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MOUNT(8)                FreeBSD System Manager's Manual               MOUNT(8)

     mount -- mount file systems

     mount [-adfpruvw] [-o options] [-t ufs | external_type]
     mount [-dfpruvw] special | node
     mount [-dfpruvw] [-o options] [-t ufs | external_type] special node

     The mount utility calls the mount(2) system call to prepare and graft a
     special device or the remote node (rhost:path) on to the file system tree
     at the point node.  If either special or node are not provided, the
     appropriate information is taken from the fstab(5) file.

     The system maintains a list of currently mounted file systems.  If no
     arguments are given to mount, this list is printed.

     The options are as follows:

     -a      All the filesystems described in fstab(5) are mounted.  Excep-
             tions are those marked as ``noauto'', excluded by the -t flag
             (see below), or if they are already mounted (except the root
             filesystem which is always remounted to preserve traditional sin-
             gle user mode behavior).

     -d      Causes everything to be done except for the actual system call.
             This option is useful in conjunction with the -v flag to deter-
             mine what the mount command is trying to do.

     -f      Forces the revocation of write access when trying to downgrade a
             filesystem mount status from read-write to read-only.  Also
             forces the R/W mount of an unclean filesystem (dangerous; use
             with caution).

     -o      Options are specified with a -o flag followed by a comma sepa-
             rated string of options.  In case of conflicting options being
             specified, the rightmost option takes effect.  The following
             options are available:

             async   All I/O to the file system should be done asynchronously.
                     This is a dangerous flag to set, and should not be used
                     unless you are prepared to recreate the file system
                     should your system crash.

                     When used with the -u flag, this is the same as specify-
                     ing the options currently in effect for the mounted

             force   The same as -f; forces the revocation of write access
                     when trying to downgrade a filesystem mount status from
                     read-write to read-only.  Also forces the R/W mount of an
                     unclean filesystem (dangerous; use with caution).

             fstab   When used with the -u flag, this is the same as specify-
                     ing all the options listed in the fstab(5) file for the

                     Metadata I/O should be done synchronously, while data I/O
                     should be done asynchronously.  This is the default.

                     Do not update the file access time when reading from a
                     file.  This option is useful on filesystems where there
                     are large numbers of files and performance is more criti-
                     cal than updating the file access time (which is rarely
                     ever important).  This option is currently only supported
                     on local filesystems.

             noauto  This filesystem should be skipped when mount is run with
                     the -a flag.

                     Disable read clustering.

                     Disable write clustering.

             nodev   Do not interpret character or block special devices on
                     the file system.  This option is useful for a server that
                     has file systems containing special devices for architec-
                     tures other than its own.  This option is set automati-
                     cally when the user does not have super-user privileges.

             noexec  Do not allow execution of any binaries on the mounted
                     file system.  This option is useful for a server that has
                     file systems containing binaries for architectures other
                     than its own.

             nosuid  Do not allow set-user-identifier or set-group-identifier
                     bits to take effect.  Note: this option is worthless if a
                     public available suid or sgid wrapper like suidperl(1) is
                     installed on your system.  It is set automatically when
                     the user does not have super-user privileges.

                     Do not follow symlinks on the mounted file system.

             rdonly  The same as -r; mount the file system read-only (even the
                     super-user may not write it).

             sync    All I/O to the file system should be done synchronously.

                     A directory on the mounted filesystem will respond to the
                     SUID bit being set, by setting the owner of any new files
                     to be the same as the owner of the directory.  New direc-
                     tories will inherit the bit from their parents.  Execute
                     bits are removed from the file, and it will not be given
                     to root.

                     This feature is designed for use on fileservers serving
                     PC users via ftp, SAMBA, or netatalk.  It provides secu-
                     rity holes for shell users and as such should not be used
                     on shell machines, especially on home directories.  This
                     option requires the SUIDDIR option in the kernel to work.
                     Only UFS filesystems support this option.  See chmod(2)
                     for more information.

             update  The same as -u; indicate that the status of an already
                     mounted file system should be changed.

             union   Causes the namespace at the mount point to appear as the
                     union of the mounted filesystem root and the existing
                     directory.  Lookups will be done in the mounted filesys-
                     tem first.  If those operations fail due to a non-exis-
                     tent file the underlying directory is then accessed.  All
                     creates are done in the mounted filesystem.

             Any additional options specific to a filesystem type that is not
             one of the internally known types (see the -t option) may be
             passed as a comma separated list; these options are distinguished
             by a leading ``-'' (dash).  Options that take a value are speci-
             fied using the syntax -option=value.  For example, the mount com-

                   mount -t mfs -o nosuid,-N,-s=4000 /dev/dk0b /tmp

             causes mount to execute the equivalent of:

                   /sbin/mount_mfs -o nosuid -N -s 4000 /dev/dk0b /tmp

             Additional options specific to filesystem types which are not
             internally known (see the description of the -t option below) may
             be described in the manual pages for the associated
             /sbin/mount_XXX utilities.

     -p      Print mount information in fstab(5) format.  Implies also the -v

     -r      The file system is to be mounted read-only.  Mount the file sys-
             tem read-only (even the super-user may not write it).  The same
             as the rdonly argument to the -o option.

     -t ufs | external_type
             The argument following the -t is used to indicate the file system
             type.  The type ufs is the default.  The -t option can be used to
             indicate that the actions should only be taken on filesystems of
             the specified type.  More than one type may be specified in a
             comma separated list.  The list of filesystem types can be pre-
             fixed with ``no'' to specify the filesystem types for which
             action should not be taken.  For example, the mount command:

                   mount -a -t nonfs,mfs

             mounts all filesystems except those of type NFS and MFS.

             If the type is not one of the internally known types, mount will
             attempt to execute a program in /sbin/mount_XXX where XXX is
             replaced by the type name.  For example, nfs filesystems are
             mounted by the program /sbin/mount_nfs.

             Most filesystems will be dynamically loaded by their mount pro-
             grams if not already present in the kernel, using the vfsload(3)
             subroutine.  Because this mechanism requires writable temporary
             space, the filesystem type containing /tmp must be compiled into
             the kernel, and the filesystems containing /tmp and /usr/bin/ld
             must be listed in /etc/fstab before any filesystems which might
             be dynamically loaded.

     -u      The -u flag indicates that the status of an already mounted file
             system should be changed.  Any of the options discussed above
             (the -o option) may be changed; also a file system can be changed
             from read-only to read-write or vice versa.  An attempt to change
             from read-write to read-only will fail if any files on the
             filesystem are currently open for writing unless the -f flag is
             also specified.  The set of options is determined by applying the
             options specified in the argument to -o and finally applying the
             -r or -w option.

     -v      Verbose mode.

     -w      The file system object is to be read and write.

     Various, most of them are self-explanatory.

           XXXXX filesystem is not available

     The kernel does not support the respective filesystem type.  Note that
     support for a particular filesystem might be provided either on a static
     (kernel compile-time), or dynamic basis (loaded as a kernel module by
     kldload(8)).  Normally, mount or its subprocesses attempt to dynamically
     load a filesystem module if it has not been configured statically, using
     vfsload(3).  In this case, the above error message can also mean that you
     did not have permission to load the module.

     /etc/fstab  file system table

     mount(2), vfsload(3), fstab(5), kldload(8), mount_cd9660(8),
     mount_ext2fs(8), mount_fdesc(8), mount_linprocfs(8), mount_mfs(8),
     mount_msdos(8), mount_nfs(8), mount_ntfs(8), mount_null(8),
     mount_nwfs(8), mount_portal(8), mount_procfs(8), mount_smbfs(8),
     mount_std(8), mount_umap(8), mount_union(8), sysctl(8), umount(8)

     It is possible for a corrupted file system to cause a crash.

     After a successful mount, the permissions on the original mount point
     determine if .. is accessible from the mounted file system.  The minimum
     permissions for the mount point for traversal across the mount point in
     both directions to be possible for all users is 0111 (execute for all).

     A mount utility appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

FreeBSD 4.10                     June 16, 1994                    FreeBSD 4.10


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