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GROFF_MS(7)	       Miscellaneous Information Manual		   GROFF_MS(7)

       groff_ms	- groff	ms macros

       groff -ms [ options... ]	[ files... ]
       groff -m	ms [ options...	] [ files... ]

       This  manual  page  describes the GNU version of	the ms macros, part of
       the groff typesetting system.  The ms macros are	mostly compatible with
       the  documented behavior	of the 4.3 BSD Unix ms macros (see Differences
       from troff ms below for details).  The ms macros	are suitable  for  re-
       ports, letters, books, and technical documentation.

       The  ms	macro package expects files to have a certain amount of	struc-
       ture.  The simplest documents can begin with a paragraph	macro and con-
       sist of text separated by paragraph macros or even blank	lines.	Longer
       documents have a	structure as follows:

       Document	type
	      If you use the RP	(report) macro at the beginning	of  the	 docu-
	      ment,  groff  prints the cover page information on its own page;
	      otherwise	it prints the information on the first page with  your
	      document	text  immediately  following.	Other document formats
	      found in AT&T troff are specific to AT&T or  Berkeley,  and  are
	      not supported in groff ms.

       Format and layout
	      By setting number	registers, you can change your document's type
	      (font and	size), margins,	 spacing,  headers  and	 footers,  and
	      footnotes.   See	Document  control registers below for more de-

       Cover page
	      A	cover page consists of a title,	and  optionally	 the  author's
	      name and institution, an abstract, and the date.	See Cover page
	      macros below for more details.

       Body   Following	the cover page is your document.  It consists of para-
	      graphs, headings,	and lists.

       Table of	contents
	      Longer  documents	usually	include	a table	of contents, which you
	      can add by placing the TC	macro at the end of your document.

   Document control registers
       The following table lists the document control number  registers.   For
       the sake	of consistency,	set registers related to margins at the	begin-
       ning of your document, or just after the	RP macro.

       Margin settings

	      Reg.	    Definition	       Effective    Default
	       PO     Page offset (left	mar-   next page    1i
	       LL     Line length	       next para.   6i
	       LT     Header/footer length     next para.   6i
	       HM     Top (header) margin      next page    1i
	       FM     Bottom (footer) margin   next page    1i

       Text settings

		Reg.	       Definition	    Effective	  Default
	       PS	 Point size		   next	para.	  10p
	       VS	 Line spacing (leading)	   next	para.	  12p
	       PSINCR	 Point size increment	   next	heading	  1p
			 for section headings of
			 increasing importance
	       GROWPS	 Heading level beyond	   next	heading	  0
			 which PSINCR is ignored

       Paragraph settings

		 Reg.		   Definition		 Effective     Default
	       PI	   Initial indent		next para.     5n
	       PD	   Space between paragraphs	next para.     0.3v
	       QI	   Quoted paragraph indent	next para.     5n
	       PORPHANS	   Number of initial lines to	next para.     1
			   be kept together
	       HORPHANS	   Number of initial lines to	next heading   1
			   be kept with	heading

       Footnote	settings

	      Reg.	Definition	  Effective	 Default
	       FL     Footnote length	next footnote	\n[LL]*5/6
	       FI     Footnote indent	next footnote	2n
	       FF     Footnote format	next footnote	0
	       FPS    Point size	next footnote	\n[PS]-2
	       FVS    Vert. spacing	next footnote	\n[FPS]+2
	       FPD    Para. spacing	next footnote	\n[PD]/2

       Other settings

	       Reg.	     Definition		Effective   Default
	       MINGW	Minimum	width between	next page   2n

   Cover page macros
       Use  the	 following  macros to create a cover page for your document in
       the order shown.

       .RP [no]
	      Specifies	the report format for your document.  The report  for-
	      mat  creates  a  separate	 cover	page.  With no RP macro, groff
	      prints a subset of the cover page	on page	1 of your document.

	      If you use the optional no argument, groff prints	a  title  page
	      but  does	 not  repeat any of the	title page information (title,
	      author, abstract,	etc.) on page 1	of the document.

       .P1    (P-one) Prints the header	on page	1.  The	default	is to suppress
	      the header.

       .DA [xxx]
	      (optional) Print the current date, or the	arguments to the macro
	      if any, on the title page	(if specified)	and  in	 the  footers.
	      This is the default for nroff.

       .ND [xxx]
	      (optional) Print the current date, or the	arguments to the macro
	      if any, on the title page	(if specified) but not in the footers.
	      This is the default for troff.

       .TL    Specifies	the document title.  Groff collects text following the
	      TL macro into the	title, until reaching the author name  or  ab-

       .AU    Specifies	 the  author's name.  You can specify multiple authors
	      by using an AU macro for each author.

       .AI    Specifies	the author's institution.  You	can  specify  multiple

       .AB [no]
	      Begins the abstract.  The	default	is to print the	word ABSTRACT,
	      centered and in italics, above the text of  the  abstract.   The
	      option no	suppresses this	heading.

       .AE    End the abstract.

       Use  the	 PP  macro  to create indented paragraphs, and the LP macro to
       create paragraphs with no initial indent.

       The QP macro indents all	text at	both left and right margins.  The  ef-
       fect is identical to the	HTML <BLOCKQUOTE> element.  The	next paragraph
       or heading returns margins to normal.

       The XP macro produces an	exdented paragraph.  The  first	 line  of  the
       paragraph  begins at the	left margin, and subsequent lines are indented
       (the opposite of	PP).

       For each	of the above paragraph types, and also for any list entry  in-
       troduced	by the IP macro	(described later), the document	control	regis-
       ter PORPHANS, sets the minimum number of	lines which must  be  printed,
       after the start of the paragraph, and before any	page break occurs.  If
       there is	insufficient space remaining on	the current page  to  accommo-
       date this number	of lines, then a page break is forced before the first
       line of the paragraph is	printed.

       Similarly, when a section heading (see subsection Headings below)  pre-
       ceeds  any of these paragraph types, the	HORPHANS document control reg-
       ister specifies the minimum number of lines of the paragraph which must
       be kept on the same page	as the heading.	 If insufficient space remains
       on the current page to accommodate the heading and this number of lines
       of  paragraph  text,  then a page break is forced before	the heading is

       Use headings to create a	hierarchical structure for your	document.   By
       default,	 the ms	macros print headings in bold using the	same font fam-
       ily and point size as the body text.  For output	devices	which  support
       scalable	 fonts,	 this behaviour	may be modified, by defining the docu-
       ment control registers, GROWPS and PSINCR.

       The following heading macros are	available:

       .NH xx Numbered heading.	 The argument xx is either a numeric  argument
	      to  indicate  the	level of the heading, or S xx xx "..."	to set
	      the section number explicitly.  If you  specify  heading	levels
	      out  of  sequence,  such	as  invoking  .NH 3 after .NH 1, groff
	      prints a warning on standard error.

	      If the GROWPS register is	set to a value greater than the	 level
	      of  the  heading,	then the point size of the heading will	be in-
	      creased by PSINCR	units over the text size specified by  the  PS
	      register,	for each level by which	the heading level is less than
	      the value	of GROWPS.  For	example, the sequence:

		     .nr PS 10
		     .nr GROWPS	3
		     .nr PSINCR	1.5p
		     .NH 1
		     Top Level Heading
		     .NH 2
		     Second Level Heading
		     .NH 3
		     Third Level Heading

	      will cause "1. Top Level Heading"	to be  printed	in  13pt  bold
	      text,  followed  by  "1.1. Second	Level Heading"	in 11.5pt bold
	      text, while "1.1.1. Third	Level Heading",	and  all  more	deeply
	      nested  heading  levels, will remain in the 10pt bold text which
	      is specified by the PS register.

	      Note that	the value stored in PSINCR is interpreted in groff ba-
	      sic units; the p scaling factor should be	employed, when assign-
	      ing a value specified in points.

	      After invoking .NH, the assigned heading number is available  in
	      the strings SN-DOT (exactly as it	appears	in the formatted head-
	      ing), and	SN-NO-DOT (with	its final period omitted).  The	string
	      SN  is  also  defined, as	an alias for SN-DOT; if	preferred, the
	      user may redefine	it as an alias for SN-NO-DOT, by including the

		     .ds SN-NO-DOT
		     .als SN SN-NO-DOT

	      before the first use of .NH, or simply:

		     .als SN SN-NO-DOT

	      after the	first use of .NH.

       .SH [xx]
	      Unnumbered subheading.  The use of the optional xx argument is a
	      GNU extension, which adjusts the point size  of  the  unnumbered
	      subheading to match that of a numbered heading, introduced using
	      .NH xx with the same value of xx.	 For example, given  the  same
	      settings	for  PS,  GROWPS and PSINCR, as	used in	the preceeding
	      .NH example, the sequence:

		     .SH 2
		     An	Unnumbered Subheading

	      will print "An Unnumbered	Subheading" in 11.5pt bold text.

       The ms macros provide a variety of methods to  highlight	 or  emphasize

       .B [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets  its	 first argument	in bold	type.  If you specify a	second
	      argument,	groff prints it	in the previous	font  after  the  bold
	      text, with no intervening	space (this allows you to set punctua-
	      tion after the highlighted text without highlighting the punctu-
	      ation).  Similarly, it prints the	third argument (if any)	in the
	      previous font before the first argument.	For example,

		     .B	foo ) (

	      prints (foo).

	      If you give this macro no	arguments, groff prints	all text  fol-
	      lowing  in bold until the	next highlighting, paragraph, or head-
	      ing macro.

       .R [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in roman (or regular) type.  It operates
	      similarly	to the B macro otherwise.

       .I [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets  its	 first argument	in italic type.	 It operates similarly
	      to the B macro otherwise.

       .CW [txt	[post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in a constant width face.	  It  operates
	      similarly	to the B macro otherwise.

       .BI [txt	[post [pre]]]
	      Sets  its	first argument in bold italic type.  It	operates simi-
	      larly to the B macro otherwise.

       .BX [txt]
	      Prints its argument and draws a box around it.  If you  want  to
	      box a string that	contains spaces, use a digit-width space (\0).

       .UL [txt	[post]]
	      Prints  its  first argument with an underline.  If you specify a
	      second argument, groff prints it in the previous font after  the
	      underlined text, with no intervening space.

       .LG    Prints  all  text	following in larger type (2 points larger than
	      the current point	size) until the	next font size,	 highlighting,
	      paragraph,  or heading macro.  You can specify this macro	multi-
	      ple times	to enlarge the point size as needed.

       .SM    Prints all text following	in smaller type	(2 points smaller than
	      the  current point size) until the next type size, highlighting,
	      paragraph, or heading macro.  You	can specify this macro	multi-
	      ple times	to reduce the point size as needed.

       .NL    Prints all text following	in the normal point size (that is, the
	      value of the PS register).

	      Print the	enclosed text as a superscript.

       You may need to indent sections of text.	 A typical use for indents  is
       to create nested	lists and sublists.

       Use  the	 RS and	RE macros to start and end a section of	indented text,
       respectively.  The PI register controls the amount of indent.

       You can nest indented sections as deeply	as needed by  using  multiple,
       nested pairs of RS and RE.

       The IP macro handles duties for all lists.  Its syntax is as follows:

       .IP [marker [width]]

	      The  marker  is  usually	a  bullet character \(bu for unordered
	      lists, a number (or auto-incrementing number register) for  num-
	      bered  lists,  or	a word or phrase for indented (glossary-style)

	      The width	specifies the indent for the body of each  list	 item.
	      Once  specified,	the indent remains the same for	all list items
	      in the document until specified again.

   Tab stops
       Use the ta request to set tab stops as needed.  Use the TA macro	to re-
       set  tabs  to the default (every	5n).  You can redefine the TA macro to
       create a	different set of default tab stops.

   Displays and	keeps
       Use displays to show text-based examples	or figures (such as code list-
       ings).	Displays  turn	off filling, so	lines of code can be displayed
       as-is without inserting br requests in between each line.  Displays can
       be  kept	 on a single page, or allowed to break across pages.  The fol-
       lowing table shows the display types available.

		   Display macro		Type of	display
		With keep      No keep
	      .DS L	       .LD	 Left-justified.
	      .DS I [indent]   .ID	 Indented (default indent in
					 the DI	register).
	      .DS B	       .BD	 Block-centered	(left-justi-
					 fied, longest line centered).
	      .DS C	       .CD	 Centered.
	      .DS R	       .RD	 Right-justified.

       Use the DE macro	to end any display type.  The macros Ds	 and  De  were
       formerly	provided as aliases for	DS and DE, respectively, but they have
       been removed, and should	no longer be used.  X11	documents which	 actu-
       ally  use Ds and	De always load a specific macro	file from the X11 dis-
       tribution (macros.t) which provides  proper  definitions	 for  the  two

       To  keep	 text together on a page, such as a paragraph that refers to a
       table (or list, or other	item) immediately following, use the KS	and KE
       macros.	 The  KS  macro	 begins	a block	of text	to be kept on a	single
       page, and the KE	macro ends the block.

       You can specify a floating keep using the KF and	 KE  macros.   If  the
       keep  cannot  fit  on the current page, groff holds the contents	of the
       keep and	allows text following the keep (in the source file) to fill in
       the remainder of	the current page.  When	the page breaks, whether by an
       explicit	bp request or by reaching the end of the  page,	 groff	prints
       the  floating  keep  at	the  top  of the new page.  This is useful for
       printing	large graphics or tables that do not need  to  appear  exactly
       where specified.

       The  macros  B1	and B2 can be used to enclose a	text within a box; .B1
       begins the box, and .B2 ends it.	 Text  in  the	box  is	 automatically
       placed in a diversion (keep).

   Tables, figures, equations, and references
       The -ms macros support the standard groff preprocessors:	tbl, pic, eqn,
       and refer.  Mark	text meant for preprocessors by	enclosing it in	 pairs
       of tags as follows:

       .TS [H] and .TE
	      Denotes  a  table, to be processed by the	tbl preprocessor.  The
	      optional H argument instructs groff to create a  running	header
	      with  the	 information  up  to  the  TH macro.  Groff prints the
	      header at	the beginning of the table; if the table runs onto an-
	      other page, groff	prints the header on the next page as well.

       .PS and .PE
	      Denotes a	graphic, to be processed by the	pic preprocessor.  You
	      can create a pic file by hand, using the AT&T pic	manual	avail-
	      able  on	the Web	as a reference,	or by using a graphics program
	      such as xfig.

       .EQ [align] and .EN
	      Denotes an equation, to be processed by  the  eqn	 preprocessor.
	      The optional align argument can be C, L, or I to center (the de-
	      fault), left-justify, or indent the equation.

       .[ and .]
	      Denotes a	reference, to be processed by the refer	 preprocessor.
	      The  GNU refer(1)	manual page provides a comprehensive reference
	      to the preprocessor and the format of  the  bibliographic	 data-

       The  ms	macros	provide	a flexible footnote system.  You can specify a
       numbered	footnote by using the \** escape, followed by the text of  the
       footnote	enclosed by FS and FE macros.

       You  can	specify	symbolic footnotes by placing the mark character (such
       as \(dg for the dagger character) in the	body  text,  followed  by  the
       text of the footnote enclosed by	FS \(dg	and FE macros.

       You can control how groff prints	footnote numbers by changing the value
       of the FF register as follows:

	      0	     Prints the	footnote number	as a superscript; indents  the
		     footnote (default).

	      1	     Prints  the number	followed by a period (like 1.) and in-
		     dents the footnote.

	      2	     Like 1, without an	indent.

	      3	     Like 1, but prints	the footnote number as a hanging para-

       You can use footnotes safely within keeps and displays, but avoid using
       numbered	footnotes within floating keeps.  You can set a	second \** be-
       tween a \** and its corresponding .FS; as long as each .FS occurs after
       the corresponding \** and the occurrences of .FS	are in the same	 order
       as the corresponding occurrences	of \**.

   Headers and footers
       There are two ways to define headers and	footers:

       o  Use  the  strings  LH, CH, and RH to set the left, center, and right
	  headers; use LF, CF, and RF to set the left, center, and right foot-
	  ers.	 This works best for documents that do not distinguish between
	  odd and even pages.

       o  Use the OH and EH macros to define headers  for  the	odd  and  even
	  pages;  and  OF and EF macros	to define footers for the odd and even
	  pages.  This is more flexible	than defining the individual  strings.
	  The syntax for these macros is as follows:

		 .OH 'left'center'right'

	  You can replace the quote (')	marks with any character not appearing
	  in the header	or footer text.

       You control margins using a set of number registers.  The following ta-
       ble lists the register names and	defaults:

	      Reg.	    Definition	       Effective    Default
	       PO     Page offset (left	mar-   next page    1i
	       LL     Line length	       next para.   6i
	       LT     Header/footer length     next para.   6i
	       HM     Top (header) margin      next page    1i
	       FM     Bottom (footer) margin   next page    1i

       Note that there is no right margin setting.  The	 combination  of  page
       offset  and line	length provide the information necessary to derive the
       right margin.

   Multiple columns
       The ms macros can set text in as	many columns as	will reasonably	fit on
       the  page.   The	 following  macros are available.  All of them force a
       page break if a multi-column mode is already set.  However, if the cur-
       rent mode is single-column, starting a multi-column mode	does not force
       a page break.

       .1C    Single-column mode.

       .2C    Two-column mode.

       .MC [width [gutter]]
	      Multi-column mode.  If you specify no arguments, it  is  equiva-
	      lent  to	the  2C	 macro.	 Otherwise, width is the width of each
	      column and gutter	is the space between columns.  The MINGW  num-
	      ber register is the default gutter width.

   Creating a table of contents
       Wrap text that you want to appear in the	table of contents in XS	and XE
       macros.	Use the	TC macro to print the table of contents	at the end  of
       the document, resetting the page	number to i (Roman numeral 1).

       You can manually	create a table of contents by specifying a page	number
       as the first argument to	XS.   Add  subsequent  entries	using  the  XA
       macro.  For example:

	      .XS 1
	      .XA 2
	      A	Brief History of the Universe
	      .XA 729
	      Details of Galactic Formation

       Use  the	PX macro to print a manually-generated table of	contents with-
       out resetting the page number.

       If you give the argument	no to either PX	or TC, groff suppresses	print-
       ing the title specified by the \*[TOC] string.

   Fractional point sizes
       Traditionally,  the ms macros only support integer values for the docu-
       ment's font size	and vertical spacing.  To overcome  this  restriction,
       values  larger  than  or	 equal to 1000 are taken as fractional values,
       multiplied by 1000.  For	example, `.nr PS 10250'	sets the font size  to
       10.25 points.

       The  following  four  registers	accept fractional point	sizes: PS, VS,
       FPS, and	FVS.

       Due to backwards	compatibility, the value of VS must  be	 smaller  than
       40000 (this is 40.0 points).

       The groff ms macros are a complete re-implementation, using no original
       AT&T code.  Since they take  advantage  of  the	extended  features  in
       groff, they cannot be used with AT&T troff.  Other differences include:

       o  The  internals  of  groff  ms	 differ	from the internals of Unix ms.
	  Documents that depend	upon implementation details of Unix ms may not
	  format properly with groff ms.

       o  The  error-handling  policy  of groff	ms is to detect	and report er-
	  rors,	rather than silently to	ignore them.

       o  Bell Labs localisms are not implemented.

       o  Berkeley localisms, in particular the	TM and CT macros, are not  im-

       o  Groff	 ms does not work in compatibility mode	(e.g., with the	-C op-

       o  There	is no support for typewriter-like devices.

       o  Groff	ms does	not provide cut	marks.

       o  Multiple line	spacing	is not supported (use a	larger vertical	 spac-
	  ing instead).

       o  Some	Unix ms	documentation says that	the CW and GW number registers
	  can be used to control the column width and  gutter  width,  respec-
	  tively.  These number	registers are not used in groff	ms.

       o  Macros  that	cause  a reset (paragraphs, headings, etc.) may	change
	  the indent.  Macros that change  the	indent	do  not	 increment  or
	  decrement  the indent, but rather set	it absolutely.	This can cause
	  problems for documents that define additional	macros of  their  own.
	  The  solution	is to use not the in request but instead the RS	and RE

       o  The number register GS is set	to 1 by	the groff ms  macros,  but  is
	  not  used  by	 the Unix ms macros.  Documents	that need to determine
	  whether they are being formatted with	Unix ms	or groff ms should use
	  this number register.

       o  To  make  groff ms use the default page offset (which	also specifies
	  the left margin), the	PO number register must	stay  undefined	 until
	  the first ms macro is	evaluated.  This implies that PO should	not be
	  used early in	the document, unless it	is changed also: Remember that
	  accessing an undefined register automatically	defines	it.

       You  can	redefine the following strings to adapt	the groff ms macros to
       languages other than English:

			     String	   Default Value
			   REFERENCES	 References
			   TOC		 Table of Contents
			   MONTH1	 January
			   MONTH2	 February
			   MONTH3	 March
			   MONTH4	 April
			   MONTH5	 May
			   MONTH6	 June
			   MONTH7	 July
			   MONTH8	 August
			   MONTH9	 September
			   MONTH10	 October
			   MONTH11	 November
			   MONTH12	 December

       The \*- string produces an em dash -- like this.

       Use \*Q and \*U to get a	left and right	typographer's  quote,  respec-
       tively, in troff	(and plain quotes in nroff).

   Text	Settings
       The  FAM	 string	sets the default font family.  If this string is unde-
       fined at	initialization,	it is set to Times.

       The point size, vertical	spacing, and inter-paragraph spacing for foot-
       notes are controlled by the number registers FPS, FVS, and FPD; at ini-
       tialization these are set to \n(PS-2, \n[FPS]+2,	and  \n(PD/2,  respec-
       tively.	 If  any of these registers are	defined	before initialization,
       the initialization macro	does not change	them.

       The hyphenation flags (as set by	the hy request)	are set	 from  the  HY
       register; the default is	14.

       Improved	 accent	marks (as originally defined in	Berkeley's ms version)
       are available by	specifying the AM macro	at the beginning of your docu-
       ment.   You  can	place an accent	over most characters by	specifying the
       string defining the accent directly after the character.	 For  example,
       n\*~ produces an	n with a tilde over it.

       The  following  conventions  are	 used for names	of macros, strings and
       number registers.  External names available to documents	that  use  the
       groff ms	macros contain only uppercase letters and digits.

       Internally  the macros are divided into modules;	naming conventions are
       as follows:

       o  Names	used only within one module are	of the form module*name.

       o  Names	used outside the module	in which they are defined are  of  the
	  form module@name.

       o  Names	 associated  with  a  particular  environment  are of the form
	  environment:name; these are used only	within the par module.

       o  name does not	have a module prefix.

       o  Constructed  names  used  to	implement  arrays  are	of  the	  form

       Thus the	groff ms macros	reserve	the following names:

       o  Names	containing the characters *, @,	and :.

       o  Names	containing only	uppercase letters and digits.

       /usr/share/tmac/ms.tmac (a wrapper file for s.tmac)

       groff(1),  troff(1),  tbl(1),  pic(1), eqn(1), refer(1),	Groff: The GNU
       Implementation of troff by Trent	Fisher and Werner Lemberg.

       Original	manual page by James Clark et al; rewritten  by	 Larry	Kollar

Groff Version 1.19.2		 23 July 2015			   GROFF_MS(7)


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