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mtools(1)		    General Commands Manual		     mtools(1)

Name
       mtools -	utilities to access DOS	disks in Unix.

Introduction
       Mtools is a collection of tools to allow	Unix systems to	manipulate MS-
       DOS files: read,	write, and move	around files on	an MS-DOS file	system
       (typically  a floppy disk).  Where reasonable, each program attempts to
       emulate the MS-DOS equivalent command.  However,	 unnecessary  restric-
       tions  and oddities of DOS are not emulated. For	instance, it is	possi-
       ble to move subdirectories from one subdirectory	to another.

       Mtools is sufficient to give access to MS-DOS file  systems.   For  in-
       stance, commands	such as	mdir a:	work on	the a: floppy without any pre-
       liminary	mounting or initialization  (assuming  the  default  `/usr/lo-
       cal/etc/mtools.conf'  works  on	your  machine).	  With mtools, one can
       change floppies too without unmounting and mounting.

Where to get mtools
       Mtools can be found at the following places (and	their mirrors):

	  http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/mtools/mtools-4.0.26.tar.gz

       These patches are named mtools-version-ddmm.taz,	where  version	stands
       for  the	 base  version,	 dd for	the day	and mm for the month. Due to a
       lack of space, I	usually	leave only the most recent patch.

       There is	an mtools mailing list at info-mtools @	gnu.org	.  Please send
       all  bug	 reports  to  this  list.   You	 may  subscribe	to the list at
       https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/info-mtools. (N.B. Please	remove
       the  spaces  around  the	 "@". I	left them there	in order to fool spam-
       bots.)  Announcements of	new mtools versions will also be sent  to  the
       list,  in  addition to the Linux	announce newsgroups.  The mailing list
       is archived at http://lists.gnu.org/pipermail/info-mtools/

Common features	of all mtools commands
   Options and filenames
       MS-DOS filenames	are composed of	a drive	letter followed	by a colon,  a
       subdirectory,  and a filename. Only the filename	part is	mandatory, the
       drive letter and	the subdirectory are  optional.	 Filenames  without  a
       drive letter refer to Unix files. Subdirectory names can	use either the
       '/' or '\' separator.  The use of the '\' separator  or	wildcards  re-
       quires  the  names  to  be  enclosed in quotes to protect them from the
       shell. However, wildcards in Unix filenames should not be  enclosed  in
       quotes, because here we want the	shell to expand	them.

       The  regular  expression	 "pattern  matching" routines follow the Unix-
       style rules.  For example, `*' matches all  MS-DOS  files  in  lieu  of
       `*.*'.	The  archive,  hidden, read-only and system attribute bits are
       ignored during pattern matching.

       All options use the - (minus) as	their first character, not / as	 you'd
       expect in MS-DOS.

       Most  mtools commands allow multiple filename parameters, which doesn't
       follow MS-DOS conventions, but which is more user-friendly.

       Most mtools commands allow options that instruct	 them  how  to	handle
       file name clashes. See section name clashes, for	more details on	these.
       All commands accept the -V flags	which prints the version, and most ac-
       cept  the  -v  flag,  which  switches on	verbose	mode. In verbose mode,
       these commands print out	the name of the	MS-DOS files upon  which  they
       act,  unless  stated otherwise. See section Commands, for a description
       of the options which are	specific to each command.

   Drive letters
       The meaning of the drive	letters	depends	on the	target	architectures.
       However,	 on  most  target  architectures,  drive A is the first	floppy
       drive, drive B is the second floppy drive (if available), drive J is  a
       Jaz  drive  (if	available), and	drive Z	is a Zip drive (if available).
       On those	systems	where the device name is derived from the SCSI id, the
       Jaz drive is assumed to be at SCSI target 4, and	the Zip	at SCSI	target
       5 (factory default settings).  On Linux,	both drives are	assumed	to  be
       the  second  drive on the SCSI bus (/dev/sdb). The default settings can
       be changes using	a configuration	file (see section  Configuration).

       The drive letter	: (colon) has a	special	meaning. It is used to	access
       image  files which are directly specified on the	command	line using the
       -i options.

       Example:

	   mcopy -i my-image-file.bin ::file1 ::file2 .

       This copies file1 and file2 from	the image file (my-image-file.bin)  to
       the /tmp	directory.

       You can also supply an offset within the	image file by including	@@off-
       set into	the file name.

       Example:

	   mcopy -i my-image-file.bin@@1M ::file1 ::file2 .

       This looks for the image	at the offset of 1M in the file,  rather  than
       at its beginning.

   Current working directory
       The mcd command (`mcd') is used to establish the	device and the current
       working directory (relative to the MS-DOS file system),	otherwise  the
       default is assumed to be	A:/. However, unlike MS-DOS, there is only one
       working directory for all drives, and not one per drive.

   VFAT-style long file	names
       This version of mtools supports VFAT style long filenames.  If  a  Unix
       filename	is too long to fit in a	short DOS name,	it is stored as	a VFAT
       long name, and a	companion short	name is	generated. This	short name  is
       what you	see when you examine the disk with a pre-7.0 version of	DOS.
	The following table shows some examples	of short names:

	  Long name	  MS-DOS name	  Reason for the change
	  ---------	  ----------	  ---------------------
	  thisisatest	  THISIS~1	  filename too long
	  alain.knaff	  ALAIN~1.KNA	  extension too	long
	  prn.txt	  PRN~1.TXT	  PRN is a device name
	  .abc		  ABC~1		  null filename
	  hot+cold	  HOT_CO~1	  illegal character

	As  you	 see,  the  following transformations happen to	derive a short
       name:

       *      Illegal characters are  replaced	by  underscores.  The  illegal
	      characters are ;+=[]',\"*\\<>/?:|.

       *      Extra dots, which	cannot be interpreted as a main	name/extension
	      separator	are removed

       *      A	~n number is generated,

       *      The name is shortened so as to fit in the	8+3 limitation

	The initial Unix-style file name  (whether  long  or  short)  is  also
       called  the primary name, and the derived short name is also called the
       secondary name.

	Example:

	   mcopy /etc/motd a:Reallylongname

	Mtools creates a VFAT entry for	Reallylongname,	and uses REALLYLO as a
       short  name.  Reallylongname  is	 the primary name, and REALLYLO	is the
       secondary name.

	   mcopy /etc/motd a:motd

	Motd fits into	the  DOS  filename  limits.  Mtools  doesn't  need  to
       derivate	 another  name.	Motd is	the primary name, and there is no sec-
       ondary name.

	In a nutshell: The primary name	is the long name, if  one  exists,  or
       the short name if there is no long name.

	Although  VFAT	is  much more flexible than FAT, there are still names
       that are	not acceptable,	even in	VFAT. There  are  still	 some  illegal
       characters left (\"*\\<>/?:|), and device names are still reserved.

	  Unix name	  Long name	  Reason for the change
	  ---------	  ----------	  ---------------------
	  prn		  prn-1		  PRN is a device name
	  ab:c		  ab_c-1	  illegal character

	As you see, the	following transformations happen if a long name	is il-
       legal:

       *      Illegal characters are replaces by underscores,

       *      A	-n number is generated,

   Name	clashes
       When writing a file to disk, its	long name or short  name  may  collide
       with  an	 already  existing  file or directory. This may	happen for all
       commands	which create new directory entries, such as mcopy, mmd,	 mren,
       mmove. When a name clash	happens, mtools	asks you what it should	do. It
       offers several choices:

       overwrite
	      Overwrites the existing file. It is not possible to overwrite  a
	      directory	with a file.

       rename
	      Renames the newly	created	file. Mtools prompts for the new file-
	      name

       autorename
	      Renames the newly	created	file. Mtools chooses a name by itself,
	      without prompting

       skip   Gives up on this file, and moves on to the next (if any)

       To  chose one of	these actions, type its	first letter at	the prompt. If
       you use a lower case letter, the	action	only  applies  for  this  file
       only, if	you use	an upper case letter, the action applies to all	files,
       and you won't be	prompted again.

       You may also chose actions (for all files) on the  command  line,  when
       invoking	mtools:

       -D o   Overwrites primary names by default.

       -D O   Overwrites secondary names by default.

       -D r   Renames primary name by default.

       -D R   Renames secondary	name by	default.

       -D a   Autorenames primary name by default.

       -D A   Autorenames secondary name by default.

       -D s   Skip primary name	by default.

       -D S   Skip secondary name by default.

       -D m   Ask user what to do with primary name.

       -D M   Ask user what to do with secondary name.

       Note  that for command line switches lower/upper	differentiates between
       primary/secondary name whereas  for  interactive	 choices,  lower/upper
       differentiates between just-this-time/always.

       The  primary name is the	name as	displayed in Windows 95	or Windows NT:
       i.e. the	long name if it	exists,	and the	 short	name  otherwise.   The
       secondary name is the "hidden" name, i.e. the short name	if a long name
       exists.

       By default, the user is prompted	if the primary name clashes,  and  the
       secondary name is autorenamed.

       If a name clash occurs in a Unix	directory, mtools only asks whether to
       overwrite the file, or to skip it.

   Case	sensitivity of the VFAT	file system
       The VFAT	file system is able to remember	the  case  of  the  filenames.
       However,	filenames which	differ only in case are	not allowed to coexist
       in the same directory. For example if you store a file called LongFile-
       Name  on	 a VFAT	file system, mdir shows	this file as LongFileName, and
       not as Longfilename. However, if	you then try to	 add  LongFilename  to
       the  same  directory,  it is refused, because case is ignored for clash
       checks.

       The VFAT	file system allows you to store	the case of a filename in  the
       attribute  byte,	 if all	letters	of the filename	are the	same case, and
       if all letters of the extension are the same case too. Mtools uses this
       information  when  displaying  the files, and also to generate the Unix
       filename	when mcopying to a Unix	directory. This	 may  have  unexpected
       results	when applied to	files written using an pre-7.0 version of DOS:
       Indeed, the old style filenames map to all upper	case. This is  differ-
       ent from	the behavior of	the old	version	of mtools which	used to	gener-
       ate lower case Unix filenames.

   high	capacity formats
       Mtools supports a number	of formats which allow storage of more data on
       disk  than  usual.  Due	to different operating system abilities, these
       formats are not supported on all	operating systems.  Mtools  recognizes
       these formats transparently where supported.

       In  order  to  format  these disks, you need to use an operating	system
       specific	tool. For Linux, suitable floppy tools can  be	found  in  the
       fdutils package at the following	locations~:

	  http://www.fdutils.linux.lu/.

       See  the	 manual	pages included in that package for further detail: Use
       superformat to format all formats except	XDF, and use xdfcopy to	format
       XDF.

     More sectors
       The oldest method of fitting more data on a disk	is to use more sectors
       and more	cylinders. Although the	standard format	uses 80	cylinders  and
       18  sectors (on a 3 1/2 high density disk), it is possible to use up to
       83 cylinders (on	most drives) and up to 21 sectors. This	method	allows
       to  store  up to	1743K on a 3 1/2 HD disk. However, 21 sector disks are
       twice as	slow as	the standard 18	sector disks because the  sectors  are
       packed  so close	together that we need to interleave them. This problem
       doesn't exist for 20 sector formats.

       These formats are supported by numerous DOS shareware utilities such as
       fdformat	 and vgacopy. In his infinite hubris, Bill Gate$ believed that
       he invented this, and called it	`DMF  disks',  or  `Windows  formatted
       disks'.	But  in	 reality,  it has already existed years	before!	Mtools
       supports	these formats on Linux,	on SunOS and on	the DELL Unix PC.

     Bigger sectors
       By using	bigger sectors it is possible to go beyond the capacity	 which
       can  be	obtained  by the standard 512-byte sectors. This is because of
       the sector header. The sector header has	the same size,	regardless  of
       how  many data bytes are	in the sector. Thus, we	save some space	by us-
       ing fewer, but bigger sectors. For example, 1 sector of 4K  only	 takes
       up  header space	once, whereas 8	sectors	of 512 bytes have also 8 head-
       ers, for	the same amount	of useful data.

       This method permits storage of up to 1992K on a 3 1/2 HD	disk.

       Mtools supports these formats only on Linux.

     2m
       The 2m format was originally invented by	Ciriaco	Garcia	de  Celis.  It
       also  uses  bigger  sectors than	usual in order to fit more data	on the
       disk.  However, it uses the standard format (18 sectors	of  512	 bytes
       each)  on  the  first  cylinder,	in order to make these disks easier to
       handle by DOS. Indeed this method allows	you to have a  standard	 sized
       boot  sector,  which contains a description of how the rest of the disk
       should be read.

       However,	the drawback of	this is	that the first cylinder	can hold  less
       data  than  the	others.	Unfortunately, DOS can only handle disks where
       each track contains the same amount of data. Thus  2m  hides  the  fact
       that  the  first	 track contains	less data by using a shadow FAT. (Usu-
       ally, DOS stores	the  FAT  in  two  identical  copies,  for  additional
       safety.	 XDF  stores  only one copy, but tells DOS that	it stores two.
       Thus the	space that would be taken up by	the second FAT copy is saved.)
       This  also  means that you should never use a 2m	disk to	store anything
       else than a DOS file system.

       Mtools supports these formats only on Linux.

     XDF
       XDF is a	high capacity format used by OS/2. It  can  hold  1840	K  per
       disk.  That's lower than	the best 2m formats, but its main advantage is
       that it is fast:	600 milliseconds per track. That's faster than the  21
       sector  format, and almost as fast as the standard 18 sector format. In
       order to	access these disks, make sure mtools has  been	compiled  with
       XDF support, and	set the	use_xdf	variable for the drive in the configu-
       ration file. See	section	Compiling  mtools,  and	 `miscellaneous	 vari-
       ables',	for  details on	how to do this.	Fast XDF access	is only	avail-
       able for	Linux kernels which are	more recent than 1.1.34.

       Mtools supports this format only	on Linux.

       Caution / Attention distributors: If mtools is compiled on a Linux ker-
       nel  more recent	than 1.3.34, it	won't run on an	older kernel. However,
       if it has been compiled on an older kernel, it still runs  on  a	 newer
       kernel,	except	that XDF access	is slower. It is recommended that dis-
       tribution authors only include  mtools  binaries	 compiled  on  kernels
       older than 1.3.34 until 2.0 comes out. When 2.0 will be out, mtools bi-
       naries compiled on newer	 kernels  may  (and  should)  be  distributed.
       Mtools  binaries	compiled on kernels older than 1.3.34 won't run	on any
       2.1 kernel or later.

   Exit	codes
       All the Mtools commands return 0	on success, 1 on utter failure,	 or  2
       on  partial  failure.   All  the	 Mtools	 commands perform a few	sanity
       checks before going ahead, to make sure that the	disk is	indeed an  MS-
       DOS  disk  (as opposed to, say an ext2 or MINIX disk). These checks may
       reject partially	corrupted disks, which might otherwise still be	 read-
       able.  To  avoid	 these checks, set the MTOOLS_SKIP_CHECK environmental
       variable	or the corresponding configuration file	variable (see  section
       global variables)

   Bugs
       An unfortunate side effect of not guessing the proper device (when mul-
       tiple disk capacities are supported) is	an  occasional	error  message
       from the	device driver.	These can be safely ignored.

       The fat checking	code chokes on 1.72 Mb disks mformatted	with pre-2.0.7
       mtools. Set the environmental variable MTOOLS_FAT_COMPATIBILITY (or the
       corresponding  configuration  file variable, `global variables')	to by-
       pass the	fat checking.

See also
       floppyd_installtest mattrib mbadblocks mcd mclasserase mcopy mdel mdel-
       tree mdir mdu mformat minfo mkmanifest mlabel mmd mmount	mmove mrd mren
       mshortname mshowfat mtoolstest mtype

mtools-4.0.26			    28Nov20			     mtools(1)

Name | Introduction | Where to get mtools | Common features of all mtools commands | See also

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