, an error is produced with safe updates enabled only if any target table uses a table scan. Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect If the mysql client loses its connection to the server while sending a statement, it immediately and automatically tries to reconnect once to the server and send the statement again. However, even if mysql succeeds in reconnecting, your first connection has ended and all your previous session objects and settings are lost: temporary tables, the autocommit mode, and user-defined and session variables. Also, any current transaction rolls back. This behavior may be dangerous for you, as in the following example where the server was shut down and restarted between the first and second statements without you knowing it: mysql> SET @a=1; Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec) mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(@a); ERROR 2006: MySQL server has gone away No connection. Trying to reconnect... Connection id: 1 Current database: test Query OK, 1 row affected (1.30 sec) mysql> SELECT * FROM t; +------+ | a | +------+ | NULL | +------+ 1 row in set (0.05 sec) The @a user variable has been lost with the connection, and after the reconnection it is undefined. If it is important to have mysql terminate with an error if the connection has been lost, you can start the mysql client with the --skip-reconnect option. For more information about auto-reconnect and its effect on state information when a reconnection occurs, see Section 27.7.19, "C API Automatic Reconnection Control". mysql Client Parser Versus Server Parser The mysql client uses a parser on the client side that is not a duplicate of the complete parser used by the mysqld server on the server side. This can lead to differences in treatment of certain constructs. Examples: o The server parser treats strings delimited by " characters as identifiers rather than as plain strings if the ANSI_QUOTES SQL mode is enabled. The mysql client parser does not take the ANSI_QUOTES SQL mode into account. It treats strings delimited by ", ', and ` characters the same, regardless of whether ANSI_QUOTES is enabled. o Within /*! ... */ comments, the mysql client parser interprets short-form mysql commands. The server parser does not interpret them because these commands have no meaning on the server side. If it is desirable for mysql not to interpret short-form commands within comments, a partial workaround is to use the --binary-mode option, which causes all mysql commands to be disabled except \C and \d in noninteractive mode (for input piped to mysql or loaded using the source command). COPYRIGHT Copyright (C) 1997, 2020, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License. This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/. NOTES 1. MySQL Shell 8.0 (part of MySQL 8.0) https://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql-shell/8.0/en/ SEE ALSO For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which may already be installed locally and which is also available online at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/. AUTHOR Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/). MySQL 5.7 03/23/2020 MYSQL(1)

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