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MOD_CC(9)              FreeBSD Kernel Developer's Manual             MOD_CC(9)

NAME
     mod_cc, DECLARE_CC_MODULE, CC_VAR - Modular Congestion Control

SYNOPSIS
     #include <netinet/cc.h>
     #include <netinet/cc/cc_module.h>

     DECLARE_CC_MODULE(ccname, ccalgo);

     CC_VAR(ccv, what);

DESCRIPTION
     The mod_cc framework allows congestion control algorithms to be
     implemented as dynamically loadable kernel modules via the kld(4)
     facility.  Transport protocols can select from the list of available
     algorithms on a connection-by-connection basis, or use the system default
     (see mod_cc(4) for more details).

     mod_cc modules are identified by an ascii(7) name and set of hook
     functions encapsulated in a struct cc_algo, which has the following
     members:

           struct cc_algo {
                   char    name[TCP_CA_NAME_MAX];
                   int     (*mod_init) (void);
                   int     (*mod_destroy) (void);
                   int     (*cb_init) (struct cc_var *ccv);
                   void    (*cb_destroy) (struct cc_var *ccv);
                   void    (*conn_init) (struct cc_var *ccv);
                   void    (*ack_received) (struct cc_var *ccv, uint16_t type);
                   void    (*cong_signal) (struct cc_var *ccv, uint32_t type);
                   void    (*post_recovery) (struct cc_var *ccv);
                   void    (*after_idle) (struct cc_var *ccv);
           };

     The name field identifies the unique name of the algorithm, and should be
     no longer than TCP_CA_NAME_MAX-1 characters in length (the
     TCP_CA_NAME_MAX define lives in <netinet/tcp.h> for compatibility
     reasons).

     The mod_init function is called when a new module is loaded into the
     system but before the registration process is complete.  It should be
     implemented if a module needs to set up some global state prior to being
     available for use by new connections.  Returning a non-zero value from
     mod_init will cause the loading of the module to fail.

     The mod_destroy function is called prior to unloading an existing module
     from the kernel.  It should be implemented if a module needs to clean up
     any global state before being removed from the kernel.  The return value
     is currently ignored.

     The cb_init function is called when a TCP control block struct tcpcb is
     created.  It should be implemented if a module needs to allocate memory
     for storing private per-connection state.  Returning a non-zero value
     from cb_init will cause the connection set up to be aborted, terminating
     the connection as a result.

     The cb_destroy function is called when a TCP control block struct tcpcb
     is destroyed.  It should be implemented if a module needs to free memory
     allocated in cb_init.

     The conn_init function is called when a new connection has been
     established and variables are being initialised.  It should be
     implemented to initialise congestion control algorithm variables for the
     newly established connection.

     The ack_received function is called when a TCP acknowledgement (ACK)
     packet is received.  Modules use the type argument as an input to their
     congestion management algorithms.  The ACK types currently reported by
     the stack are CC_ACK and CC_DUPACK.  CC_ACK indicates the received ACK
     acknowledges previously unacknowledged data.  CC_DUPACK indicates the
     received ACK acknowledges data we have already received an ACK for.

     The cong_signal function is called when a congestion event is detected by
     the TCP stack.  Modules use the type argument as an input to their
     congestion management algorithms.  The congestion event types currently
     reported by the stack are CC_ECN, CC_RTO, CC_RTO_ERR and CC_NDUPACK.
     CC_ECN is reported when the TCP stack receives an explicit congestion
     notification (RFC3168).  CC_RTO is reported when the retransmission time
     out timer fires.  CC_RTO_ERR is reported if the retransmission time out
     timer fired in error.  CC_NDUPACK is reported if N duplicate ACKs have
     been received back-to-back, where N is the fast retransmit duplicate ack
     threshold (N=3 currently as per RFC5681).

     The post_recovery function is called after the TCP connection has
     recovered from a congestion event.  It should be implemented to adjust
     state as required.

     The after_idle function is called when data transfer resumes after an
     idle period.  It should be implemented to adjust state as required.

     The DECLARE_CC_MODULE() macro provides a convenient wrapper around the
     DECLARE_MODULE(9) macro, and is used to register a mod_cc module with the
     mod_cc framework.  The ccname argument specifies the module's name.  The
     ccalgo argument points to the module's struct cc_algo.

     mod_cc modules must instantiate a struct cc_algo, but are only required
     to set the name field, and optionally any of the function pointers.  The
     stack will skip calling any function pointer which is NULL, so there is
     no requirement to implement any of the function pointers.  Using the C99
     designated initialiser feature to set fields is encouraged.

     Each function pointer which deals with congestion control state is passed
     a pointer to a struct cc_var, which has the following members:

           struct cc_var {
                   void            *cc_data;
                   int             bytes_this_ack;
                   tcp_seq         curack;
                   uint32_t        flags;
                   int             type;
                   union ccv_container {
                           struct tcpcb            *tcp;
                           struct sctp_nets        *sctp;
                   } ccvc;
           };

     struct cc_var groups congestion control related variables into a single,
     embeddable structure and adds a layer of indirection to accessing
     transport protocol control blocks.  The eventual goal is to allow a
     single set of mod_cc modules to be shared between all congestion aware
     transport protocols, though currently only tcp(4) is supported.

     To aid the eventual transition towards this goal, direct use of variables
     from the transport protocol's data structures is strongly discouraged.
     However, it is inevitable at the current time to require access to some
     of these variables, and so the CC_VAR() macro exists as a convenience
     accessor.  The ccv argument points to the struct cc_var passed into the
     function by the mod_cc framework.  The what argument specifies the name
     of the variable to access.

     Apart from the type and ccv_container fields, the remaining fields in
     struct cc_var are for use by mod_cc modules.

     The cc_data field is available for algorithms requiring additional per-
     connection state to attach a dynamic memory pointer to.  The memory
     should be allocated and attached in the module's cb_init hook function.

     The bytes_this_ack field specifies the number of new bytes acknowledged
     by the most recently received ACK packet.  It is only valid in the
     ack_received hook function.

     The curack field specifies the sequence number of the most recently
     received ACK packet.  It is only valid in the ack_received, cong_signal
     and post_recovery hook functions.

     The flags field is used to pass useful information from the stack to a
     mod_cc module.  The CCF_ABC_SENTAWND flag is relevant in ack_received and
     is set when appropriate byte counting (RFC3465) has counted a window's
     worth of bytes has been sent.  It is the module's responsibility to clear
     the flag after it has processed the signal.  The CCF_CWND_LIMITED flag is
     relevant in ack_received and is set when the connection's ability to send
     data is currently constrained by the value of the congestion window.
     Algorithms should use the abscence of this flag being set to avoid
     accumulating a large difference between the congestion window and send
     window.

SEE ALSO
     cc_chd(4), cc_cubic(4), cc_hd(4), cc_htcp(4), cc_newreno(4), cc_vegas(4),
     mod_cc(4), tcp(4)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
     Development and testing of this software were made possible in part by
     grants from the FreeBSD Foundation and Cisco University Research Program
     Fund at Community Foundation Silicon Valley.

FUTURE WORK
     Integrate with sctp(4).

HISTORY
     The modular Congestion Control (CC) framework first appeared in
     FreeBSD 9.0.

     The framework was first released in 2007 by James Healy and Lawrence
     Stewart whilst working on the NewTCP research project at Swinburne
     University of Technology's Centre for Advanced Internet Architectures,
     Melbourne, Australia, which was made possible in part by a grant from the
     Cisco University Research Program Fund at Community Foundation Silicon
     Valley.  More details are available at:

     http://caia.swin.edu.au/urp/newtcp/

AUTHORS
     The mod_cc framework was written by Lawrence Stewart
     <lstewart@FreeBSD.org>, James Healy <jimmy@deefa.com> and David Hayes
     <david.hayes@ieee.org>.

     This manual page was written by David Hayes <david.hayes@ieee.org> and
     Lawrence Stewart <lstewart@FreeBSD.org>.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE       September 15, 2011       FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | SEE ALSO | ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS | FUTURE WORK | HISTORY | AUTHORS

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