Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Man Pages

Man Page or Keyword Search:
Man Architecture
Apropos Keyword Search (all sections) Output format
home | help
MORE(1)                 FreeBSD General Commands Manual                MORE(1)

NAME
     more - file perusal filter for crt viewing

SYNOPSIS
     more [-ceinus] [-t tag] [-x tabs] [-/ pattern] [-#] file ...

DESCRIPTION
     More is a filter for paging through text one screenful at a time.  It
     uses termcap(3) so it can run on a variety of terminals.  There is even
     limited support for hardcopy terminals.  (On a hardcopy terminal, lines
     which should be printed at the top of the screen are prefixed with an up-
     arrow.)  File may be a single dash (``-''), implying stdin.

OPTIONS
     Command line options are described below.  Options are also taken from
     the environment variable MORE (make sure to precede them with a dash
     (``-'')) but command line options will override them.  Normally, more
     will repaint the screen by scrolling from the bottom of the screen.  If
     the -c option is set, when more needs to change the entire display, it
     will paint from the top line down.  Normally, if displaying a single
     file, more exits as soon as it reaches end-of-file.  The -e option tells
     more to exit if it reaches end-of-file twice without an intervening
     operation.  If the file is shorter than a single screen more will exit at
     end-of-file regardless.  The -i option causes searches to ignore case;
     that is, uppercase and lowercase are considered identical.  The -n flag
     suppresses line numbers.  The default (to use line numbers) may cause
     more to run more slowly in some cases, especially with a very large input
     file.  Suppressing line numbers with the -n flag will avoid this problem.
     Using line numbers means: the line number will be displayed in the =
     command, and the v command will pass the current line number to the
     editor.  The -s option causes consecutive blank lines to be squeezed into
     a single blank line.  The -t option, followed immediately by a tag, will
     edit the file containing that tag.  For more information, see the
     ctags(1) command.  By default, more treats backspaces and CR-LF sequences
     specially.  Backspaces which appear adjacent to an underscore character
     are displayed as underlined text.  Backspaces which appear between two
     identical characters are displayed as emboldened text.  CR-LF sequences
     are compressed to a single linefeed character.  The -u option causes
     backspaces to always be displayed as control characters, i.e. as the two
     character sequence ``^H'', and CR-LF to be left alone.  The -x option
     sets tab stops every N positions. The default for N is 8.  The -/ option
     specifies a string that will be searched for before each file is
     displayed.

COMMANDS
     Interactive commands for more are based on vi(1).  Some commands may be
     preceeded by a decimal number, called N in the descriptions below.  In
     the following descriptions, ^X means control-X.

     help: display a summary of these commands.  If you forget all the other
     commands, remember this one.  f ^F Scroll forward N lines, default one
     window.  If N is more than the screen size, only the final screenful is
     displayed.  ^B Scroll backward N lines, default one window (see option -z
     below).  If N is more than the screen size, only the final screenful is
     displayed.  RETURN Scroll forward N lines, default 1.  The entire N lines
     are displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.  Scroll backward N
     lines, default 1.  The entire N lines are displayed, even if N is more
     than the screen size.  ^D Scroll forward N lines, default one half of the
     screen size.  If N is specified, it becomes the new default for
     subsequent d and u commands.  ^U Scroll backward N lines, default one
     half of the screen size.  If N is specified, it becomes the new default
     for subsequent d and u commands.  Go to line N in the file, default 1
     (beginning of file).  Go to line N in the file, default the end of the
     file.  % Go to a position N percent into the file.  N should be between 0
     and 100.  (This works if standard input is being read, but only if more
     has already read to the end of the file.  It is always fast, but not
     always useful.)  ^L Repaint the screen.  Repaint the screen, discarding
     any buffered input.  Useful if the file is changing while it is being
     viewed.  Followed by any lowercase letter, marks the current position
     with that letter.  (Single quote.)  Followed by any lowercase letter,
     returns to the position which was previously marked with that letter.
     Followed by another single quote, returns to the postion at which the
     last "large" movement command was executed, or the beginning of the file
     if no such movements have occurred.  All marks are lost when a new file
     is examined.  pattern Search forward in the file for the N-th line
     containing the pattern.  N defaults to 1.  The pattern is a regular
     expression, as recognized by ed.  The search starts at the second line
     displayed.  pattern Search backward in the file for the N-th line
     containing the pattern.  The search starts at the line immediately before
     the top line displayed.  pattern Like /, but the search is for the N-th
     line which does NOT contain the pattern.  pattern Like ?, but the search
     is for the N-th line which does NOT contain the pattern.  Repeat previous
     search, for N-th line containing the last pattern (or NOT containing the
     last pattern, if the previous search was /! or ?!).  [filename] Examine a
     new file.  If the filename is missing, the "current" file (see the N and
     P commands below) from the list of files in the command line is re-
     examined.  If the filename is a pound sign (#), the previously examined
     file is re-examined.  :n Examine the next file (from the list of files
     given in the command line).  If a number N is specified (not to be
     confused with the command N), the N-th next file is examined.  :p Examine
     the previous file.  If a number N is specified, the N-th previous file is
     examined.  Go to supplied tag.  Invokes an editor to edit the current
     file being viewed.  The editor is taken from the environment variable
     EDITOR, or defaults to vi(1).  ^G These options print out the number of
     the file currently being displayed relative to the total number of files
     there are to display, the current line number, the current byte number
     and the total bytes to display, and what percentage of the file has been
     displayed.  If more is reading from stdin, or the file is shorter than a
     single screen, some of these items may not be available.  Note, all of
     these items reference the first byte of the last line displayed on the
     screen.  :q ZZ Exits more.

ENVIRONMENT
     More utilizes the following environment variables, if they exist: This
     variable may be set with favored options to more.  Specify default
     editor.  Current shell in use (normally set by the shell at login time).
     Specifies terminal type, used by more to get the terminal characteristics
     necessary to manipulate the screen.

SEE ALSO
     ctags(1), vi(1)

AUTHOR
     This software is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Mark
     Nudleman.

HISTORY
     more appeared in 3 BSD.

                                 July 24, 1990

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | COMMANDS | ENVIRONMENT | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR | HISTORY

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=more&manpath=4.3BSD+Reno>

home | help