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mtools.1(3)		   Library Functions Manual		   mtools.1(3)

Name
       mtools -	utilities to access DOS	disks in Unix.

Introduction
       Mtools is a collection of tools to allow	Unix systems to	manipulate MS-
       DOS files: read,	write, and move	around files on	an  MS-DOS  filesystem
       (typically  a floppy disk).  Where reasonable, each program attempts to
       emulate the MS-DOS equivalent command.  However,	 unnecessary  restric-
       tions  and oddities of DOS are not emulated. For	instance, it is	possi-
       ble to move subdirectories from one subdirectory	to another.

       Mtools is sufficient to give access to  MS-DOS  filesystems.   For  in-
       stance, commands	such as	mdir a:	work on	the a: floppy without any pre-
       liminary	  mounting   or	  initialization   (assuming	the    default
       `/etc/mtools.conf' works	on your	machine).  With	mtools,	one can	change
       floppies	too without unmounting and mounting.

Where to get mtools
       Mtools can be found at the following places (and	their mirrors):

	  http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/mtools/mtools-4.0.10.tar.gz
	  http://mtools.linux.lu/mtools-4.0.10.tar.gz
	  ftp://www.tux.org/pub/knaff/mtools/mtools-4.0.10.tar.gz
	  ftp://ibiblio.unc.edu/pub/Linux/utils/disk-management/mtools-4.0.10.tar.gz

       Before reporting	a bug, make sure that it has not yet been fixed	in the
       Alpha patches which can be found	at:

	  http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/mtools/
	  http://mtools.linux.lu/
	  ftp://www.tux.org/pub/knaff/mtools

       These  patches  are named mtools-version-ddmm.taz, where	version	stands
       for the base version, dd	for the	day and	mm for the  month.  Due	 to  a
       lack of space, I	usually	leave only the most recent patch.

       There  is an mtools mailing list	at mtools @ tux.org .  Please send all
       bug reports to this list.  You may subscribe to the list	by  sending  a
       message	with  'subscribe  mtools @ tux.org' in its body	to majordomo @
       tux.org . (N.B. Please remove the spaces	around the "@" both  times.  I
       left  them  there  in  order  to	 fool spambots.)  Announcements	of new
       mtools versions will also be sent to the	list, in addition to the linux
       announce	   newsgroups.	   The	  mailing    list   is	 archived   at
       http://lists.gnu.org/pipermail/info-mtools/

Common features	of all mtools commands
   Options and filenames
       MS-DOS filenames	are composed of	a drive	letter followed	by a colon,  a
       subdirectory,  and a filename. Only the filename	part is	mandatory, the
       drive letter and	the subdirectory are  optional.	 Filenames  without  a
       drive letter refer to Unix files. Subdirectory names can	use either the
       '/' or '\' separator.  The use of the '\' separator  or	wildcards  re-
       quires  the  names  to  be  enclosed in quotes to protect them from the
       shell. However, wildcards in Unix filenames should not be  enclosed  in
       quotes, because here we want the	shell to expand	them.

       The  regular  expression	 "pattern  matching" routines follow the Unix-
       style rules.  For example, `*' matches all  MS-DOS  files  in  lieu  of
       `*.*'.	The  archive,  hidden, read-only and system attribute bits are
       ignored during pattern matching.

       All options use the - (minus) as	their first character, not / as	 you'd
       expect in MS-DOS.

       Most  mtools commands allow multiple filename parameters, which doesn't
       follow MS-DOS conventions, but which is more user-friendly.

       Most mtools commands allow options that instruct	 them  how  to	handle
       file name clashes. See section name clashes, for	more details on	these.
       All commands accept the -V flags	which prints the version, and most ac-
       cept  the  -v  flag,  which  switches on	verbose	mode. In verbose mode,
       these commands print out	the name of the	MS-DOS files upon  which  they
       act,  unless  stated otherwise. See section Commands, for a description
       of the options which are	specific to each command.

   Drive letters
       The meaning of the drive	letters	depends	on the	target	architectures.
       However,	 on  most  target  architectures,  drive A is the first	floppy
       drive, drive B is the second floppy drive (if available), drive J is  a
       Jaz  drive  (if	available), and	drive Z	is a Zip drive (if available).
       On those	systems	where the device name is derived from the SCSI id, the
       Jaz drive is assumed to be at Scsi target 4, and	the Zip	at Scsi	target
       5 (factory default settings).  On Linux,	both drives are	assumed	to  be
       the  second  drive on the Scsi bus (/dev/sdb). The default settings can
       be changes using	a configuration	file (see section  Configuration).

       The drive letter	: (colon) has a	special	meaning. It is used to	access
       image  files which are directly specified on the	command	line using the
       -i options.

       Example:

	   mcopy -i my-image-file.bin ::file1 ::file2 .

       This copies file1 and file2 from	the image file (my-image-file.bin)  to
       the /tmp	directory.

       You can also supply an offset within the	image file by including	@@off-
       set into	the file name.

       Example:

	   mcopy -i my-image-file.bin@@1M ::file1 ::file2 .

       This looks for the image	at the offset of 1M in the file,  rather  than
       at its beginning.

   Current working directory
       The mcd command (`mcd') is used to establish the	device and the current
       working directory (relative to the MS-DOS  filesystem),	otherwise  the
       default is assumed to be	A:/. However, unlike MS-DOS, there is only one
       working directory for all drives, and not one per drive.

   VFAT-style long file	names
       This version of mtools supports VFAT style long filenames.  If  a  Unix
       filename	is too long to fit in a	short DOS name,	it is stored as	a VFAT
       long name, and a	companion short	name is	generated. This	short name  is
       what you	see when you examine the disk with a pre-7.0 version of	DOS.
	The following table shows some examples	of short names:

	  Long name	  MS-DOS name	  Reason for the change
	  ---------	  ----------	  ---------------------
	  thisisatest	  THISIS~1	  filename too long
	  alain.knaff	  ALAIN~1.KNA	  extension too	long
	  prn.txt	  PRN~1.TXT	  PRN is a device name
	  .abc		  ABC~1		  null filename
	  hot+cold	  HOT_CO~1	  illegal character

	As  you	 see,  the  following transformations happen to	derive a short
       name:

       *      Illegal characters are  replaced	by  underscores.  The  illegal
	      characters are ;+=[]',\"*\\<>/?:|.

       *      Extra dots, which	cannot be interpreted as a main	name/extension
	      separator	are removed

       *      A	~n number is generated,

       *      The name is shortened so as to fit in the	8+3 limitation

	The initial Unix-style file name  (whether  long  or  short)  is  also
       called  the primary name, and the derived short name is also called the
       secondary name.

	Example:

	   mcopy /etc/motd a:Reallylongname

	Mtools creates a VFAT entry for	Reallylongname,	and uses REALLYLO as a
       short  name.  Reallylongname  is	 the primary name, and REALLYLO	is the
       secondary name.

	   mcopy /etc/motd a:motd

	Motd fits into	the  DOS  filename  limits.  Mtools  doesn't  need  to
       derivate	 another  name.	Motd is	the primary name, and there is no sec-
       ondary name.

	In a nutshell: The primary name	is the long name, if  one  exists,  or
       the short name if there is no long name.

	Although  VFAT	is  much more flexible than FAT, there are still names
       that are	not acceptable,	even in	VFAT. There  are  still	 some  illegal
       characters left (\"*\\<>/?:|), and device names are still reserved.

	  Unix name	  Long name	  Reason for the change
	  ---------	  ----------	  ---------------------
	  prn		  prn-1		  PRN is a device name
	  ab:c		  ab_c-1	  illegal character

	As you see, the	following transformations happen if a long name	is il-
       legal:

       *      Illegal characters are replaces by underscores,

       *      A	-n number is generated,

   Name	clashes
       When writing a file to disk, its	long name or short  name  may  collide
       with  an	 already  existing  file or directory. This may	happen for all
       commands	which create new directory entries, such as mcopy, mmd,	 mren,
       mmove. When a name clash	happens, mtools	asks you what it should	do. It
       offers several choices:

       overwrite
	      Overwrites the existing file. It is not possible to overwrite  a
	      directory	with a file.

       rename
	      Renames the newly	created	file. Mtools prompts for the new file-
	      name

       autorename
	      Renames the newly	created	file. Mtools chooses a name by itself,
	      without prompting

       skip   Gives up on this file, and moves on to the next (if any)

       To  chose one of	these actions, type its	first letter at	the prompt. If
       you use a lower case letter, the	action	only  applies  for  this  file
       only, if	you use	an upper case letter, the action applies to all	files,
       and you won't be	prompted again.

       You may also chose actions (for all files) on the  command  line,  when
       invoking	mtools:

       -D o   Overwrites primary names by default.

       -D O   Overwrites secondary names by default.

       -D r   Renames primary name by default.

       -D R   Renames secondary	name by	default.

       -D a   Autorenames primary name by default.

       -D A   Autorenames secondary name by default.

       -D s   Skip primary name	by default.

       -D S   Skip secondary name by default.

       -D m   Ask user what to do with primary name.

       -D M   Ask user what to do with secondary name.

       Note  that for command line switches lower/upper	differentiates between
       primary/secondary name whereas  for  interactive	 choices,  lower/upper
       differentiates between just-this-time/always.

       The  primary name is the	name as	displayed in Windows 95	or Windows NT:
       i.e. the	long name if it	exists,	and the	 short	name  otherwise.   The
       secondary name is the "hidden" name, i.e. the short name	if a long name
       exists.

       By default, the user is prompted	if the primary name clashes,  and  the
       secondary name is autorenamed.

       If a name clash occurs in a Unix	directory, mtools only asks whether to
       overwrite the file, or to skip it.

   Case	sensitivity of the VFAT	filesystem
       The VFAT	filesystem is able to remember the case	of the filenames. How-
       ever, filenames which differ only in case are not allowed to coexist in
       the same	directory. For example if you store a file called LongFileName
       on  a VFAT filesystem, mdir shows this file as LongFileName, and	not as
       Longfilename. However, if you then try to add LongFilename to the  same
       directory, it is	refused, because case is ignored for clash checks.

       The  VFAT  filesystem allows to store the case of a filename in the at-
       tribute byte, if	all letters of the filename are	the same case, and  if
       all  letters  of	 the extension are the same case too. Mtools uses this
       information when	displaying the files, and also to  generate  the  Unix
       filename	 when  mcopying	 to a Unix directory. This may have unexpected
       results when applied to files written using an pre-7.0 version of  DOS:
       Indeed,	the old	style filenames	map to all upper case. This is differ-
       ent from	the behavior of	the old	version	of mtools which	used to	gener-
       ate lower case Unix filenames.

   high	capacity formats
       Mtools  supports	 a number of formats which allow to store more data on
       disk as usual. Due to different operating system	abilities, these  for-
       mats  are  not  supported on all	OS'es. Mtools recognizes these formats
       transparently where supported.

       In order	to format these	disks, you need	to  use	 an  operating	system
       specific	 tool.	For  Linux,  suitable floppy tools can be found	in the
       fdutils package at the following	locations~:

	  ftp://www.tux.org/pub/knaff/fdutils/.
	  ftp://ibiblio.unc.edu/pub/Linux/utils/disk-management/fdutils-*

       See the manpages	included in that package for further detail:  Use  su-
       performat  to  format all formats except	XDF, and use xdfcopy to	format
       XDF.

     More sectors
       The oldest method of fitting more data on a disk	is to use more sectors
       and  more cylinders. Although the standard format uses 80 cylinders and
       18 sectors (on a	3 1/2 high density disk), it is	possible to use	up  to
       83  cylinders (on most drives) and up to	21 sectors. This method	allows
       to store	up to 1743K on a 3 1/2 HD disk.	However, 21 sector  disks  are
       twice  as  slow as the standard 18 sector disks because the sectors are
       packed so close together	that we	need to	interleave them. This  problem
       doesn't exist for 20 sector formats.

       These formats are supported by numerous DOS shareware utilities such as
       fdformat	and vgacopy. In	his infinite hybris, Bill Gate$	believed  that
       he  invented  this,  and	 called	 it `DMF disks', or `Windows formatted
       disks'. But in reality, it has already  existed	years  before!	Mtools
       supports	these formats on Linux,	on SunOs and on	the DELL Unix PC.

     Bigger sectors
       By  using bigger	sectors	it is possible to go beyond the	capacity which
       can be obtained by the standard 512-byte	sectors. This  is  because  of
       the  sector  header. The	sector header has the same size, regardless of
       how many	data bytes are in the sector. Thus, we save some space by  us-
       ing  fewer,  but	bigger sectors.	For example, 1 sector of 4K only takes
       up header space once, whereas 8 sectors of 512 bytes have also 8	 head-
       ers, for	the same amount	of useful data.

       This method allows to store up to 1992K on a 3 1/2 HD disk.

       Mtools supports these formats only on Linux.

     2m
       The  2m	format	was originally invented	by Ciriaco Garcia de Celis. It
       also uses bigger	sectors	than usual in order to fit more	 data  on  the
       disk.   However,	 it  uses the standard format (18 sectors of 512 bytes
       each) on	the first cylinder, in order to	make  these  disks  easyer  to
       handle by DOS. Indeed this method allows	to have	a standard sized boot-
       sector, which contains a	description of how the rest of the disk	should
       be read.

       However,	 the drawback of this is that the first	cylinder can hold less
       data than the others. Unfortunately, DOS	can only  handle  disks	 where
       each  track  contains  the  same	amount of data.	Thus 2m	hides the fact
       that the	first track contains less data by using	a  shadow  FAT.	 (Usu-
       ally,  DOS  stores  the	FAT  in	 two  identical	copies,	for additional
       safety.	XDF stores only	one copy, and it tells DOS that	it stores two.
       Thus  the same that would be taken up by	the second FAT copy is saved.)
       This also means that your should	never use a 2m disk to store  anything
       else than a DOS fs.

       Mtools supports these format only on Linux.

     XDF
       XDF  is	a  high	 capacity  format used by OS/2.	It can hold 1840 K per
       disk. That's lower than the best	2m formats, but	its main advantage  is
       that  it	is fast: 600 milliseconds per track. That's faster than	the 21
       sector format, and almost as fast as the	standard 18 sector format.  In
       order  to  access  these	disks, make sure mtools	has been compiled with
       XDF support, and	set the	use_xdf	variable for the drive in the configu-
       ration  file.  See  section Compiling mtools, and `misc variables', for
       details on how to do this. Fast XDF access is only available for	 Linux
       kernels which are more recent than 1.1.34.

       Mtools supports this format only	on Linux.

       Caution / Attention distributors: If mtools is compiled on a Linux ker-
       nel more	recent than 1.3.34, it won't run on an older kernel.  However,
       if  it  has  been compiled on an	older kernel, it still runs on a newer
       kernel, except that XDF access is slower. It is recommended  that  dis-
       tribution  authors  only	 include  mtools  binaries compiled on kernels
       older than 1.3.34 until 2.0 comes out. When 2.0 will be out, mtools bi-
       naries  compiled	 on  newer  kernels  may  (and should) be distributed.
       Mtools binaries compiled	on kernels older than 1.3.34 won't run on  any
       2.1 kernel or later.

   Exit	codes
       All  the	 Mtools	commands return	0 on success, 1	on utter failure, or 2
       on partial failure.  All	the  Mtools  commands  perform	a  few	sanity
       checks  before going ahead, to make sure	that the disk is indeed	an MS-
       DOS disk	(as opposed to,	say an ext2 or minix disk). These  checks  may
       reject  partially corrupted disks, which	might otherwise	still be read-
       able. To	avoid these checks, set	 the  MTOOLS_SKIP_CHECK	 environmental
       variable	 or the	corresponding configuration file variable (see section
       global variables)

   Bugs
       An unfortunate side effect of not guessing the proper device (when mul-
       tiple  disk  capacities	are  supported)	is an occasional error message
       from the	device driver.	These can be safely ignored.

       The fat checking	code chokes on 1.72 Mb disks mformatted	with pre-2.0.7
       mtools. Set the environmental variable MTOOLS_FAT_COMPATIBILITY (or the
       corresponding configuration file	variable, `global variables')  to  by-
       pass the	fat checking.

See also
       floppyd_installtest mattrib mbadblocks mcd mcopy	mdel mdeltree mdir mdu
       mformat minfo mkmanifest	mlabel mmd mmount mmove	 mrd  mren  mtoolstest
       mtype

mtools-4.0.10			    10Mar09			   mtools.1(3)

Name | Introduction | Where to get mtools | Common features of all mtools commands | See also

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