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MTR(8)			     System Administration			MTR(8)

       mtr - a network diagnostic tool

       mtr  [-4|-6]  [-F FILENAME]  [--report] [--report-wide] [--xml] [--gtk]
       [--curses]  [--displaymode MODE]	 [--raw]  [--csv]  [--json]  [--split]
       [--no-dns] [--show-ips] [-o FIELDS] [-y IPINFO] [--aslookup] [-i	INTER-
       [-Q TOS]	 [--mpls]  [-I NAME]  [-a ADDRESS] [-f FIRST-TTL] [-m MAX-TTL]
       [-U MAX-UNKNOWN]	 [--udp]  [--tcp]  [--sctp]  [-P PORT]	[-L LOCALPORT]

       mtr combines the	functionality of the traceroute	and ping programs in a
       single network diagnostic tool.

       As mtr starts, it investigates the network connection between the  host
       mtr  runs  on  and HOSTNAME by sending packets with purposely low TTLs.
       It continues to send packets with low TTL, noting the response time  of
       the  intervening	 routers.   This allows	mtr to print the response per-
       centage and response times of the internet route	to HOSTNAME.  A	sudden
       increase	 in  packet  loss or response time is often an indication of a
       bad (or simply overloaded) link.

       The results are usually reported	as round-trip-response times  in  mil-
       liseconds and the percentage of packetloss.

       -h, --help
	      Print the	summary	of command line	argument options.

       -v, --version
	      Print the	installed version of mtr.

       -4     Use IPv4 only.

       -6     Use IPv6 only.  (IPV4 may	be used	for DNS	lookups.)

       -F FILENAME, --filename FILENAME
	      Reads the	list of	hostnames from the specified file.

       -r, --report
	      This  option  puts mtr into report mode.	When in	this mode, mtr
	      will run for the number of cycles	specified by  the  -c  option,
	      and then print statistics	and exit.

       This mode is useful for generating statistics about network quality.
	      Note  that  each running instance	of mtr generates a significant
	      amount of	network	traffic.  Using	mtr to measure the quality  of
	      your network may result in decreased network performance.

       -w, --report-wide
	      This  option puts	mtr into wide report mode.  When in this mode,
	      mtr will not cut hostnames in the	report.

       -x, --xml
	      Use this option to tell mtr to use the xml output	format.	  This
	      format is	better suited for automated processing of the measure-
	      ment results.

       -t, --curses
	      Use this option to force mtr to use the  curses  based  terminal
	      interface	 (if available).  In case the list of hops exceeds the
	      height of	your terminal, you can use the + and - keys to	scroll
	      up and down half a page.

	      Ctrl-L  clears  spurious error messages that may overwrite other
	      parts of the display.

       --displaymode MODE
	      Use this option to select	the initial display mode: 0  (default)
	      selects statistics, 1 selects the	stripchart without latency in-
	      formation, and 2 selects the stripchart  with  latency  informa-

       -g, --gtk
	      Use  this	 option	 to force mtr to use the GTK+ based X11	window
	      interface	(if available).	 GTK+ must have	been available on  the
	      system  when  mtr	 was built for this to work.  See the GTK+ web
	      page at <> for	more information about GTK+.

       -l, --raw
	      Use the raw output format.  This format  is  better  suited  for
	      archival	of  the	measurement results.  It could be parsed to be
	      presented	into any of the	other display methods.

	      Example of the raw output	format:
	      h	0
	      p	0 339
	      h	1
	      p	1 530
	      h	2
	      p	2 531
	      h	3
	      p	3 1523
	      h	5
	      p	5 1603
	      h	6
	      p	6 1127
	      h	7
	      d	7

       -C, --csv
	      Use the Comma-Separated-Value (CSV) output format.   (Note:  The
	      separator	is actually a semi-colon ';'.)

	      Example of the CSV output	format:

       -j, --json
	      Use this option to tell mtr to use the JSON output format.  This
	      format is	better suited for automated processing of the measure-
	      ment results.

       -p, --split
	      Use this option to set mtr to spit out a format that is suitable
	      for a split-user interface.

       -n, --no-dns
	      Use this option to force mtr to display numeric IP  numbers  and
	      not try to resolve the host names.

       -b, --show-ips
	      Use  this	 option	to tell	mtr to display both the	host names and
	      numeric IP numbers.  In split mode this adds an extra  field  to
	      the  output.   In	report mode, there is usually too little space
	      to add the IPs, and they will be truncated.  Use the wide	report
	      (-w) mode	to see the IPs in report mode.

       -o FIELDS, --order FIELDS
	      Use  this	option to specify which	fields to display and in which
	      order.  You may use one or more  space  characters  to  separate
	      Available	fields:

				 |L | Loss ratio	  |
				 |D | Dropped packets	  |
				 |R | Received packets	  |
				 |S | Sent Packets	  |
				 |N | Newest RTT(ms)	  |
				 |B | Min/Best RTT(ms)	  |
				 |A | Average RTT(ms)	  |
				 |W | Max/Worst	RTT(ms)	  |
				 |V | Standard Deviation  |
				 |G | Geometric	Mean	  |
				 |J | Current Jitter	  |
				 |M | Jitter Mean/Avg.	  |
				 |X | Worst Jitter	  |
				 |I | Interarrival Jitter |
	      Example: -o "LSD NBAW  X"

       -y n, --ipinfo n
	      Displays information about each IP hop.  Valid values for	n are:

	      0	  Display AS number (equivalent	to -z)
	      1	  Display IP prefix
	      2	  Display country code of the origin AS
	      3	  Display RIR (ripencc,	arin, ...)
	      4	  Display the allocation date of the IP	prefix

	      It  is  possible to cycle	between	these fields at	runtime	(using
	      the y key).

       -z, --aslookup
	      Displays the Autonomous System (AS) number alongside  each  hop.
	      Equivalent to --ipinfo 0.

	      Example (columns to the right not	shown for clarity):
	      1. AS???	 r-76520-PROD.greenqloud.internal
	      2. AS51969
	      3. AS???
	      4. AS30818
	      5. ???
	      6. AS???
	      7. AS1850

       -i SECONDS, --interval SECONDS
	      Use  this	 option	 to specify the	positive number	of seconds be-
	      tween ICMP ECHO requests.	 The default value for this  parameter
	      is one second.  The root user may	choose values between zero and

       -c COUNT, --report-cycles COUNT
	      Use this option to set the number	of  pings  sent	 to  determine
	      both  the	 machines  on the network and the reliability of those
	      machines.	 Each cycle lasts one second.

       -s PACKETSIZE, --psize PACKETSIZE
	      This option sets the packet size used for	 probing.   It	is  in
	      bytes, inclusive IP and ICMP headers.

	      If  set to a negative number, every iteration will use a differ-
	      ent, random packet size up to that number.

       -B NUM, --bitpattern NUM
	      Specifies	bit pattern to use in payload.	Should be within range
	      0	- 255.	If NUM is greater than 255, a random pattern is	used.

       -G SECONDS, --gracetime SECONDS
	      Use  this	 option	 to  specify the positive number of seconds to
	      wait for responses after the final request. The default value is
	      five seconds.

       -Q NUM, --tos NUM
	      Specifies	 value for type	of service field in IP header.	Should
	      be within	range 0	- 255.

       -e, --mpls
	      Use this option to tell mtr to display information from ICMP ex-
	      tensions	for  MPLS  (RFC	4950) that are encoded in the response

       -I NAME,	--interface NAME
	      Use the network interface	with a specific	name for sending  net-
	      work  probes.  This can be useful	when you have multiple network
	      interfaces with routes to	your  destination,  for	 example  both
	      wired  Ethernet  and  WiFi, and wish to test a particular	inter-

       -a ADDRESS, --address ADDRESS
	      Use this option to bind the outgoing socket to ADDRESS, so  that
	      all  packets  will be sent with ADDRESS as source	address.  NOTE
	      that this	option doesn't apply to	DNS requests (which  could  be
	      and could	not be what you	want).

       -f NUM, --first-ttl NUM
	      Specifies	with what TTL to start.	 Defaults to 1.

       -m NUM, --max-ttl NUM
	      Specifies	 the  maximum  number of hops (max time-to-live	value)
	      traceroute will probe.  Default is 30.

       -U NUM, --max-unknown NUM
	      Specifies	the maximum unknown host. Default is 5.

       -u, --udp
	      Use UDP datagrams	instead	of ICMP	ECHO.

       -T, --tcp
	      Use TCP SYN packets instead of ICMP  ECHO.   PACKETSIZE  is  ig-
	      nored, since SYN packets can not contain data.

       -S, --sctp
	      Use Stream Control Transmission Protocol packets instead of ICMP

       -P PORT,	--port PORT
	      The target port number for TCP/SCTP/UDP traces.

       -L LOCALPORT, --localport LOCALPORT
	      The source port number for UDP traces.

       -Z SECONDS, --timeout SECONDS
	      The number of seconds to keep probe sockets open	before	giving
	      up  on  the connection.  Using large values for this, especially
	      combined with a short interval, will use up a lot	 of  file  de-

       -M MARK,	--mark MARK
	      Set the mark for each packet sent	through	this socket similar to
	      the netfilter MARK target	but socket-based.  MARK	is 32 unsigned
	      integer.	 See socket(7) for full	description of this socket op-

       mtr recognizes a	few environment	variables.

	      This environment variable	allows one to specify options,	as  if
	      they were	passed on the command line.  It	is parsed before read-
	      ing the actual command line options, so that  options  specified
	      in MTR_OPTIONS are overridden by command-line options.


	      MTR_OPTIONS="-4 -c 1" mtr	-6 localhost

	      would  send  one probe (because of -c 1) towards ::1 (because of
	      -6, which	overrides the -4 passed	in MTR_OPTIONS).

	      A	path to	the mtr-packet executable, to be used for sending  and
	      receiving	network	probes.	 If MTR_PACKET is unset, the PATH will
	      be used to search	for an mtr-packet executable.

	      Specifies	an X11 server for the GTK+ frontend.

       mtr can be controlled while it is running with the following keys:
	 ?|h	 help
	 p	 pause (SPACE to resume)
	 d	 switching display mode
	 e	 toggle	MPLS information on/off
	 n	 toggle	DNS on/off
	 r	 reset all counters
	 o str	 set the columns to display, default str='LRS N	BAWV'
	 j	 toggle	latency(LS NABWV)/jitter(DR AGJMXI) stats
	 c <n>	 report	cycle n, default n=infinite
	 i <n>	 set the ping interval to n seconds, default n=1
	 f <n>	 set the initial time-to-live(ttl), default n=1
	 m <n>	 set the max time-to-live, default n= #	of hops
	 s <n>	 set the packet	size to	n or random(n<0)
	 b <c>	 set ping bit pattern to c(0..255) or random(c<0)
	 Q <t>	 set ping packet's TOS to t
	 u	 switch	between	ICMP ECHO and UDP datagrams
	 y	 switching IP info
	 z	 toggle	ASN info on/off
	 q	 exit

       Some modern routers give	a lower	priority to ICMP ECHO packets than  to
       other  network traffic.	Consequently, the reliability of these routers
       reported	by mtr will be significantly lower than	the actual reliability
       of these	routers.

       For  the	latest version,	see the	mtr web	page at	<http://www.bitwizard.

       For patches, bug	reports, or feature requests, please open an issue  on
       GitHub at: <>.

       mtr-packet(8),  traceroute(8),  ping(8),	 socket(7), TCP/IP Illustrated
       (Stevens, ISBN 0201633469).

mtr				     0.93				MTR(8)


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