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mksf(1M)							      mksf(1M)

NAME
       mksf - make a special (device) file

SYNOPSIS
       class  |	 driver]  directory] hw-path] instance]	[driver-options] [spe-
       cial-file]

       class | driver] directory] hw-path] minor special-file

DESCRIPTION
       The command makes a special file	in the devices directory, normally for
       an existing device, a device that has already been assigned an instance
       number by the system.  The device is specified by supplying some	combi-
       nation of the and options.  If the options specified match a unique de-
       vice in the system, creates a special file for that device;  otherwise,
       prints  an error	message	and exits.  If required, creates any subdirec-
       tories relative to the device installation directory that  are  defined
       for the resulting special file.

       For most	drivers, has a set of built-in driver options, driver-options,
       and special-file	naming conventions.  By	supplying some subset  of  the
       driver  options,	as in the first	form above, the	user can create	a spe-
       cial file with a	particular set of characteristics.  If a  special-file
       name  is	 specified,  creates  the  special file	with that special file
       name; otherwise,	the default naming convention for the driver is	used.

       In the second form, the minor number and	special-file name are  explic-
       itly  specified.	 This form is used to make a special file for a	driver
       without using the built-in driver options in The	option specifies  that
       should  make a character	(raw) device file instead of the default block
       device file for drivers that support both.

   Options
       recognizes the following	options:

	      Match a device that belongs to a given device class,
			     class.  Device classes can	 be  listed  with  the
			     command (see lsdev(1M)).  They are	defined	in the
			     files in the directory This option	is  not	 valid
			     for  pseudo  devices.  This option	cannot be used
			     with

	      Match a device  that  is	controlled  by	the  specified	device
	      driver,
			     driver.   Device  drivers	can be listed with the
			     command (see lsdev(1M)).  They are	defined	in the
			     files in the directory This option	cannot be used
			     with

	      Override the default device installation directory
			     and install the special files  in	directory  in-
			     stead.  directory must exist; otherwise, displays
			     an	error message and exits.  See WARNINGS.

	      Match a device at	a given	hardware path,
			     hw-path.  Hardware	paths can be listed  with  the
			     command (see ioscan(1M)).	A hardware path	speci-
			     fies the addresses	 of  the  hardware  components
			     leading  to a device.  It consists	of a string of
			     numbers separated by periods such as (a card), (a
			     target  address),	and (a device).	 If a hardware
			     component is a bus	converter, the	following  pe-
			     riod,  if	any,  is replaced by a slash as	in and
			     This option is not	valid for pseudo devices.

	      Match a device with the specified
			     instance number.  Instances can  be  listed  with
			     the option	of the command (see ioscan(1M)).  This
			     option is not valid for pseudo devices.

	      Create the special file with the specified minor number
			     minor.  The format	of minor is the	same  as  that
			     given in mknod(1M)	and mknod(5).

	      Quiet option.  Normally,	displays  a  message as	each driver is
			     processed.	 This  option  suppresses  the	driver
			     message, but not error messages.  See the option.

	      Create a character (raw) special file instead of a block special
	      file.

	      Verbose option.
			     In	addition to  the  normal  processing  message,
			     display  the  name	 of each special file as it is
			     created.  See the option.

   Naming Conventions
       Many special files are named using the naming convention.  These	 vari-
       ables have the following	meaning	wherever they are used.

	      card	The  unique  interface card identification number from
			(see ioscan(1M)).  It is represented as	a decimal num-
			ber with a typical range of 0 to 255.

	      target	The device target number, for example the address on a
			HP-FL or SCSI bus.  It is  represented	as  a  decimal
			number with a typical range of 0 to 15.

	      device	A  address unit	within a device, for example, the unit
			in a HP-FL device or the LUN in	a SCSI device.	It  is
			represented  as	 a decimal number with a typical range
			of 0 to	15.

   Special Files
       The driver-specific options (driver-options) and	default	 special  file
       names (special-file) are	listed below.

	      Port access mode (0-2).
			     The  default  access  mode	is 0 (Direct connect).
			     The access-mode meanings are:

			     +------------+----------------+
			     |access-mode | Port Operation |
			     +------------+----------------+
			     |	   0	  | Direct connect |
			     |	   1	  | Dial out modem |
			     |	   2	  | Dial in modem  |
			     +------------+----------------+
	      CCITT.

	      Hardware flow control (RTS/CTS).

	      Modem dialer.  Cannot be used with

	      Line printer.  Cannot be used with

	      Multiplexer port number (0 for
			     0-1 for The default port number is	0.

	      fifo-trigger   should have a value between 0 and 3.  The follow-
			     ing  table	 shows	the corresponding FIFO trigger
			     level for a given fifo-trigger value.

			     +-------------+----------------------------+
			     |fifo-trigger | Receive FIFO Trigger Level	|
			     +-------------+----------------------------+
			     |	   0	   |		 1		|
			     |	   1	   |		 4		|
			     |	   2	   |		 8		|
			     |	   3	   |		 14		|
			     +-------------+----------------------------+
	      Transparent mode (normally used by diagnostics).

	      xmit-limit     should have a value between 0 and 3.  The follow-
			     ing  table	shows the corresponding	transmit limit
			     for a given xmit-limit value.

			     +-----------+----------------+
			     |xmit-limit | Transmit Limit |
			     +-----------+----------------+
			     |	  0	 |	 1	  |
			     |	  1	 |	 4	  |
			     |	  2	 |	 8	  |
			     |	  3	 |	 12	  |
			     +-----------+----------------+
	      special-file   The default special file name depends on the  ac-
			     cess-mode and whether the and options are used.

			     +------------+-----+-----+-------------------+
			     |access-mode | -i	| -l  |	Special	File Name |
			     +------------+-----+-----+-------------------+
			     |	  --	  | no	| yes |	ccardp0_lp	  |
			     |	   2	  | no	| no  |	ttydcardp0	  |
			     |	   1	  | no	| no  |	culcardp0	  |
			     |	   0	  | yes	| no  |	cuacardp0	  |
			     |	   0	  | no	| no  |	ttycardp0	  |
			     +------------+-----+-----+-------------------+
	      Audio format (0-3).
			     The format	meanings are:

			     +-------+---------------------------+--------------------+
			     |	     |				 | File	Name Modifier |
			     |format |	     Audio Format	 |     format-mod     |
			     +-------+---------------------------+--------------------+
			     |	0    | No change in audio format |		      |
			     |	1    | 8-bit Mu-law		 |	   U	      |
			     |	2    | 8-bit A-law		 |	   A	      |
			     |	3    | 16-bit linear		 |	   L	      |
			     +-------+---------------------------+--------------------+
	      Output destination (0-4).
			     The output-dest should have a value between 0 and
			     4.	 The following table shows  the	 corresponding
			     output   destinations  for	 a  given  output-dest
			     value.

			     +------------+---------------------+--------------------+
			     |		  |			| File Name Modifier |
			     |output-dest | Output Destinations	|     output-mod     |
			     +------------+---------------------+--------------------+
			     |	   0	  | All	outputs		|	  B	     |
			     |	   1	  | Headphone		|	  E	     |
			     |	   2	  | Internal Speaker	|	  I	     |
			     |	   3	  | No output		|	  N	     |
			     |	   4	  | Line output		|	  L	     |
			     +------------+---------------------+--------------------+
	      Raw, control access.
			     This option cannot	be used	with either the	or op-
			     tions.

	      special-file   The  default special file name depends on the op-
			     tions specified.

			     +-----------+--------------------------------+
			     | Options	 |	 Special File Name	  |
			     +-----------+--------------------------------+
			     |	  -r	 | audioCtl_card		  |
			     |	 -f 0	 | audio_card			  |
			     |all others | audiooutput-modformat-mod_card |
			     +-----------+--------------------------------+
			     The optional output-mod and format-mod values are
			     given  in	the tables above.  Note	the underscore
			     before card in each special file name.  Also note
			     that  for card each file will be linked to	a sim-
			     pler name without the trailing

	      Note that	cannot be used with either or

	      Ioctl; create picker control special file.

	      The optical disk number (starts with 1).
			     If	the optional is	given then special  files  for
			     the range of disks	specified will be created.

	      Raw; create character, not block,	special	file.

	      special-file   A	special	file cannot be given if	a range	of op-
			     tical disks is given with the option.  If one  is
			     given  for	 the  single  disk case, the name will
			     have an appended to the end for the A-side	device
			     and  a appended to	the end	for the	B-side device.
			     The default special file name depends on  whether
			     the option	is used.

			     +----+---------------------------------------+
			     |-r  |	      Special File Name		  |
			     +----+---------------------------------------+
			     |yes | rac/ccardttargetddevice_optical-diska |
			     |	  | rac/ccardttargetddevice_optical-diskb |
			     +----+---------------------------------------+
			     |no  | ac/ccardttargetddevice_optical-diska  |
			     |	  | ac/ccardttargetddevice_optical-diskb  |
			     +----+---------------------------------------+
			     Note  the	underscore between device and optical-
			     disk.

	      Handshake	mode.
			     Valid values range	from 1 to 6:

			     +---------------+--------------------------------------------+
			     |handshake-mode |		  Handshake operation		  |
			     +---------------+--------------------------------------------+
			     |	    1	     | Automatic NACK/BUSY handshaking		  |
			     |	    2	     | Automatic BUSY only handshaking		  |
			     |	    3	     | Bidirectional read/write			  |
			     |	    4	     | Stream mode (NSTROBE only, no handshaking) |
			     |	    5	     | Automatic NACK/BUSY with	pulsed NSTROBE	  |
			     |	    6	     | Automatic BUSY with pulsed NSTROBE	  |
			     +---------------+--------------------------------------------+
	      special-file   The default special file name is  for  handshake-
			     mode  and	for  all others. For SCentIf, the only
			     valid handshake value is 2	(Automatic  BUSY  only
			     handshaking).

	      fifo-trigger   should have a value between 0 and 3.  The follow-
			     ing table shows the  corresponding	 FIFO  trigger
			     level for a given fifo-trigger value.

			     +-------------+----------------------------+
			     |fifo-trigger | Receive FIFO Trigger Level	|
			     +-------------+----------------------------+
			     |	   0	   |		 1		|
			     |	   1	   |		 4		|
			     |	   2	   |		 8		|
			     |	   3	   |		 14		|
			     +-------------+----------------------------+
	      Transparent mode (normally used by diagnostics).

	      xmit-limit     should have a value between 0 and 3.  The follow-
			     ing table shows the corresponding transmit	 limit
			     for a given xmit-limit value.

			     +-----------+----------------+
			     |xmit-limit | Transmit Limit |
			     +-----------+----------------+
			     |	  0	 |	 1	  |
			     |	  1	 |	 4	  |
			     |	  2	 |	 8	  |
			     |	  3	 |	 12	  |
			     +-----------+----------------+
	      special-file   The default special file name is as follows:

			     +------------------+
			     |Special File Name	|
			     +------------------+
			     |	  ttycardp0	|
			     |			|
			     +------------------+
	      Floppy.

	      Raw; create character, not block,	special	file.

	      The section number.

	      special-file   The  default special file name depends on whether
			     the and options are used:

			     +----+-----+----------------------------------+
			     |-r  | -s	|	 Special File Name	   |
			     +----+-----+----------------------------------+
			     |yes | no	| rdsk/ccardttargetddevice and	   |
			     |	  |	| rfloppy/ccardttargetddevice	   |
			     |yes | yes	| rdsk/ccardttargetddevicessection |
			     |no  | no	| dsk/ccardttargetddevice and	   |
			     |	  |	| floppy/ccardttargetddevice	   |
			     |no  | yes	| dsk/ccardttargetddevicessection  |
			     +----+-----+----------------------------------+
	      Note that	only one of or is allowed.

	      The link address (1-7).

	      Cooked keyboard.

	      The hil controller device.

	      special-file   The default special file name depends on the  and
			     options:

			     +-------+-------------------+
			     |Option | Special File Name |
			     +-------+-------------------+
			     |	-a   | hil_card.address	 |
			     |	-k   | hilkbd_card	 |
			     |	-r   | rhil_card	 |
			     +-------+-------------------+
			     Note  the underscore before card.	Also note that
			     for card each file	will be	linked	to  a  simpler
			     name without either or

	      Note that	only one of or is allowed.

	      Ethernet protocol.

	      IEEE 802.3 protocol.

	      Transparent mode (normally used by diagnostics).

	      special-file   The  default special file name depends on the and
			     options:

			     +-------+-----+-------------------+
			     |Option | -t  | Special File Name |
			     +-------+-----+-------------------+
			     |	-e   | no  | ethercard	       |
			     |	-e   | yes | diag/ethercard    |
			     |	-i   | no  | lancard	       |
			     |	-i   | yes | diag/lancard      |
			     +-------+-----+-------------------+
	      Exclusive	access.

	      special-file   The default special file name depends on  whether
			     the option	is used:

			     +----+-------------------+
			     |-e  | Special File Name |
			     +----+-------------------+
			     |no  | lanttycard	      |
			     |yes | diag/lanttycard   |
			     +----+-------------------+
	      Capital letters.
			     Convert all output	to uppercase.

	      Eject page after paper-out recovery.

	      No form-feed.

	      Old paper-out behavior (abort job).

	      Raw.

	      Transparent mode (normally used by diagnostics).

	      No wait.	     Don't retry errors	on open.

	      special-file   The  default special file name depends on whether
			     the option	is used:

			     +----+-------------------------+
			     |-r  |    Special File Name    |
			     +----+-------------------------+
			     |no  | ccardttargetddevice_lp  |
			     |yes | ccardttargetddevice_rlp |
			     +----+-------------------------+
	      Port access mode (0-2).
			     The default access	mode is	 0  (Direct  connect).
			     The access-mode meanings are:

			     +------------+----------------+
			     |access-mode | Port Operation |
			     +------------+----------------+
			     |	   0	  | Direct connect |
			     |	   1	  | Dial out modem |
			     |	   2	  | Dial in modem  |
			     +------------+----------------+
	      CCITT.

	      Hardware flow control (RTS/CTS).

	      Modem dialer.  Cannot be used with

	      Line printer.  Cannot be used with

	      Multiplexer port number (0-15 for
			     and  0-1  for  a1 - a16, b1 - b16,	c1 - c16 & etc
			     for the or	Some MUX cards controlled by a partic-
			     ular driver have fewer than the maximum supported
			     ports.

	      Transparent mode (normally used by diagnostics).

	      special-file   The default special file name depends on the  ac-
			     cess-mode	and  whether the and options are used.
			     The term "card" below refers to the Instance num-
			     ber of the	mux card.

			     +------------+-----+-----+-------------------+
			     |access-mode | -i	| -l  |	Special	File Name |
			     +------------+-----+-----+-------------------+
			     |	  --	  | no	| yes |	ccardpport_lp	  |
			     |	   2	  | no	| no  |	ttydcardpport	  |
			     |	   1	  | no	| no  |	culcardpport	  |
			     |	   0	  | yes	| no  |	cuacardpport	  |
			     |	   0	  | no	| no  |	ttycardpport	  |
			     +------------+-----+-----+-------------------+
	      Raw; create character, not block,	special	file.

	      special-file   The  default special file name depends on whether
			     the option	is used:

			     +----+-----------------------------+
			     |-r  |	 Special File Name	|
			     +----+-----------------------------+
			     |no  | floppy/ccardttargetddevice	|
			     |yes | rfloppy/ccardttargetddevice	|
			     +----+-----------------------------+
	      Note that	only one of or is allowed.

	      Autosearch device.
			     An	auto_device value of 0 means  first  mouse;  a
			     value of 1	means first keyboard.

	      PS2 port number.

	      special-file   The  default special file name depends on the and
			     options:

			     +-------+-------------------+
			     |Option | Special File Name |
			     +-------+-------------------+
			     | -a 0  | ps2mouse		 |
			     | -a 1  | ps2kbd		 |
			     |	-p   | ps2_port		 |
			     +-------+-------------------+
			     Note the underscore before	port.

	   See

	   See

	      Port access mode (0-2).
			     The default access	mode is	 0.   The  access-mode
			     meanings are:

			     +------------+----------------+
			     |access-mode | Port Operation |
			     +------------+----------------+
			     |	   0	  | Direct connect |
			     |	   1	  | Dial out modem |
			     |	   2	  | Dial in modem  |
			     +------------+----------------+
	      Port B.

	      CCITT.

	      Modem dialer.  Cannot be used with

	      Line printer.  Cannot be used with

	      special-file   The  default special file name depends on the ac-
			     cess-mode and whether the and options are used.

			     +------------+-----+-----+-------------------+
			     |access-mode | -i	| -l  |	Special	File Name |
			     +------------+-----+-----+-------------------+
			     |	  --	  | no	| yes |	ccardpport_lp	  |
			     |	   2	  | no	| no  |	ttydcardpport	  |
			     |	   1	  | no	| no  |	culcardpport	  |
			     |	   0	  | yes	| no  |	cuacardpport	  |
			     |	   0	  | no	| no  |	ttycardpport	  |
			     +------------+-----+-----+-------------------+
	   See

	      Raw; create character, not block,	special	file.

	      The section number.

	      special-file   The default special file name depends on  whether
			     the and options are used:

			     +----+-----+----------------------------------+
			     |-r  | -s	|	 Special File Name	   |
			     +----+-----+----------------------------------+
			     |yes | no	| rdsk/ccardttargetddevice	   |
			     |yes | yes	| rdsk/ccardttargetddevicessection |
			     |no  | no	| dsk/ccardttargetddevice	   |
			     |no  | yes	| dsk/ccardttargetddevicessection  |
			     +----+-----+----------------------------------+
	   See

	      AT&T-style rewind/close.

	      Bits per inch or tape density.
			     The recognized values for bpi are:
			     or	a decimal number density code.

	      Compression with optional	compression code.
			     The  optional  decimal  code  is used to select a
			     particular	compression algorithm on  drives  that
			     support  more  than  one  compression  algorithm.
			     This option must be specified at the  end	of  an
			     option string.  See mt(7) for more	details.

	      Exhaustive mode.
			     This  option allows the driver to experiment with
			     multiple configuration values in  an  attempt  to
			     access the	media.	The default behavior is	to use
			     only the configuration specified.

	      No rewind	on close.

	      Partition	one.

	      Fixed block size mode.
			     If	a numeric block-size is	given, it is used  for
			     a fixed block size.  If the option	is used	alone,
			     a device-specific default	fixed  block  size  is
			     used.   This  option must be specified at the end
			     of	an option string.

	      UC Berkeley-style	rewind/close.

	      Wait (disable immediate reporting).

	      Use the	     index value to  access  the  tape	device	driver
			     property  table entry.  Recognized	values for in-
			     dex are decimal values in the range 0 to 30.

	      special-file   Put all tape  special  files  in  the  directory.
			     This  is  required	 for proper maintenance	of the
			     Tape Property Table (see  mt(7)).	 Device	 files
			     located  outside  the  directory  may not provide
			     consistent	behavior across	system	reboots.   The
			     default  special  file names are dependent	on the
			     tape drive	being accessed and the options	speci-
			     fied.   All  default special files	begin with See
			     mt(7) for a complete description of  the  default
			     special file naming scheme	for tapes.

	      AT&T-style rewind/close.

	      Bits per inch or tape density.
			     The recognized values for bpi are:
			     or	a decimal number density code.

	      Compression with optional	compression code.
			     The  optional  decimal  code  is used to select a
			     particular	compression algorithm on  drives  that
			     support  more  than  one  compression  algorithm.
			     This option must be specified at the  end	of  an
			     option string.  See mt(7) for more	details.

	      No rewind	on close.

	      Console messages disabled.

	      Transparent mode,	normally used by diagnostics.

	      UC Berkeley-style	rewind/close.

	      Wait (disable immediate reporting).

	      Use  the	index  value to	access the tape	device driver property
	      table entry.
			     The recognized values for index are decimal  val-
			     ues in the	range 0	to 30.

	      RTE compatible close.

	      special-file   Put  all  tape  special  files  in	the directory.
			     This is required for proper  maintenance  of  the
			     Tape  Property  Table  (see mt(7)).  Device files
			     located outside the  directory  may  not  provide
			     consistent	 behavior  across system reboots.  The
			     default special file names	are dependent  on  the
			     tape  drive being accessed	and the	options	speci-
			     fied.  All	default	special	files begin  with  See
			     mt(7)  for	 a complete description	of the default
			     special file naming scheme	for tapes.

RETURN VALUE
       exits with one of the following values:

	      Successful completion.
	      Failure.
		     An	error occurred.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Most of the diagnostic messages from are	self-explanatory.  Listed  be-
       low are some messages deserving further clarification.  Errors cause to
       abort immediately.

   Errors
		     Matched more than one device in the system.
	      Use some combination of the and options to specify a unique  de-
	      vice.

		     No	device in the system matched the options specified.
	      Use to list the devices in the system (see ioscan(1M)).

		     The  indicated  device  driver  or	 device	 class	is not
		     present in	the kernel.
	      Add the appropriate device driver	and/or device class to the in-
	      put file and generate a new kernel (see config(1M)).

		     The  specified  device  has not been assigned an instance
		     number.
	      Use to assign an instance	to the device.

		     The
	      directory	argument of the	option doesn't exist.  Use  to	create
	      the directory (see mkdir(1)).

EXAMPLES
       Make  a	special	file named for the line	printer	device associated with
       instance	number 2.

       Make a special file, using the default naming convention, for the  tape
       device  at  hardware  path  8.4.1.  The driver-specific options specify
       1600 bits per inch and no rewind	on close.

WARNINGS
       Many commands and subsystems assume their device	files  are  in	there-
       fore, the use of	the option is discouraged.

AUTHOR
       was developed by	HP.

FILES
       I/O system special file
       Tape driver property table database

SEE ALSO
       mkdir(1),   config(1M),	insf(1M),  ioscan(1M),	lsdev(1M),  mknod(1M),
       rmsf(1M), mknod(2), ioconfig(4),	mknod(5), mt(7).

								      mksf(1M)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUE | DIAGNOSTICS | EXAMPLES | WARNINGS | AUTHOR | FILES | SEE ALSO

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