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MKISOFS(8)		    System Manager's Manual		    MKISOFS(8)

NAME
       mkisofs	-  create  an  hybrid ISO-9660/JOLIET/HFS/UDF filesystem-image
       with optional Rock Ridge	attributes.

SYNOPSIS
       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o	filename ] pathspec [pathspec ...]
       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o	filename ] -find [find expression]

DESCRIPTION
       mkisofs	is  effectively	 a  pre-mastering  program  to	 generate   an
       ISO-9660/JOLIET/HFS/UDF hybrid filesystem.

       ISO-9660/JOLIET/UDF  filesystems	are limited to a maximum size of 8 TB.
       The maximum size	of a single file is 8 TB (single files in UDF are cur-
       rently  limited	to  aprox.  200	GB).  If you like to have files	larger
       than 2 GB, you need to specify -iso-level 3 or above.  If a HFS	hybrid
       is  created,  the maximum file size for files in	the HFS	hybrid is 2 GB
       in any case.

   Hybrid filesystem support
       mkisofs is capable  of  generating  the	System	Use  Sharing  Protocol
       records	(SUSP) specified by the	Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.  This
       is used to further describe the files in	the ISO-9660 filesystem	 to  a
       UNIX  host, and provides	information such as longer filenames, uid/gid,
       posix permissions, symbolic links, hard links, block and	character  de-
       vices.

       If  Joliet,  HFS	 or UDF	hybrid command line options are	specified, mk-
       isofs will create additional separate filesystem	meta data for  Joliet,
       HFS  or	UDF.   The  file  content in this case refers to the same data
       blocks on the media.  It	will generate a	pure ISO-9660  filesystem  un-
       less the	Joliet,	HFS or UDF hybrid command line options are given.

       mkisofs can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The same
       files are seen as HFS files when	 accessed  from	 a  Macintosh  and  as
       ISO-9660	 files when accessed from other	machines. HFS stands for Hier-
       archical	File System and	is the native file system  used	 on  Macintosh
       computers up to Mac OS 9.

       As  an  alternative,  mkisofs  can  generate  the  Apple	 Extensions to
       ISO-9660	or UDF for each	file. These extensions provide each file  with
       CREATOR,	 TYPE and certain Finder Flags when accessed from a Macintosh.
       See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

   Functional description
       mkisofs takes a snapshot	of a given directory tree, and generates a bi-
       nary  image  which  will	 correspond  to	 an ISO-9660 or	Joliet/HFS/UDF
       filesystem when written to a block device.

       Each file written to the	ISO-9660 filesystem must have  a  filename  in
       the  8.3	 format	 (8 characters,	period,	3 characters, all upper	case),
       even if Rock Ridge attributes are in use.  This	filename  is  used  on
       systems	that  are  not	able  to make use of the Rock Ridge extensions
       (such as	MS-DOS), and each filename in each directory must be different
       from  the  other	 filenames  in	the same directory.  mkisofs generally
       tries to	form correct names by forcing the UNIX filename	to upper  case
       and  truncating as required, but	often times this yields	unsatisfactory
       results when there are cases where the  truncated  names	 are  not  all
       unique.	 mkisofs assigns weightings to each filename, and if two names
       that are	otherwise the same are found the name with the lower  priority
       is  renamed  to have a 3	digit number as	an extension (where the	number
       is guaranteed to	be unique).  An	example	of this	 would	be  the	 files
       foo.bar	and  foo.bar.~1~  -  the  file foo.bar.~1~ would be written as
       FOO000.BAR;1 and	the file foo.bar would be written as FOO.BAR;1

       When used with various HFS or UDF  options,  mkisofs  will  attempt  to
       recognise  files	stored in a number of Apple/Unix file formats and will
       copy the	data and resource forks	as well	as any relevant	finder	infor-
       mation. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below	for more about
       formats mkisofs supports.

       Note that mkisofs is not	designed to communicate	with writers for opti-
       cal  media  directly.  Most writers have	proprietary command sets which
       vary from one manufacturer to another, and you need a specialized  tool
       like cdrecord to	actually burn the disk.

       The  cdrecord  utility  is a utility capable of burning an actual disc.
       The latest  version  of	cdrecord  is  available	 from  https://source-
       forge.net/projects/cdrtools/files/	   or	       https://source-
       forge.net/projects/cdrtools/files/alpha/

       Also you	should know that most CD writers  are  very  particular	 about
       timing.	 Once  you  start  to burn a disc, you cannot let their	buffer
       empty before you	are done, or you will end  up  with  a	corrupt	 disc.
       Thus  it	is critical that you be	able to	maintain an uninterrupted data
       stream to the writer for	the entire time	that the disc is  being	 writ-
       ten.

   Dealing with	path names
       pathspec	 is  the  path	of  the	 directory  tree to be copied into the
       ISO-9660	filesystem.  Multiple paths can	be specified, and mkisofs will
       merge  the  files found in all of the specified path components to form
       the cdrom image.

       If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is possible to graft
       the  paths  at points other than	the root directory, and	it is possible
       to graft	files or directories onto the cdrom image with names different
       than  what  they	have in	the source filesystem.	This is	easiest	to il-
       lustrate	with a couple of examples.   Let's start by  assuming  that  a
       local  file  ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in the cdrom
       image.

	    foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will include the	file old.lis in	the cdrom image	 at  /foo/bar/old.lis,
       while

	    foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will  include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.  The
       same sort of syntax can be used with directories	as well.  mkisofs will
       create any directories required such that the graft points exist	on the
       cdrom image - the directories do	not need  to  appear  in  one  of  the
       paths.	By  default,  any directories that are created on the fly like
       this will have permissions 0555 and appear to be	owned  by  the	person
       running mkisofs.	 If you	wish other permissions or owners of the	inter-
       mediate	directories,  see  -uid,  -gid,	 -dir-mode,   -file-mode   and
       -new-dir-mode.

       mkisofs	will also run on Win9x/NTx machines when compiled with Cygnus'
       cygwin (available from http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/). Therefore
       most references in this man page	to Unix	also apply to Win32 or Win64.

OPTIONS
       -abstract FILE
	      Specifies	 the abstract file name	in the primary volume descrip-
	      tor.  There is space on the disc for 37 characters  of  informa-
	      tion.   The  related  Joliet  entry is limited to	18 characters.
	      This parameter can also be  set  in  the	file  .mkisofsrc  with
	      ABST=filename.   If  specified  in both places, the command line
	      version is used.

	      It is up to the user of mkisofs to include a file	with the apro-
	      priate name in the created filesystem tree.

       -A application_id

       -appid application_id
	      Specifies	 a  text  string  that will be written into the	volume
	      header.  This should describe the	application that  will	be  on
	      the  disc.  There	is space on the	disc for 128 characters	of in-
	      formation.  The related Joliet entry is limited  to  64  charac-
	      ters.   This  parameter  can  also be set	in the file .mkisofsrc
	      with APPI=id.  If	specified in both  places,  the	 command  line
	      version is used.

       -allow-leading-dots

       -ldots Allow  ISO-9660  filenames  to  begin with a period.  Usually, a
	      leading dot is replaced with an underscore in order to  maintain
	      MS-DOS compatibility.
	      This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-lowercase
	      This options allows lower	case characters	to appear in  ISO-9660
	      filenames.
	      This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      some systems.  Use with caution.

       -no-allow-lowercase
	      This resets the effect of	-allow-lowercase and even  works  when
	      -U,  -untranslated-filenames  or	-iso-level 4 have been used to
	      allow lowercase filenames.

       -allow-multidot
	      This options allows more than one	 dot  to  appear  in  ISO-9660
	      filenames.  A leading dot	is not affected	by this	option,	it may
	      be allowed separately using the -allow-leading-dots option.
	      This violates the	ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -biblio FILE
	      Specifies	 the bibliographic file	name in	the primary volume de-
	      scriptor.	 There is space	on the disc for	37 characters  of  in-
	      formation.   The	related	 Joliet	entry is limited to 18 charac-
	      ters.  This parameter can	also be	set  in	 the  file  .mkisofsrc
	      with  BIBLO=filename.   If specified in both places, the command
	      line version is used.

	      It is up to the user of mkisofs to include a file	with the apro-
	      priate name in the created filesystem tree.

       -cache-inodes
	      Cache  inode and device numbers to find hard links to files.  If
	      mkisofs finds a hard link	(a file	with multiple names), then the
	      file  will  only appear once on the CD. This helps to save space
	      on the CD.  The option -cache-inodes is default on UNIX like op-
	      erating  systems.	  Be  careful  when  using  this  option  on a
	      filesystem without unique	inode numbers  as  it  may  result  in
	      files containing the wrong content on CD.

	      See  the	option	-duplicates-once  for  a  method that works on
	      filesystems without unique inode numbers.

	      If inodes	are not	cached,	mkisofs	will revert to	the  old  Rrip
	      Version-1.10 (see	-rrip110) and mkisofs will not be able to cre-
	      ate correct inode	numbers	for zero sized files.

       -no-cache-inodes
	      Do not cache inode and device numbers.  This  option  is	needed
	      whenever	a filesystem does not have unique inode	numbers. It is
	      the default on old Cygwin	versions.  As the Microsoft  operating
	      system  that  runs  below	 Cygwin	 uses 64 bit inode numbers for
	      NTFS, it does not	have unique inode numbers in the 32 bit	range.
	      Old Cygwin versions create fake 32-bit inode numbers from	a hash
	      algorithm	and thus create	non-unique numbers.  If	mkisofs	 would
	      cache  inodes on old Cygwin versions, it would believe that some
	      files are	identical although they	are not. The  result  in  this
	      case  are	 files that contain the	wrong content if a significant
	      amount of	different files	(> ~5000) is in	inside the  tree  that
	      is  to be	archived.  This	does not happen	when the -no-cache-in-
	      odes is used, but	the disadvantage is that mkisofs cannot	detect
	      hardlinks	 anymore and the resulting CD image may	be larger than
	      expected.

	      If inodes	are not	cached,	mkisofs	will revert to	the  old  Rrip
	      Version-1.10 (see	-rrip110) and mkisofs will not be able to cre-
	      ate correct inode	numbers	for zero sized files.

       -duplicates-once
	      Tells mkisofs to use a message digest checksum to	identify iden-
	      tical  files  as	apparently hard	linked files.  This allows mk-
	      isofs to archive inode numbers and hard links even  when	it  is
	      run on non-POSIX platforms like DOS.

       -b eltorito_boot_image

       -eltorito-boot eltorito_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the  path  and	 filename of the boot image to be used
	      when making an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The  pathname  must  be
	      relative to the source path and inside the source	tree specified
	      to mkisofs.  This	option is required  to	make  an  "El  Torito"
	      bootable	CD.  The boot image must be exactly the	size of	either
	      a	1200, 1440, or a 2880 kB floppy, and  mkisofs  will  use  this
	      size when	creating the output ISO-9660 filesystem. It is assumed
	      that the first 512 byte sector should be read from the boot  im-
	      age  (it	is essentially emulating a normal floppy drive).  This
	      will work, for example, if the boot image	is a boot floppy.

	      If the boot image	is not an image	of a floppy, you need  to  add
	      one  of  the  options: -hard-disk-boot or	-no-emul-boot.	If the
	      system should not	boot off the emulated disk, use	-no-boot.

	      More than	one boot entry may be specified,  see  -eltorito-plat-
	      form and -eltorito-alt-boot on how to specify more boot entries.
	      The first	boot entry is the default boot entry.  Additional boot
	      entries are members for a	multi boot configuration.

	      If  the -sort option has not been	specified, the boot images are
	      sorted with low priority (+2) to the beginning  of  the  medium.
	      If  you  don't like this,	you need to specify a sort weight of 0
	      for the boot images.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
	      Start with a new set of "El Torito" boot parameters.   This  al-
	      lows to have more	than one El Torito boot	entry on a CD.	A max-
	      imum of 63 El Torito boot	entries	may be put on a	single CD.

	      The -eltorito-alt-boot option starts a new boot entry  with  the
	      same  platform id	but no new boot	section	except when it appears
	      past the first boot entry	which is the default boot entry.

       -eltorito-platform id
	      Set the "El Torito" platform id for a boot record	or  a  section
	      of boot records.	The.  id parameter may be either:

	      x86    This  is  the default platform id value and specifies en-
		     tries for the PC platform.	 If no -eltorito-platform  op-
		     tion  appears before the first -eltorito-boot option, the
		     default boot entry	becomes	an entry for the x86 PC	 plat-
		     form.

	      PPC    Boot entries for the Power	PC platform.

	      Mac    Boot entries for the Apple	Mac platform.

	      efi    Boot entries for EFI based	PCs.

	      #	     A numeric value specifying	any platform id.

	      If  the  option -eltorito-platform appears before	the first -el-
	      torito-boot option, it sets the platform id for the default boot
	      entry.

	      If the option -eltorito-platform appears after an	-eltorito-boot
	      option and sets the platform id to a value  different  from  the
	      previous value, it starts	a new set of boot entries.

	      The second boot entry and	any new	platform id creates a new sec-
	      tion header and reduces the number of boot  entries  per	CD  by
	      one.

       errctl= name

       errctl= error control spec
	      Add  the content from file name to the error control definitions
	      or add error control spec	 to  the  error	 control  definitions.
	      More than	one error control file and more	than one error control
	      spec as well as a	mixture	of both	forms is possible.

	      The reason for using error control  is  to  make	mkisofs	 quiet
	      about  error  conditions	that are known to be irrelevant	on the
	      quality of the created filesystem	or to tell mkisofs to abort on
	      certain  error conditions	instead	of trying to continue with the
	      filesystem.

	      A	typical	reason to use error control is	to  suppress  warnings
	      about growing log	files while doing a backup on a	live file sys-
	      tem.  Another typical reason to use error	control	is to tell mk-
	      isofs  to	 abort if e.g. a file could not	be archived instead of
	      continuing to archive other files	from a list.

	      The error	control	file contains a	set of	lines,	each  starting
	      with  a list of error conditions to be ignored followed by white
	      space followed by	a file name  pattern  (see  match(1)  or  pat-
	      match(3) for more	information).  The error control spec uses the
	      same syntax as a single line from	the error  control  file.   If
	      the  file	 name  pattern	needs to start with white space, use a
	      backslash	to escape the start of the file	name. It is not	possi-
	      ble to have new line characters in the file name pattern.	 When-
	      ever an error situation is encountered, mkisofs checks the lines
	      in the error control file	starting from the top.	If the current
	      error condition is listed	on a line in the error	control	 file,
	      then  mkisofs checks whether the pattern on the rest of the line
	      matches the current file name.  If this  is  the	case,  mkisofs
	      uses the current error control specification to control the cur-
	      rent error condition.

	      The list of error	conditions to be handled may use one  or  more
	      (in this case separated by a '|' character) identifiers from the
	      list below:

	      ABORT	  If this meta condition is included in	an error  con-
			  dition,  mkisofs  aborts (exits) as soon as possible
			  after	this error condition has been seen instead  of
			  making  mkisofs quiet	about the condition.  This er-
			  ror condition	flag may only be used together with at
			  another  error  condition  or	a list of error	condi-
			  tions	(separated by a	'|' character).

	      WARN	  If this meta condition is included in	an error  con-
			  dition,  mkisofs  prints the warning about the error
			  condition but	the error condition  does  not	affect
			  the  exit  code  of mkisofs and the error statistics
			  (which is printed to the end)	does not  include  the
			  related  errors.  This error condition flag may only
			  be used together with	at another error condition  or
			  a list of error conditions (separated	by a '|' char-
			  acter).  The WARN meta condition has a lower	prece-
			  dence	than ABORT.

	      ALL	  This is a shortcut for all error conditions below.

	      STAT	  Suppress  warnings  that mkisofs could not stat(2) a
			  file.

	      GETACL	  Suppress warnings about files	on which  mkisofs  had
			  problems to retrieve the ACL information.

	      OPEN	  Suppress  warnings  about  files  that  could	not be
			  opened.

	      READ	  Suppress warnings read errors	on files.

	      WRITE	  Suppress warnings write errors on files.

	      READLINK	  Suppress warnings  readlink(2)  errors  on  symbolic
			  links.

	      GROW	  Suppress  warnings  about  files that	did grow while
			  they have been archived.

	      SHRINK	  Suppress warnings about files	that did shrink	 while
			  they have been archived.

	      MISSLINK	  Suppress  warnings about files for which mkisofs was
			  unable to archive all	hard links.

	      NAMETOOLONG Suppress warnings about  files  that	could  not  be
			  archived  because  the  name of the file is too long
			  for the archive format.

	      FILETOOBIG  Suppress warnings about  files  that	could  not  be
			  archived because the size of the file	is too big for
			  the archive format.

	      SPECIALFILE Suppress warnings about  files  that	could  not  be
			  archived  because  the file type is not supported by
			  the archive format.

	      GETXATTR	  Suppress warnings about files	on that	mkisofs	 could
			  not  retrieve	 the  extended file attribute informa-
			  tion.

	      SETTIME	  Suppress warnings about files	on that	mkisofs	 could
			  not set the time information during extraction.

	      SETMODE	  Suppress  warnings about files on that mkisofs could
			  not set the access modes during extraction.

	      SECURITY	  Suppress warnings about files	that have been skipped
			  on  extraction  because they have been considered to
			  be a security	risk.  This currently applies  to  all
			  files	 that  have  a '/../' sequence inside when -..
			  has not been specified.

	      LSECURITY	  Suppress warnings about links	that have been skipped
			  on  extraction  because they have been considered to
			  be a security	risk.  This currently applies  to  all
			  link	names that start with '/' or have a '/../' se-
			  quence inside	when -secure-links has been specified.
			  In  this  case, mkisofs tries	to match the link name
			  against the pattern in the error control file.

	      SAMEFILE	  Suppress warnings about links	that have been skipped
			  on  extraction because source	and target of the link
			  are pointing to the same file.  If mkisofs would not
			  skip	these files, it	would end up with removing the
			  file completely.  In this  case,  mkisofs  tries  to
			  match	the link name against the pattern in the error
			  control file.

	      BADACL	  Suppress warnings  access  control  list  conversion
			  problems.

	      SETACL	  Suppress  warnings about files on that mkisofs could
			  not set the ACL information during extraction.

	      SETXATTR	  Suppress warnings about files	on that	mkisofs	 could
			  not set the extended file attribute information dur-
			  ing extraction.

       If a specific error condition is	ignored, then the error	 condition  is
       not  only handled in a silent way but also excluded from	the error sta-
       tistics that are	printed	at the end of the mkisofs run.

       Be very careful when using error	control	as you may  ignore  any	 error
       condition.   If	you  ignore the	wrong error conditions,	you may	not be
       able to see real	problems anymore.

       Note that currently only	the tags OPEN, READ, GROW, SHRINK, are checked
       from mkisofs.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      Specifies	 a comma separated list	of boot	images that are	needed
	      to make a	bootable CD for	sparc systems.	Partition  0  is  used
	      for the ISO-9660 image, the first	image file is mapped to	parti-
	      tion 1.  There may be empty fields in the	comma separated	 list.
	      The maximum number of possible partitions	is 8 so	it is impossi-
	      ble to specify more than 7 partition images.  This option	is re-
	      quired  to  make a bootable CD for Sun sparc systems.  If	the -B
	      or -sparc-boot option has	been specified,	the  first  sector  of
	      the resulting image will contain a Sun disk label. This disk la-
	      bel specifies slice 0 for	the ISO-9660 image  and	 slice	1  ...
	      slice  7	for the	boot images that have been specified with this
	      option. Byte offset 512 ... 8191 within each of  the  additional
	      boot  images  must contain a primary boot	that works for the ap-
	      propriate	sparc architecture. The	rest of	 each  of  the	images
	      usually  contains	 an ufs	filesystem that	is used	primary	kernel
	      boot stage.

	      The implemented boot method is the boot method found with	 SunOS
	      4.x  and SunOS 5.x.  However, it does not	depend on SunOS	inter-
	      nals but only on properties of the Open Boot prom. For this rea-
	      son,  it should be usable	for any	OS that	boots off a sparc sys-
	      tem.

	      For more information also	see the	NOTES section below.

	      If the special filename ...  is used, the	actual and all follow-
	      ing boot partitions are mapped to	the previous partition.	If mk-
	      isofs is called with -G image -B ...  all	 boot  partitions  are
	      mapped  to  the  partition that contains the ISO-9660 filesystem
	      image and	the generic boot image that is located in the first 16
	      sectors of the disk is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the path and filename of the generic boot image to be
	      used when	making a generic bootable CD.  The  generic_boot_image
	      will  be	placed on the first 16 sectors of the CD. The first 16
	      sectors are the sectors that are	located	 before	 the  ISO-9660
	      primary volume descriptor.  If this option is used together with
	      the -sparc-boot option, the Sun  disk  label  will  overlay  the
	      first 512	bytes of the generic boot image.

       -hard-disk-boot
	      Specifies	 that  the  boot  image	 used  to  create  "El Torito"
	      bootable CDs is a	hard disk image. The hard disk image must  be-
	      gin with a master	boot record that contains a single partition.

       -ignore-error
	      Ignore  errors.	mkisofs	 by  default aborts on several errors,
	      such as read errors. With	this option in effect,	mkisofs	 tries
	      to continue.  Use	with care.

       -no-emul-boot
	      Specifies	 that  the  boot  image	 used  to  create  "El Torito"
	      bootable CDs is a	'no emulation' image. The system will load and
	      execute this image without performing any	disk emulation.

       -no-boot
	      Specifies	 that  the  created "El	Torito"	CD should be marked as
	      not bootable. The	system will provide an emulated	drive for  the
	      image, but will boot off a standard boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
	      Specifies	the load segment address of the	boot image for no-emu-
	      lation "El Torito" CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
	      Specifies	the number of "virtual"	(512-byte) sectors to load  in
	      no-emulation mode.  The default is to load the entire boot file.
	      Some BIOSes may have problems if this is not a multiple of 4.

       -boot-info-table
	      Specifies	that a 56-byte table with information  of  the	CD-ROM
	      layout will be patched in	at offset 8 in the boot	file.  If this
	      option is	given,	the  boot  file	 is  modified  in  the	source
	      filesystem,  so  make sure to make a copy	if this	file cannot be
	      easily regenerated!  See the EL TORITO BOOT INFO	TABLE  section
	      for a description	of this	table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start

       -cdrecord-params	last_sess_start,next_sess_start
	      This  option  is needed when mkisofs is used to create a CDextra
	      or the image of a	second session or a higher level session for a
	      multi  session  disk.  The option	-C takes a pair	of two numbers
	      separated	by a comma. The	first number is	the sector  number  of
	      the  first sector	in the last session of the disk	that should be
	      appended to.  The	second number is the starting sector number of
	      the  new session.	 The expected pair of numbers may be retrieved
	      by calling cdrecord -msinfo ...  If the -C  option  is  used  in
	      conjunction with the -M option, mkisofs will create a filesystem
	      image that is intended to	be a continuation of the previous ses-
	      sion.   If  the -C option	is used	without	the -M option, mkisofs
	      will create a filesystem image that is intended to be used for a
	      second  session  on  a  CDextra. This is a multi session CD that
	      holds audio data in the first session and	a ISO-9660  filesystem
	      in the second session.

       -c boot_catalog

       -eltorito-catalog boot_catalog
	      Specifies	 the  path and filename	of the boot catalog to be used
	      when making an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The  pathname  must  be
	      relative	to  the	source path specified to mkisofs.  This	option
	      is required to make a bootable CD.  This file will  be  inserted
	      into  the	 output	tree and not created in	the source filesystem,
	      so be sure the specified filename	does not conflict with an  ex-
	      isting  file,  as	 it  will  be  excluded.  Usually  a name like
	      "boot.catalog" is	chosen.

	      If the -sort option has not been	specified,  the	 boot  catalog
	      sorted  with  low	 priority (+1) to the beginning	of the medium.
	      If you don't like	this, you need to specify a sort weight	 of  0
	      for the boot catalog.

       -check-oldnames
	      Check  all  filenames  imported  from old	session	for compliance
	      with actual mkisofs ISO-9660 file	naming rules.  It  his	option
	      is  not  present,	 only  names with a length > 31	are checked as
	      these files are a	hard violation of the ISO-9660 standard.

       -check-session FILE
	      Check all	 old  sessions	for  compliance	 with  actual  mkisofs
	      ISO-9660 file naming rules.  This	is a high level	option that is
	      a	combination of the options: -M FILE -C 0,0 -check-oldnames For
	      the parameter FILE see description of -M option.

       -copyright FILE
	      Specifies	the Copyright file name	in the primary volume descrip-
	      tor.  There is space on the disc for 37 characters  of  informa-
	      tion.   The  related  Joliet  entry is limited to	18 characters.
	      This parameter can also be  set  in  the	file  .mkisofsrc  with
	      COPY=filename.   If  specified  in both places, the command line
	      version is used.

	      It is up to the user of mkisofs to include a file	with the apro-
	      priate name in the created filesystem tree.

       -d

       -omit-period
	      Omit trailing period from	files that do not have a period.
	      This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -D

       -disable-deep-relocation
	      Do not use deep directory	relocation, and	instead	just pack them
	      in the way we see	them.
	      If  ISO-9660:1999	 has  not  been	 selected,  this  violates the
	      ISO-9660 standard, but it	happens	to work	on many	systems.   Use
	      with caution.

       -data-change-warn
	      If  the size of a	file changes while the file is being archived,
	      treat this condition as a	warning	only that does not  cause  mk-
	      isofs  to	abort.	A warning message is still written if the con-
	      dition is	not otherwise ignored by another rule from an  errctl=
	      option.  The -data-change-warn option works as if	the last error
	      control option was

		   errctl="WARN|GROW|SHRINK *"

       -debug Increment	debug value by one.

       -dir-mode mode
	      Overrides	the mode of directories	used to	create	the  image  to
	      mode.  See -new-dir-mode on how to specify a different mode that
	      is used for directories that do not exist	in the tree  specified
	      by  the  source-path.  Specifying	the -dir-mode option automati-
	      cally enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -dvd-audio
	      Generate DVD-Audio compliant UDF file system. This  is  done  by
	      sorting  the  order  of  the  content  of	the appropriate	files.
	      Sorting only works if the	DVD-Audio filenames include upper case
	      characters only.

	      Note  that  in order to get a DVD-Audio compliant	filesystem im-
	      age, you need to prepare a DVD-Audio compliant  directory	 tree.
	      This  means  you need to have a directory	AUDIO_TS (all caps) in
	      the root directory of the	resulting DVD and you  should  have  a
	      directory	 VIDEO_TS. The directory AUDIO_TS needs	to include all
	      needed files (file names must be all caps) for a compliant  DVD-
	      Audio filesystem.

       -dvd-hybrid
	      Equivalent to selecting both -dvd-audio and -dvd-video

       -dvd-video
	      Generate	DVD-Video  compliant  UDF file system. This is done by
	      sorting the order	of the content of the appropriate files	and by
	      adding  padding between the files	if needed.  Sorting only works
	      if the DVD-Video filenames include upper case characters only.

	      Note that	in order to get	a DVD-Video compliant  filesystem  im-
	      age,  you	 need to prepare a DVD-Video compliant directory tree.
	      This means you need to have a directory VIDEO_TS (all  caps)  in
	      the  root	 directory  of the resulting DVD and you should	have a
	      directory	AUDIO_TS. The directory	VIDEO_TS needs to include  all
	      needed  files (file names	must be	all caps) for a	compliant DVD-
	      Video filesystem.

       -f

       -follow-links
	      Follow all symbolic links	when generating	the filesystem.	  When
	      this  option is not in use, symbolic links will be entered using
	      Rock Ridge if enabled, otherwise the file	will be	ignored.

	      See also -posix-L	option.

       -file-mode mode
	      Overrides	the mode of regular files used to create the image  to
	      mode.   Specifying  this option automatically enables Rock Ridge
	      extensions.

       -find  This option acts a separator.  If	it is used,  all  mkisofs  op-
	      tions  must  be to the left of the -find option. To the right of
	      the -find	option,	mkisofs	accepts	the find command  line	syntax
	      only.

	      The  find	expression acts	as a filter between the	source of file
	      names and	the consumer, which is archiving engine.  If the  find
	      expression  evaluated as TRUE, then the related file is selected
	      for processing, otherwise	it is omited.

	      In order to make the evaluation of the find expression more con-
	      venient,	mkisofs	implements additional find primaries that have
	      side effects on the file meta data.  Mkisofs implements the fol-
	      lowing additional	find primaries:

	      -help  Lists the available find(1) syntax.

	      -chgrp gname
		     The  primary  always evaluates as true; it	sets the group
		     of	the file to gname.

	      -chmod mode
		     The primary always	evaluates as true; it sets the permis-
		     sions  of	the  file to mode.  Octal and symbolic permis-
		     sions are accepted	for mode as with chmod(1).

	      -chown uname
		     The primary always	evaluates as true; it sets  the	 owner
		     of	the file to uname.

	      -false The  primary always evaluates as false; it	allows to make
		     the result	of the full expression different from the  re-
		     sult of a part of the expression.

	      -true  The  primary  always evaluates as true; it	allows to make
		     the result	of the full expression different from the  re-
		     sult of a part of the expression.

	      The command line:

	      mkisofs -o o.iso -find . ( -type d -ls -o	false )	-o ! -type d

	      lists  all directories and puts all non-directories to the image
	      o.iso.

	      The command line:

	      mkisofs -o o.iso -find . ( -type d -chown	root -o	true )

	      archives all directories so they appear to be owned by  root  in
	      the archive, all non-directories are archived as they are	in the
	      file system.

	      Note that	the -ls, -exec and the -ok primary cannot be  used  if
	      stdin or stdout has not been redirected.

       -gid gid
	      Overrides	 the  gid  read	 from the source files to the value of
	      gid.  Specifying this option automatically  enables  Rock	 Ridge
	      extensions.

       -gui   Switch  the behaviour for	a GUI. This currently makes the	output
	      more verbose but may have	other effects in future.

       -graft-points
	      Allow to use graft points	for filenames. If this option is used,
	      all  filenames are checked for graft points. The filename	is di-
	      vided at the first unescaped equal sign. All occurrences of '\\'
	      and  '='	characters  must be escaped with '\\' if -graft-points
	      has been specified.

       -hide glob
	      Hide glob	from being seen	on the ISO-9660	or Rock	 Ridge	direc-
	      tory.   glob  is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match
	      any part of the filename or path.	 Multiple globs	may be hidden.
	      If glob matches a	directory, then	the contents of	that directory
	      will be hidden.  In order	to match a directory name,  make  sure
	      the pathname does	not include a trailing '/' character.  All the
	      hidden files will	still be written to the	output CD image	 file.
	      Should be	used with the -hide-joliet option. See README.hide for
	      more details.

       -hide-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be hidden as	above.

       -hidden glob
	      Add the hidden  (existence)  ISO-9660  directory	attribute  for
	      glob.  This attribute will prevent glob from being listed	on DOS
	      based systems if the /A flag is not used for the listing.	  glob
	      is  a  shell wild-card-style pattern that	must match any part of
	      the filename or path.  In	order to match a directory name,  make
	      sure  the	 pathname  does	 not include a trailing	'/' character.
	      Multiple globs may be hidden.

       -hidden-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to get the hidden attribute as
	      above.

       -hide-joliet glob
	      Hide  glob  from	being seen on the Joliet directory.  glob is a
	      shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any	 part  of  the
	      filename	or  path.   Multiple  globs  may  be  hidden.  If glob
	      matches a	directory, then	the contents of	that directory will be
	      hidden.  In order	to match a directory name, make	sure the path-
	      name does	not include a trailing '/' character.  All the	hidden
	      files will still be written to the output	CD image file.	Should
	      be used with the -hide option. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-joliet-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be hidden as	above.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
	      Hide the TRANS.TBL files from the	Joliet tree.  These files usu-
	      ally  don't make sense in	the Joliet World as they list the real
	      name and the ISO-9660 name which may both	be different from  the
	      Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
	      Rename  the  directory  RR_MOVED	to .rr_moved in	the Rock Ridge
	      tree.  This option has been introduced when mkisofs was not able
	      to  hide	the directory in the Rock Ridge	tree.  This version of
	      mkisofs always automatically hides the RR_MOVED directory	in the
	      Rock  Ridge  tree.  If you need to have no RR_MOVED directory at
	      all (even	in the ISO-9660	tree), you should use the  -D  option.
	      Note that	in case	that the -D option has been specified, the re-
	      sulting filesystem is not	ISO-9660 level-1  compliant  and  will
	      not  be readable on MS-DOS.  See also NOTES section for more in-
	      formation	on the RR_MOVED	directory.

       -hide-udf glob
	      Hide glob	from being seen	on the UDF directory.  glob is a shell
	      wild-card-style pattern that must	match any part of the filename
	      or path.	Multiple globs may be hidden.  If glob matches	a  di-
	      rectory, then the	contents of that directory will	be hidden.  In
	      order to match a directory name, make sure the pathname does not
	      include  a  trailing  '/'	 character.  All the hidden files will
	      still be written to the output CD	image file.   Should  be  used
	      with the -hide option. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-udf-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be hidden as	above.

       -hide-ignorecase
       -exclude-ignorecase
	      Ignore  the  case	 of  the filenames with	the -hide* options and
	      with the -exclude-list option.

       -input-charset charset
	      Set up the input charset that defines the	characters used	in lo-
	      cal  file	names.	To get a list of valid charset names, call mk-
	      isofs -input-charset help.  To get a 1:1 mapping,	 you  may  use
	      default  as  charset name. If the	input charset has not been set
	      up from the locale in the	environment, the default initial  val-
	      ues  are	cp437  on DOS based systems and	iso8859-1 on all other
	      systems.	See CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

	      If -input-charset	has not	been specified,	it will	be set up from
	      the locale in the	environment. If	you like to disable this auto-
	      matic setup, use the empty string	as locale name.

       -output-charset charset
	      Set up the output	charset	that defines the characters that  will
	      be used in Rock Ridge file names.	Defaults to the	input charset.
	      See CHARACTER SETS section below for more	details.

       -iso-level level
	      Set the ISO-9660 conformance level. Valid	numbers	are  1..3  and
	      4.

	      With  level  1,  files may only consist of one section and file-
	      names are	restricted to 8.3 characters.

	      With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

	      With level 3, no restrictions (other than	ISO-9660:1988) do  ap-
	      ply.   Starting with this	level, mkisofs also allows files to be
	      larger than 4 GB by implementing ISO-9660	multi-extent files.

	      With all ISO-9660	levels from 1..3, all filenames	are restricted
	      to upper case letters, numbers and the underscore	(_). The maxi-
	      mum filename length is restricted	to 31 characters,  the	direc-
	      tory  nesting  level  is	restricted  to	8 and the maximum path
	      length is	limited	to 255 characters.

	      Level 4 officially does  not  exists  but	 mkisofs  maps	it  to
	      ISO-9660:1999 which is ISO-9660 version 2.

	      With  level 4, an	enhanced volume	descriptor with	version	number
	      and file structure version number	set to 2  is  emitted.	 There
	      may be more than 8 levels	of directory nesting, there is no need
	      for a file to contain a dot and the  dot	has  no	 more  special
	      meaning,	file  names  do	 not have version numbers, the maximum
	      length for files and directory is	raised to 207.	If Rock	 Ridge
	      is used, the maximum ISO-9660 name length	is reduced to 197.

	      When creating Version 2 images, mkisofs emits an enhanced	volume
	      descriptor which looks similar to	a  primary  volume  descriptor
	      but is slightly different. Be careful not	to use broken software
	      to make ISO-9660 images bootable by assuming a second  PVD  copy
	      and patching this	putative PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

       -J     Generate	 Joliet	 directory  records  in	 addition  to  regular
	      ISO-9660 file names.  This is primarily useful  when  the	 discs
	      are to be	used on	Windows-NT or Windows-95 machines.  The	Joliet
	      filenames	are specified in Unicode and each path	component  can
	      be  up  to  64  Unicode characters long.	Note that Joliet is no
	      standard - CD's that use only Joliet extensions but no  standard
	      Rock  Ridge  extensions  may  usually  only be used on Microsoft
	      Win32 systems. Furthermore, the fact that	the filenames are lim-
	      ited  to	64 characters and the fact that	Joliet uses the	UTF-16
	      coding for Unicode characters causes interoperability problems.

       -joliet-long
	      Allow Joliet filenames to	be up to 103 Unicode characters.  This
	      breaks  the Joliet specification - but appears to	work. Use with
	      caution. The number 103 is derived from: the  maximum  Directory
	      Record  Length (254), minus the length of	Directory Record (33),
	      minus CD-ROM XA System Use Extension Information	(14),  divided
	      by the UTF-16 character size (2).

       -jcharset charset
	      Same as using -input-charset charset and -J options. See CHARAC-
	      TER SETS section below for more details.

       -l

       -full-iso9660-filenames
	      Allow full 31 character filenames.  Normally the ISO-9660	 file-
	      name  will  be in	an 8.3 format which is compatible with MS-DOS,
	      even though the ISO-9660 standard	allows filenames of up	to  31
	      characters.   If	you use	this option, the disc may be difficult
	      to use on	a MS-DOS system, but this comes	in handy on some other
	      systems (such as the Amiga).  Use	with caution.

       -L     Outdated	option	reserved  by  POSIX.1-2001,  use  -allow-lead-
	      ing-dots instead.	 This option will get  POSIX.1-2001  semantics
	      with mkisofs-3.02.

       -log-file log_file
	      Redirect	all  error,  warning  and  informational  messages  to
	      log_file instead of the standard error.

       -long-rr-time
	      Use the long ISO-9660 time format	for the	file time stamps  used
	      in  Rock	Ridge.	This time format allows	to represent year 0 ..
	      year 9999	with a granularity of 10ms.

	      The short	ISO-9660 time format only  allows  to  represent  year
	      1900 .. year 2155	with a granularity of 1s.

       -m glob
	      Exclude glob from	being written to CDROM.	 glob is a shell wild-
	      card-style pattern that must match part of the filename (not the
	      path  as	with  option -x).  Technically glob is matched against
	      the d-_d_name part of the	directory entry.  Multiple  globs  may
	      be excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -m	'*.o' -m core -m foobar

	      would  exclude  all files	ending in ".o",	called "core" or "foo-
	      bar" to be copied	to CDROM. Note that if	you  had  a  directory
	      called "foobar" it too (and of course all	its descendants) would
	      be excluded.

	      NOTE: The	-m and -x option description should both  be  updated,
	      they  are	wrong.	Both now work identical	and use	filename glob-
	      bing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or
	      the whole	path matches.

       -exclude-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be excluded as above.

       -max-iso9660-filenames
	      Allow 37 chars in	ISO-9660 filenames.  This option forces	the -N
	      option as	the extra name space is	taken from the space  reserved
	      for ISO-9660 version numbers.
	      This  violates  the ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Although a	conforming application needs  to  pro-
	      vide  a  buffer  space  of at least 37 characters, disks created
	      with this	option may cause a buffer overflow in the reading  op-
	      erating system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path
	      or

       -M device
	      or

       -dev device
	      Specifies	 path to existing ISO-9660 image to be merged. The al-
	      ternate form takes a SCSI	device specifier that  uses  the  same
	      syntax as	the dev= parameter of cdrecord.	 The output of mkisofs
	      will be a	new session which should get written to	the end	of the
	      image  specified	in  -M.	 Typically this	requires multi-session
	      capability for the recorder and cdrom drive  that	 you  are  at-
	      tempting	to  write this image to.  This option may only be used
	      in conjunction with the -C option.

       -modification-date date-spec
	      Set the modification date	in the primary volume descriptor (PVD)
	      to a value different from	the current time.  This	allows e.g. to
	      set up an	intentional UUID for grub.

	      The format of date-spec is:

		   yyyy[mm[dd[hh[mm[ss]]]]][.hh][+-ghgm]

	      The fields are year, month, day of month,	hour, minute,  second,
	      hundreds of a second, GMT	offset in hours	and minutes.  The time
	      is interpreted as	local time.

	      Year and the GMT offset are four digit fields, all other	fields
	      take  two	 digits.   The	GMT  offset may	be between -12 and +13
	      hours in 15 minute steps.	Locations east to Greenwich have posi-
	      tive  values.  The  value	is the sum of the time zone offset and
	      the effects from daylight	saving time.  Omited  values  are  re-
	      placed  by  the  minimal	possible values.  If the GMT offset is
	      omited, it is computed from the local time value that  has  been
	      supplied.

	      Between  year  and  month	 as  well  as between month and	day of
	      month, a separator chosen	from '/' and '-' may appear.  In  this
	      case, the	year may be a two digit	number with values 69..99 rep-
	      resenting	1969..1999 and values 00..68 representing  2000..2068.
	      Between  date and	time spec, an optional space is	permitted. Be-
	      tween hours and minutes as well as between minutes and  seconds,
	      an  optional ':' separator is permitted.	This allows mkisofs to
	      parse the	popular	POSIX date format created by:

		   date	"+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z"

	      Note that	the possible range for date-spec for 32	 bit  programs
	      is limited to values up to 2038 Jan 19 04:14:07 GMT.

       -N

       -omit-version-number
	      Omit version numbers from	ISO-9660 file names.
	      This  violates the ISO-9660 standard, but	no one really uses the
	      version numbers anyway.  Use with	caution.

       -new-dir-mode mode
	      Mode to use when creating	new directories	in the iso  fs	image.
	      The default mode in the absence of a -dir-mode option is 0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
	      Do  not  include	backup files files on the ISO-9660 filesystem.
	      If the -no-bak option is specified, files	that contain the char-
	      acters  '~'  or '#' or end in '.bak' will	not be included	(these
	      are typically backup files for editors under UNIX).

       -no-limit-pathtables
	      A	ISO-9660 filesystem contains path tables that contain  a  list
	      of directories.  This list may contain many directories but only
	      65535 of them may	be parent directories.	When -no-limit-pathta-
	      bles is in use, further parent directories will be folded	to the
	      root directory and the resulting filesystem will	no  longer  be
	      usable on	DOS.

       -no-long-rr-time
	      Use the short ISO-9660 time format for the file time stamps used
	      in Rock Ridge.  This time	format allows to represent  year  1990
	      .. year 2155 with	a granularity of one second.

       -force-rr
	      Do  not  use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recognition for
	      previous sessions.  This helps to	show rotten ISO-9660 extension
	      records as e.g. created by NERO burning ROM.

       -no-rr Do  not  use  the	 Rock Ridge attributes from previous sessions.
	      This may help to avoid getting into trouble when	mkisofs	 finds
	      illegal Rock Ridge signatures on an old session.

       -no-split-symlink-components
	      Don't split the SL components, but begin a new Continuation Area
	      (CE) instead. This may waste some	space,	but  the  SunOS	 4.1.4
	      cdrom driver has a bug in	reading	split SL components (link_size
	      =	component_size instead of link_size += component_size).

	      Note that	this option has	been introduced	by Eric	 Youngdale  in
	      1997.   It  is questionable whether it makes sense at all.  When
	      it has been introduced, mkisofs did have a serious bug that  did
	      create  defective	 CE  signatures	if a symlink contained `/../'.
	      This CE signature	bug in mkisofs has been	fixed in May 2003.

       -no-split-symlink-fields
	      Don't split the SL fields, but begin  a  new  Continuation  Area
	      (CE) instead. This may waste some	space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 and
	      Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a	bug in reading split SL	fields
	      (a `/' can be dropped).

	      Note  that  this option has been introduced by Eric Youngdale in
	      1997.  It	is questionable	whether	it makes sense at  all.	  When
	      it  has been introduced, mkisofs did have	a serious bug that did
	      create defective CE signatures if	a  symlink  contained  `/../'.
	      This CE signature	bug in mkisofs has been	fixed in May 2003.

       -o filename
	      is  the  name of the file	to which the ISO-9660 filesystem image
	      should be	written.  This can be a	disk file, a tape drive, or it
	      can  correspond  directly	to the device name of the optical disc
	      writer.  If not specified, stdout	is used.  Note that the	output
	      can  also	be a block special device for a	regular	disk drive, in
	      which case the disk partition can	be mounted and examined	to en-
	      sure that	the premastering was done correctly.

       -pad   Pad  the end of the whole	image by 150 sectors (300 kB).	If the
	      option -B	is used, then there is a padding at  the  end  of  the
	      ISO-9660	partition  and before the beginning of the boot	parti-
	      tions.  The size of this padding is chosen  to  make  the	 first
	      boot  partition  start  on a sector number that is a multiple of
	      16.

	      The padding is needed as many operating systems (e.g. Linux) im-
	      plement  read ahead bugs in their	filesystem I/O.	These bugs re-
	      sult in read errors on one or more files that are	located	at the
	      end  of a	track. They are	usually	present	when the CD is written
	      in Track at Once mode or when the	disk is	written	as mixed  mode
	      CD where an audio	track follows the data track.

	      To  avoid	 problems  with	 I/O  error  on	 the  last file	on the
	      filesystem, the -pad option has been made	the default.

       -no-pad
	      Do not Pad the end by 150	sectors	(300 kB) and do	not  make  the
	      the boot partitions start	on a multiple of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
	      A	 file  containing a list of pathspec directories and filenames
	      to be added to the ISO-9660 filesystem. This list	 of  pathspecs
	      are  processed after any that appear on the command line.	If the
	      argument is -, then the list is read from	the standard input.

       -P     Outdated option reserved by  POSIX.1-2001,  use  -publisher  in-
	      stead.   This  option  will  get POSIX.1-2001 semantics with mk-
	      isofs-3.02.

       -publisher publisher_id
	      Specifies	a text string that will	be  written  into  the	volume
	      header.	This  should describe the publisher of the CDROM, usu-
	      ally with	a mailing address and phone number.  There is space on
	      the  disc	for 128	characters of information.  The	related	Joliet
	      entry is limited to 64 characters.  This parameter can  also  be
	      set  in  the  file  .mkisofsrc with PUBL=.  If specified in both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -p preparer_id

       -preparer preparer_id
	      Specifies	a text string that will	be  written  into  the	volume
	      header.  This should describe the	preparer of the	CDROM, usually
	      with a mailing address and phone number.	There is space on  the
	      disc  for	128 characters of information.	The related Joliet en-
	      try is limited to	64 characters.	This parameter can also	be set
	      in the file .mkisofsrc with PREP=.  If specified in both places,
	      the command line version is used.

       -posix-H
	      Follow all symbolic links	encountered on command line when  gen-
	      erating the filesystem.

       -posix-L
	      Follow  all symbolic links when generating the filesystem.  When
	      this option is not in use, symbolic links	will be	entered	 using
	      Rock Ridge if enabled, otherwise the file	will be	ignored.

       -posix-P
	      Do  not  follow  symbolic	 links	when generating	the filesystem
	      (this is the default).  If -posix-P is specified after  -posix-H
	      or -posix-L, the effect of these options will be reset.

       -print-size
	      Print  estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector size
	      (2048 bytes) and exit. This option is needed for	Disk  At  Once
	      mode  and	 with  some  CD-R  drives  when	 piping	 directly into
	      cdrecord.	 In this case it is needed to know  the	 size  of  the
	      filesystem  before  the  actual CD-creation is done.  The	option
	      -print-size allows to get	this size from a "dry-run" before  the
	      CD  is actually written.	Old versions of	mkisofs	did write this
	      information (among other information) to stderr.	As this	 turns
	      out  to  be hard to parse, the number without any	other informa-
	      tion is now printed on stdout too.  If you like to write a  sim-
	      ple shell	script,	redirect stderr	and catch the number from std-
	      out.  This may be	done with:

	      cdblocks=` mkisofs -print-size -quiet ...	`

	      mkisofs ... | cdrecord ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This makes mkisofs even less verbose.  No	progress  output  will
	      be provided.

       -R

       -rock  Generate	SUSP  and  RR records using the	Rock Ridge protocol to
	      further describe the files on the	ISO-9660 filesystem.  The Rock
	      Ridge  protocol  is  needed in order to add POSIX	like file meta
	      data like	permissions, extended time  stamps,  user/group	 is'd,
	      link  counts,  inode  numbers and	symbolic links.	The Rock Ridge
	      protocol allows to archive hierarchy trees with unlimited	depth.

       -r

       -rational-rock
	      This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set
	      to more useful values.  The uid and gid are set to zero, because
	      they are usually only useful on the  author's  system,  and  not
	      useful  to  the client.  All the file read bits are set true, so
	      that files and directories are globally readable on the  client.
	      If  any  execute	bit  is	set for	a file,	set all	of the execute
	      bits, so that executables	are globally executable	on the client.
	      If  any search bit is set	for a directory, set all of the	search
	      bits, so that directories	are globally searchable	on the client.
	      All  write  bits are cleared, because the	CD-Rom will be mounted
	      read-only	in any case.  If any of	the special mode bits are set,
	      clear  them,  because  file  locks are not useful	on a read-only
	      file system, and set-id bits are not desirable for uid 0 or  gid
	      0.   When	 used  on  Win32, the execute bit is set on all	files.
	      This is a	result of the lack of file permissions	on  Win32  and
	      the   Cygwin   POSIX  emulation  layer.	See  also  -uid	 -gid,
	      -dir-mode, -file-mode and	-new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
	      The option -relaxed-filenames allows ISO-9660 filenames  to  in-
	      clude  digits,  upper  case characters and all other 7 bit ASCII
	      characters (resp.	anything except	lowercase characters).
	      This violates the	ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -root dir
	      Moves  all  files	and directories	into dir in the	image. This is
	      essentially the same as using -graft-points and  adding  dir  in
	      front of every pathspec, but is easier to	use.

	      dir  may actually	be several levels deep.	It is created with the
	      same permissions as other	graft points.

       -rrip110
	      Create ISO-9660 file system images that follow the old Rrip Ver-
	      sion-1.10	 standard  from	1993. This option may be needed	if you
	      know of systems that do not implement  the  Rrip	protocol  cor-
	      rectly  and  like	 the  file system to be	read by	such a system.
	      Currently	no such	system is known.

	      If a file	system has been	created	with -rrip110, the Rock	 Ridge
	      attributes do not	include	inode number information.

       -rrip112
	      Create ISO-9660 file system images that follow the new Rrip Ver-
	      sion-1.12	standard from 1994, this is the	default.

       -old-root dir
	      This option is necessary when writing a multisession  image  and
	      the previous (or even older) session was written with -root dir.
	      Using a directory	name not found in the previous session	causes
	      mkisofs to abort with an error.

	      Without  this  option, mkisofs would not be able to find unmodi-
	      fied files and would be forced to	write their data into the  im-
	      age once more.

	      -root  and  -old-root are	meant to be used together to do	incre-
	      mental backups.  The initial session  would  e.g.	 use:  mkisofs
	      -root  backup_1  dirs.  The next incremental backup with mkisofs
	      -root backup_2 -old-root	backup_1  dirs.	  would	 take  another
	      snapshot of these	directories. The first snapshot	would be found
	      in backup_1, the second one in backup_2, but  only  modified  or
	      new files	need to	be written into	the second session.

	      Without  these  options,	new  files would be added and old ones
	      would be preserved. But old ones would  be  overwritten  if  the
	      file was modified. Recovering the	files by copying the whole di-
	      rectory back from	CD would also restore files that were  deleted
	      intentionally.  Accessing	 several  older	versions of a file re-
	      quires support by	the operating system to	choose which  sessions
	      are to be	mounted.

       -short-rr-time
	      Use the short ISO-9660 time format for the file time stamps used
	      in Rock Ridge.  This time	format allows to represent  year  1990
	      .. year 2155 with	a granularity of one second.

       -s sector type

       -sectype	sector type
	      Set  the	sector	type  to  be used for the output file with the
	      ISO-9660 filesystem.  The	sector type may	be one of:

	      data   This is the default. It results in	standard  CD-ROM  data
		     sectors with 2048 bytes per sector.

	      xa1    This  sets	 the sector type to CD-ROM XA mode 1 with 2056
		     bytes per sector.	This sector type is the	official  sec-
		     tor  type	for  multi-session  CDs, it should be used to-
		     gether with the -XA option	of mkisofs.  It	is required to
		     write  Kodak  Photo  CDs  and Kodak Picture CDs.  Use the
		     -xa1 option from cdrecord to tell cdrecord	to  write  CD-
		     ROM  XA mode 1 sectors.  Do not use for DVD or BluRay me-
		     dia.

	      raw    This sets the sector type to raw audio sectors with  2352
		     bytes  per	 sector.  This is reserved for future enhance-
		     ments.  Do	not use	for DVD	or BluRay media.

       -sort sort file
	      Sort file	locations on the media.	Sorting	 is  controlled	 by  a
	      file that	contains pairs of filenames and	sorting	offset weight-
	      ing.  If the weighting is	 higher,  the  file  will  be  located
	      closer to	the beginning of the media, if the weighting is	lower,
	      the file will be located closer to the end of the	 media.	 There
	      must  be	only  one space	or tabs	character between the filename
	      and the weight and the weight must be the	last characters	 on  a
	      line. The	filename is taken to include all the characters	up to,
	      but not including	the last space or tab  character  on  a	 line.
	      This is to allow for space characters to be in, or at the	end of
	      a	filename.  This	option does not	sort the  order	 of  the  file
	      names  that appear in the	ISO-9660 directory. It sorts the order
	      in which the file	data is	written	to the CD image	- which	may be
	      useful  in  order	 to  optimize  the  data  layout  on a CD. See
	      README.sort for more details.

       -isort sort file
	      Similiar to -sort	but the	case if	the filenames in the sort file
	      is ignored.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      See -B option above.

       -sparc-label label
	      Set  the Sun disk	label name for the Sun disk label that is cre-
	      ated with	the -sparc-boot	option.

       -split-output
	      Split the	output image into several files	of approximately 1 GB.
	      This helps to create DVD sized ISO-9660 images on	operating sys-
	      tems without large file support.	Cdrecord will concatenate more
	      than  one	file into a single track if writing to a DVD.  To make
	      -split-output work, the -o filename option  must	be  specified.
	      The  resulting  output  images  will be named: filename_00,file-
	      name_01,filename_02...

       -stream-media-size #
	      Select streaming operation and set the media size	to #  sectors.
	      This  allows  you	to pipe	the output of the tar program into mk-
	      isofs and	to create a ISO-9660 filesystem	without	the need of an
	      intermediate  tar	 archive file.	If this	option has been	speci-
	      fied, mkisofs reads from stdin and creates a file	with the  name
	      STREAM.IMG.   The	maximum	size of	the file (with padding)	is 200
	      sectors less than	the specified media size. If -no-pad has  been
	      specified,  the  file size is 50 sectors less than the specified
	      media size.  If the file is smaller,  then  mkisofs  will	 write
	      padding. This may	take a while.

	      The  option  -stream-media-size creates simple ISO-9660 filesys-
	      tems only	and may	not used together with multi-session or	hybrid
	      filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
	      Set the file name	used with -stream-media-size # to a value dif-
	      ferent from STREAM.IMG.  If this option is used, the  filesystem
	      is created as if -iso-level 4 has	been specified.

       -sunx86-boot UFS-img,,,AUX1-img
	      Specifies	 a  comma separated list of filesystem images that are
	      needed to	make a bootable	CD for Solaris x86 systems.

	      Note that	partition 1 is used for	the ISO-9660  image  and  that
	      partition	 2  is the whole disk, so partition 1 and 2 may	not be
	      used by external partition data.	The first image	file is	mapped
	      to  partition  0.	  There	may be empty fields in the comma sepa-
	      rated list, and list entries for	partition  1  and  2  must  be
	      empty.   The  maximum  number  of	supported partitions is	8 (al-
	      though the Solaris x86 partition table could support  up	to  16
	      partitions),  so	it is impossible to specify more than 6	parti-
	      tion images.  This option	is required to make a bootable CD  for
	      Solaris x86 systems.

	      If  the -sunx86-boot option has been specified, the first	sector
	      of the resulting image will contain a PC fdisk label with	a  So-
	      laris  type  0x82	 fdisk partition that starts at	offset 512 and
	      spans the	whole CD.  In addition,	 for  the  Solaris  type  0x82
	      fdisk  partition,	 there	is a SVr4 disk label at	offset 1024 in
	      the first	sector of the CD.  This	disk label specifies  slice  0
	      for  the	first (usually UFS type) filesystem image that is used
	      to boot the PC and slice 1 for  the  ISO-9660  image.   Slice  2
	      spans  the  whole	 CD  slice 3 ... slice 7 may be	used for addi-
	      tional filesystem	images that have been specified	with this  op-
	      tion.

	      A	 Solaris  x86 boot CD uses a 1024 byte sized primary boot that
	      uses the	El-Torito  no-emulation	 boot  mode  and  a  secondary
	      generic boot that	is in CD sectors 1..15.	 For this reason, both
	      -b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G	genboot	must be	specified.

       -sunx86-label label
	      Set the SVr4 disk	label name for the SVr4	 disk  label  that  is
	      created with the -sunx86-boot option.

       -sysid ID
	      Specifies	 the  system  ID.   There  is space on the disc	for 32
	      characters of information.  This parameter can also  be  set  in
	      the  file	 .mkisofsrc with SYSI=system_id.  If specified in both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -T

       -translation-table
	      Generate a file TRANS.TBL	in each	directory on the CDROM,	 which
	      can  be used on non-Rock Ridge capable systems to	help establish
	      the correct file names.  There is	also  information  present  in
	      the  file	 that  indicates the major and minor numbers for block
	      and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link
	      file given.

       -table-name TABLE_NAME
	      Alternative translation table file name (see above). Implies the
	      -T option.  If you are creating a	multi-session image  you  must
	      use the same name	as in the previous session.

       -ucs-level level
	      Set  Unicode  conformance	 level	in the Joliet SVD. The default
	      level is 3.  It may be set to 1..3 using this option.

       -UDF   Include a	UDF hybrid in the generated filesystem image.  As  mk-
	      isofs  always  creates a ISO-9660	filesystem, it is not possible
	      to create	UDF only images.  Note that UDF	wastes the space  from
	      sector  ~20  to sector 256 at the	beginning of the disk in addi-
	      tion to the space	needed for real	UDF data structures.

       -udf   Rationalized UDF with user and group set to 0 and	 with  simpli-
	      fied permissions.	 See -r	option for more	information.

       -udf-symlinks
	      Support symlinks in UDF filesystems. This	is the default.

       -no-udf-symlinks
	      Do not support symlinks in UDF filesystems.

       -uid uid
	      Overrides	 the  uid  read	 from the source files to the value of
	      uid.  Specifying this option automatically  enables  Rock	 Ridge
	      extensions.

       -use-fileversion
	      The  option  -use-fileversion allows mkisofs to use file version
	      numbers from the filesystem.  If the option  is  not  specified,
	      mkisofs  creates a version number	of 1 for all files.  File ver-
	      sions are	strings	in the range ;1	to ;32767 This option  is  the
	      default on VMS.

       -U

       -untranslated-filenames
	      Allows   "Untranslated"	filenames,  completely	violating  the
	      ISO-9660 standards described above. Forces on the	 -d,  -l,  -N,
	      -allow-leading-dots,  -relaxed-filenames,	-allow-lowercase, -al-
	      low-multidot and -no-iso-translate flags.	It  allows  more  than
	      one  '.'	character in the filename, as well as mixed case file-
	      names.  This is useful on	HP-UX system, where the	built-in  CDFS
	      filesystem  does	not recognize ANY extensions. Use with extreme
	      caution.

       -no-iso-translate
	      Do not translate the characters '#' and '~'  which  are  invalid
	      for ISO-9660 filenames.  These characters	are though invalid of-
	      ten used by Microsoft systems.
	      This violates the	ISO-9660 standard, but it happens to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -V volid
	      Specifies	 the  volume  ID  (volume name or label) to be written
	      into the master block.  There is space on	the disc for 32	 char-
	      acters  of  information.	 This parameter	can also be set	in the
	      file .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id.  If	specified in both places,  the
	      command  line version is used.  Note that	if you assign a	volume
	      ID, this is the name that	will be	used as	the mount  point  used
	      by the Solaris volume management system and the name that	is as-
	      signed to	the disc on a Microsoft	Win32 or Apple Mac platform.

       -volset ID
	      Specifies	the volset ID.	There is space on  the	disc  for  128
	      characters  of information.  The related Joliet entry is limited
	      to 64 characters.	 This parameter	can also be set	 in  the  file
	      .mkisofsrc  with	VOLS=volset_id.	  If specified in both places,
	      the command line version is used.

       -volset-size #
	      Sets the volume set size to #.  The volume set size is the  num-
	      ber of CD's that are in a	CD volume set.	A volume set is	a col-
	      lection of one or	more volumes, on  which	 a  set	 of  files  is
	      recorded.

	      Volume Sets are not intended to be used to create	a set numbered
	      CD's that	are part of e.g. a Operation System  installation  set
	      of  CD's.	 Volume	Sets are rather	used to	record a big directory
	      tree that	would not fit on a single volume.  Each	 volume	 of  a
	      Volume  Set  contains  a	description of all the directories and
	      files that are recorded on the volumes where the	sequence  num-
	      bers are less than, or equal to, the assigned Volume Set Size of
	      the current volume.

	      Mkisofs currently	does not support a -volset-size	that is	larger
	      than 1.

	      The  option  -volset-size	must be	specified before -volset-seqno
	      on each command line.

       -volset-seqno #
	      Sets the volume set sequence number to #.	 The  volume  set  se-
	      quence number is the index number	of the current CD in a CD set.
	      The option -volset-size must be specified	 before	 -volset-seqno
	      on each command line.

       -v

       -verbose
	      Verbose execution. If given twice	on the command line, extra de-
	      bug information will be printed.

       -x path
	      Exclude path from	being written to CDROM.	 path must be the com-
	      plete  pathname  that  results  from  concatenating the pathname
	      given as command line argument and the path relative to this di-
	      rectory.	Multiple paths may be excluded.	 Example:

	      mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local

	      NOTE:  The  -m and -x option description should both be updated,
	      they are wrong.  Both now	work identical and use filename	 glob-
	      bing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or
	      the whole	path matches.

       -XA    Generate XA iso-directory	attributes  with  original  owner  and
	      mode  information.  This option is required to create conforming
	      multi session CDs	as used	by the Kodak Photo CD  and  the	 Kodak
	      Picture  CD.   A conforming XA CD	uses CD-ROM XA mode 1 sectors,
	      see the -sector xa2 option for more information.

       -xa    Generate XA iso-directory	attributes with	rationalized owner and
	      mode  information.   User	ID and group ID	are set	to 0.  See -XA
	      for more information.

       -z     Generate	special	 RRIP  records	for  transparently  compressed
	      files.   This is only of use and interest	for hosts that support
	      transparent decompression, such as Linux 2.4.14 or  later.   You
	      must  specify the	-R or -r options to enable RockRidge, and gen-
	      erate compressed files using the mkzftree	utility	before running
	      mkisofs.	 Note  that  transparent  compression is a nonstandard
	      Rock Ridge extension.  The resulting disks  are  only  transpar-
	      ently readable if	used on	Linux.	On other operating systems you
	      will need	to call	mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.

HFS OPTIONS
       -hfs   Create an	ISO-9660/HFS hybrid CD.	This option should be used  in
	      conjunction with the -map, -magic	and/or the various double dash
	      options given below.

       -no-hfs
	      Do not create an ISO-9660/HFS hybrid CD even  though  other  op-
	      tions may	imply to do so.

       -apple Create  an  ISO-9660  CD with Apple's extensions.	Similar	to the
	      -hfs option, except that the Apple Extensions  to	 ISO-9660  are
	      added  instead of	creating an HFS	hybrid volume.	Former mkisofs
	      versions did include Rock	Ridge attributes by default if	-apple
	      was  specified.  This  versions of mkisofs does not do this any-
	      more. If you like	to have	Rock Ridge  attributes,	 you  need  to
	      specify this separately.

       -map mapping_file
	      Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for
	      a	file based on the filename's extension.	A filename  is	mapped
	      only  if	it is not one of the know Apple/Unix file formats. See
	      the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
	      The CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file's	 magic
	      number  (usually	the first few bytes of a file).	The magic_file
	      is only used if a	file is	not one	of the known  Apple/Unix  file
	      formats, or the filename extension has not been mapped using the
	      -map option. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more de-
	      tails.

       -hfs-creator CREATOR
	      Set the default CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
	      ters. See	the HFS	CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-type TYPE
	      Set the default TYPE for all files. Must be  exactly  4  charac-
	      ters. See	the HFS	CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -probe Search  the  contents of files for all the known Apple/Unix file
	      formats.	See the	HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section  below  for
	      more  about  these  formats.  However, the only way to check for
	      MacBinary	and AppleSingle	files is to open and read them.	There-
	      fore  this  option may increase processing time. It is better to
	      use one or more double dash  options  given  below  if  the  Ap-
	      ple/Unix formats in use are known.

       -no-desktop
	      Do  not create (empty) Desktop files. New	HFS Desktop files will
	      be created when the CD is	used on	a Macintosh (and stored	in the
	      System  Folder).	 By  default, empty Desktop files are added to
	      the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
	      Use the HFS filename as the starting  point  for	the  ISO-9660,
	      Joliet  and  Rock	 Ridge	file names. See	the HFS	MACINTOSH FILE
	      NAMES section below for more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
	      Installs the driver_file that may	make the CD bootable on	a Mac-
	      intosh. See the HFS BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate	an HFS partition table.	By default, no partition table
	      is generated, but	some older Macintosh CDROM drivers need	an HFS
	      partition	 table	on  the	CDROM to be able to recognize a	hybrid
	      CDROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
	      Make the HFS CD use  the	QuickTime  2.0	Autostart  feature  to
	      launch  an  application  or document. The	given filename must be
	      the name of a document or	application located at the  top	 level
	      of  the  CD.  The	filename must be less than 12 characters. (Al-
	      pha).

       -cluster-size size
	      Set the size in bytes of the cluster or allocation units	of  PC
	      Exchange	files. Implies the --exchange option. See the HFS MAC-
	      INTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
	      Hide glob	from the HFS volume. The file or directory will	 still
	      exist  in	the ISO-9660 and/or Joliet directory.  glob is a shell
	      wild-card-style pattern that must	match any part of the filename
	      Multiple globs may be excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

	      would  exclude  all files	ending in ".o" or called "foobar" from
	      the HFS volume. Note that	if you had a directory called "foobar"
	      it  too  (and  of	course all its descendants) would be excluded.
	      The glob can also	be a path name relative	to the source directo-
	      ries given on the	command	line. Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

	      would  exclude just the file or directory	called "html" from the
	      "src" directory. Any other file or directory  called  "html"  in
	      the  tree	 will  not be excluded.	 Should	be used	with the -hide
	      and/or -hide-joliet options.  In	order  to  match  a  directory
	      name,  make  sure	 the  pathname does not	include	a trailing '/'
	      character. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
	      A	file containing	a list of globs	to be hidden as	above.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
	      Volume name for the HFS partition. This is the name that is  as-
	      signed  to  the  disc on a Macintosh and replaces	the volid used
	      with the -V option

       -icon-position
	      Use the icon position information, if it exists,	from  the  Ap-
	      ple/Unix	file.	The  icons will	appear in the same position as
	      they would on a Macintosh	desktop. Folder	location and  size  on
	      screen,  its scroll positions, folder View (view as Icons, Small
	      Icons, etc.) are also preserved.	This option may	become set  by
	      default in the future.  (Alpha).

       -root-info file
	      Set  the location, size on screen, scroll	positions, folder View
	      etc. for the root	folder of an HFS volume.  See  README.rootinfo
	      for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot FILE
	      PReP  boot image file. Up	to 4 are allowed. See README.prep_boot
	      (Alpha)

       -chrp-t
	      Create a CHRP boot in boot partition 1.  See -prep-boot for fur-
	      ther information.

       -input-hfs-charset charset
	      Input charset that defines the characters	used in	HFS file names
	      when used	with the -mac-name option.   The  default  charset  is
	      cp10000  (Mac  Roman) cp10000 (Mac Roman)	See CHARACTER SETS and
	      HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES sections	below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
	      Output charset that defines the characters that will be used  in
	      the HFS file names. Defaults to the input	charset. See CHARACTER
	      SETS section below for more details.

       -hfs-unlock
	      By default, mkisofs will create an HFS volume  that  is  locked.
	      This  option  leaves  the	volume unlocked	so that	other applica-
	      tions (e.g.  hfsutils) can modify	the volume. See	the HFS	 PROB-
	      LEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for warnings about	using this op-
	      tion.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
	      "Bless" the given	directory (folder). This is usually the	System
	      Folder and is used in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name	of the
	      directory	must be	the whole path name as mkisofs sees  it.  e.g.
	      if  the  given  pathspec	is ./cddata and	the required folder is
	      called System Folder, then the whole path	name is	"./cddata/Sys-
	      tem  Folder"  (remember  to use quotes if	the name contains spa-
	      ces).

       -hfs-parms PARAMETERS
	      Override certain parameters used to create the HFS file  system.
	      Unlikely	to  be	used  in  normal  circumstances.  See the lib-
	      hfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look for AUFS CAP	Macintosh files.  Search  for  CAP  Apple/Unix
	      file  formats  only. Searching for the other possible Apple/Unix
	      file formats is disabled,	unless other double dash  options  are
	      given.

       --netatalk
	      Look for NETATALK	Macintosh files

       --double
	      Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
	      Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
	      Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
	      Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
	      Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
	      Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
	      Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software	Systems	DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look for Microsoft's Services for	Macintosh files	(NT only) (Al-
	      pha)

       --osx-double
	      Look for MacOS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
	      Look for MacOS X HFS Macintosh files

CHARACTER SETS
       mkisofs processes file names in a POSIX compliant  way  as  strings  of
       8-bit  characters.   To	represent all codings for all languages, 8-bit
       characters are not sufficient. Unicode or  ISO-10646  define  character
       codings	that  need  at least 21	bits to	represent all known languages.
       They may	be represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or  UTF-8  coding.	UTF-32
       uses  a plain 32-bit coding but seems to	be uncommon.  UCS-2 is used by
       Microsoft with Win32.  This coding is similar to	UTF-16 with the	disad-
       vantage	that  it only supports a 16 bit	subset (except when surrogates
       are used) of all	codes and that 16-bit  characters  are	not  compliant
       with the	POSIX filesystem interface.

       Modern  UNIX operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames. This
       coding allows to	use the	complete Unicode code set.  Each 32-bit	 char-
       acter  is  represented by one or	more 8-bit characters.	If a character
       is coded	in ISO-8859-1 (used in Central Europe and  North  America)  it
       maps 1:1	to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character.	If a character
       is coded	in 7-Bit ASCII (used in	USA and	other countries	 with  limited
       character  set)	it maps	1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16	or UTF-8 coded Unicode
       character.  Character codes that	cannot be represented as a single byte
       in  UTF-8  (typically if	the value is > 0x7F) use escape	sequences that
       map to more than	one 8-bit character.

       If all operating	systems	would use UTF-8	coding,	mkisofs	would not need
       to  recode  characters  in  file	names.	Unfortunately, Apple uses com-
       pletely nonstandard codings and Microsoft uses a	Unicode	coding that is
       not compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

       For  all	 non  UTF-8 coded operating systems, the actual	character that
       each byte represents, depends on	the character set or  codepage	(which
       is  the	name  used by Microsoft) used by the local operating system in
       use - the characters in a character set will reflect the	region or nat-
       ural language used by the user.

       Usually	 character  codes  0x00-0x1f  are  control  characters,	 codes
       0x20-0x7f are the 7 bit	ASCII  characters  and	(on  PC's  and	Mac's)
       0x80-0xff  are used for other characters.  Unfortunately	even this does
       not follow ISO standards	that reserve the range 0x80-0x9f  for  control
       characters and only allow 0xa0-0xff for other characters.

       As there	is a lot more than 256 characters/symbols in use, only a small
       subset are represented in a character set. Therefore the	same character
       code  may  represent a different	character in different character sets.
       So a file name generated, say in	central	Europe,	may  not  display  the
       same character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern Europe.

       To  make	matters	more complicated, different operating systems use dif-
       ferent character	sets for the region or language. For example the char-
       acter  code  for	"small e with acute accent" may	be character code 0x82
       on a PC,	code 0x8e on a Macintosh and code 0xe9 on a UNIX system.  Note
       while  the  codings  used on a PC or Mac	are nonstandard, Unicode codes
       this character as 0x00000000e9 which is basically the same value	as the
       value used by most UNIX systems.

       As long as not all operating systems and	applications will use the Uni-
       code character set as the basis for file	names in a unique way, it  may
       be  necessary to	specify	which character	set your file names use	in and
       which character set the file names should appear	on the CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you	want to	use:

       -input-charset
	      Defines the local	character set you are using on your  host  ma-
	      chine.   Any  character set conversions that take	place will use
	      this character set as the	staring	point. The default input char-
	      acter  sets  are cp437 on	DOS based systems and iso8859-1	on all
	      other systems.

	      If the -J	option is given, then the Unicode equivalents  of  the
	      input  character set will	be used	in the Joliet directory. Using
	      the -jcharset option is the same as using	the -input-charset and
	      -J options.

       -output-charset
	      Defines  the  character  set that	will be	used with for the Rock
	      Ridge names on the CD. Defaults to the input character set. Only
	      likely  to  be useful if used on a non-Unix platform. e.g. using
	      mkisofs on a Microsoft Win32 machine to create Rock  Ridge  CDs.
	      If  you  are  using mkisofs on a Unix machine, it	is likely that
	      the output character set will be the same	as the input character
	      set.

       -input-hfs-charset
	      Defines  the  HFS	 character set used for	HFS file names decoded
	      from any of the various Apple/Unix  file	formats.  Only	useful
	      when  used  with	-mac-name  option.  See	the HFS	MACINTOSH FILE
	      NAMES for	more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
	      Defines the HFS character	set used to create HFS file names from
	      the  input character set in use. In most cases this will be from
	      the character set	given with the -input-charset option. Defaults
	      to the input HFS character set.

       The  default  character set is built into mkisofs.  A number of further
       character sets are read in from the filesystem by mkisofs from a	direc-
       tory  relatively	 to  the  install path.	 To get	a listing, use mkisofs
       -input-charset help.

       Additional character sets from iconv(1) may be used  on	systems,  that
       support	iconv(1).   In this case, call iconv -l	to get a list of valid
       character sets from this	coding method.	To  force  an  iconv(1)	 based
       coding, use iconv:name instead of name for the character	set.

       If  using  non iconv(1) based character sets, additional	character sets
       can be read from	file for any of	the character set options by giving  a
       filename	 as the	argument to the	options. A given character set will be
       read from a file	whenever the supplied name contains a '/'.

       The format of the character set files is	the same as the	mapping	 files
       available  from	http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS	The  format of
       these files is:

	    Column #1 is the input byte	code (in hex as	0xXX)
	    Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as	0xXXXX)
	    Rest of the	line is	ignored.

       Any blank line, line without two	(or more) columns in the above	format
       or  comments  lines (starting with the #	character) are ignored without
       any warnings. Any missing input code is	mapped	to  Unicode  character
       0x0000.

       Note  that  there  is  no support for 16	bit UNICODE (UTF-16) or	32 bit
       UNICODE (UTF-32)	coding because this coding  is	not  POSIX  compliant.
       There should be support for UTF-8 UNICODE coding	which is compatible to
       POSIX filenames and supported by	moder UNIX implementations such	as So-
       laris.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default
       as the argument to any of the character set options. This is the	behav-
       iour of older (v1.12) versions of mkisofs.

       The ISO-9660 file names generated from the input	filenames are not con-
       verted from the input character set. The	ISO-9660 character  set	 is  a
       very limited subset of the ASCII	characters, so any conversion would be
       pointless.

       Any character that mkisofs can not convert will be replaced with	a  '_'
       character.

HFS CREATOR/TYPE
       A  Macintosh  file  has	two properties associated with it which	define
       which application created the file, the CREATOR and what	data the  file
       contains,  the TYPE.  Both are (exactly)	4 letter strings. Usually this
       allows a	Macintosh user to double-click on a file and launch  the  cor-
       rect  application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a	particular file	can be
       found by	using something	like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The CREATOR and TYPE information	is  stored  in	all  the  various  Ap-
       ple/Unix	 encoded  files.   For	other files it is possible to base the
       CREATOR and TYPE	on the filename's extension using a mapping file  (the
       -map  option) and/or using the magic number (usually a signature	in the
       first few bytes)	of a file (the -magic option). If both	these  options
       are  given,  then  their	order on the command line is important.	If the
       -map option is given first, then	a  filename  extension	match  is  at-
       tempted	before	a magic	number match. However, if the -magic option is
       given first, then a magic number	match is attempted before  a  filename
       extension match.

       If  a  mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is	found then the
       default CREATOR and TYPE	for all	regular	files can be set by using  en-
       tries in	the .mkisofsrc file or using the -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type
       options,	otherwise the default CREATOR and TYPE are 'unix' and 'TEXT'.

       The format of the mapping file is the same afpfile format  as  used  by
       aufs.   This file has five columns for the extension, file translation,
       CREATOR,	TYPE and Comment.  Lines starting with the '#'	character  are
       comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN	XLate	CREATOR	  TYPE	   Comment
       .tif	Raw	'8BIM'	  'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx	Ascii	'BnHq'	  'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
       .doc	Raw	'MSWD'	  'WDBN'   "Word file"
       .mov	Raw	'TVOD'	  'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
       *	Ascii	'ttxt'	  'TEXT'   "Text file"

       Where:

	      The  first column	EXTN defines the Unix filename extension to be
	      mapped. The default mapping  for	any  filename  extension  that
	      doesn't match is defined with the	"*" character.

	      The  Xlate  column  defines the type of text translation between
	      the Unix and Macintosh file it is	ignored	 by  mkisofs,  but  is
	      kept  to	be compatible with aufs(1).  Although mkisofs does not
	      alter the	contents of a file, if a binary	file has its TYPE  set
	      as  'TEXT', it may be read incorrectly on	a Macintosh. Therefore
	      a	better choice for the default TYPE may be '????'

	      The CREATOR and TYPE keywords must be 4 characters long and  en-
	      closed in	single quotes.

	      The  comment  field is enclosed in double	quotes - it is ignored
	      by mkisofs, but is kept to be compatible with aufs.

       The format of the magic file is almost identical	to the	magic(5)  file
       used by the Linux file(1) command - the routines	for reading and	decod-
       ing the magic file are based on the Linux file(1) command.

       This file has four tab separated	columns	for  the  byte	offset,	 type,
       test  and  message.   Lines starting with the '#' character are comment
       lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type	 test	    message
       0       string	 GIF8	    8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort	 0xffd8	    8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string	 SIT!	    SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string	 \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard	unix compress
       0       string	 \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string	 %!	    ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string	 \004%!	    ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string	 moov	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string	 mdat	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The format of the file is described in the magic(5) man page. The  only
       difference  here	 is that for each entry	in the magic file, the message
       for the initial offset must be 4	characters for the CREATOR followed by
       4  characters  for the TYPE - white space is optional between them. Any
       other characters	on this	line are ignored.  Continuation	lines  (start-
       ing with	a '>') are also	ignored	i.e. only the initial offset lines are
       used.

       Using the -magic	option may significantly increase processing  time  as
       each file has to	opened and read	to find	its magic number.

       In  summary,  for  all files, the default CREATOR is 'unix' and the de-
       fault TYPE is 'TEXT'.  These can	be changed by  using  entries  in  the
       .mkisofsrc file or by using the -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type options.

       If the a	file is	in one of the known Apple/Unix formats (and the	format
       has been	selected), then	the CREATOR and	TYPE are taken from the	values
       stored in the Apple/Unix	file.

       Other  files  can  have their CREATOR and TYPE set from their file name
       extension (the -map option), or their magic number (the -magic option).
       If  the	default	 match	is used	in the mapping file, then these	values
       override	the default CREATOR and	TYPE.

       A  full	CREATOR/TYPE  database	can   be   found   at	http://www.an-
       gelfire.com/il/szekely/index.html

HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS
       Macintosh  files	 have two parts	called the Data	and Resource fork. Ei-
       ther may	be empty. Unix (and many other OSs) can	only cope  with	 files
       having  one part	(or fork). To add to this, Macintosh files have	a num-
       ber of attributes associated with them -	probably  the  most  important
       are  the	 TYPE and CREATOR. Again Unix has no concept of	these types of
       attributes.

       e.g. a Macintosh	file may be a JPEG image where the image is stored  in
       the  Data  fork and a desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource fork. It
       is usually the information in the data fork that	is useful across plat-
       forms.

       Therefore  to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem, a way	has to
       be found	to cope	with the two forks and the extra attributes (which are
       referred	 to  as	 the finder info).  Unfortunately, it seems that every
       software	package	that stores Macintosh files on Unix has	chosen a  com-
       pletely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that mkisofs (partially) supports	are:

       CAP AUFS	format
	      Data  fork  stored in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory .re-
	      source with same filename	as data	fork. Finder info in  .finder-
	      info subdirectory	with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
	      Data  fork stored	in a file. Resource fork stored	in a file with
	      same name	prefixed with "%". Finder info also stored in same "%"
	      file. Netatalk uses the same format, but the resource fork/find-
	      erinfo stored in subdirectory .AppleDouble  with	same  name  as
	      data fork.

       AppleSingle
	      Data  structures	similar	to above, except both forks and	finder
	      info are stored in one file.

       Helios EtherShare
	      Data fork	stored in a file. Resource fork	and  finder  info  to-
	      gether in	subdirectory .rsrc with	same filename as data fork.

       IPT UShare
	      Very  similar  to	 the EtherShare	format,	but the	finder info is
	      stored slightly differently.

       MacBinary
	      Both forks and finder info stored	in one file.

       Apple PC	Exchange
	      Used by Macintoshes to store Apple files	on  DOS	 (FAT)	disks.
	      Data  fork  stored  in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory re-
	      source.frk (or RESOURCE.FRK). Finder info	as one record in  file
	      finder.dat  (or  FINDER.DAT).  Separate finder.dat for each data
	      fork directory.

	      Note: mkisofs needs to know the native FAT cluster size  of  the
	      disk  that  the  PC  Exchange  files are on (or have been	copied
	      from). This size is given	 by  the  -cluster-size	 option.   The
	      cluster or allocation size can be	found by using the DOS utility
	      CHKDSK.

	      May not work with	PC Exchange v2.2 or  higher  files  (available
	      with  MacOS 8.1).	 DOS media containing PC Exchange files	should
	      be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
	      Used by SGI machines when	they mount HFS disks. Data fork	stored
	      in  a  file. Resource fork in subdirectory .HSResource with same
	      name. Finder info	as one record in file  .HSancillary.  Separate
	      .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software	Systems	DAVE
	      Allows  Macintoshes  to  store Apple files on SMB	servers.  Data
	      fork stored  in  a  file.	 Resource  fork	 in  subdirectory  re-
	      source.frk. Uses the AppleDouble format to store resource	fork.

       Services	for Macintosh
	      Format  of  files	stored by NT Servers on	NTFS filesystems. Data
	      fork is stored as	"filename". Resource fork  stored  as  a  NTFS
	      stream called "filename:AFP_Resource". The finder	info is	stored
	      as a NTFS	stream called  "filename:Afp_AfpInfo".	These  streams
	      are normally invisible to	the user.

	      Warning:	mkisofs	 only partially	supports the SFM format. If an
	      HFS file or folder stored	on the NT server contains  an  illegal
	      NT  character  in	its name, then NT converts these characters to
	      Private Use Unicode characters. The characters are: " * /	< >  ?
	       |  also	a  space  or period if it is the last character	of the
	      file name, character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and
	      Apple' apple logo.

	      Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not readable
	      by the mkisofs NT	executable. Therefore any  file	 or  directory
	      name containing these characters will be ignored - including the
	      contents of any such directory.

       MacOS X AppleDouble
	      When HFS/HFS+ files are copied or	saved by MacOS X on to a  non-
	      HFS  file	 system	 (e.g. UFS, NFS	etc.), the files are stored in
	      AppleDouble format.  Data	fork stored in a file.	Resource  fork
	      stored  in a file	with same name prefixed	with "._". Finder info
	      also stored in same "._" file.

       MacOS X HFS (Alpha)
	      Not really an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files  on
	      a	 MacOS	X  system.  Data  fork stored in a file. Resource fork
	      stored in	a pseudo file with  the	 same  name  with  the	suffix
	      '/rsrc'.	The finderinfo is only available via a MacOS X library
	      call.

	      Notes: (also see README.macosx)

	      Only works when used on MacOS X.

	      If a file	is found with a	zero length resource  fork  and	 empty
	      finderinfo,  it is assumed not to	have any Apple/Unix encoding -
	      therefore	a TYPE and CREATOR can be set using other methods.

       mkisofs will attempt to set the CREATOR,	TYPE, date and possibly	 other
       flags  from  the	finder info. Additionally, if it exists, the Macintosh
       filename	is set from the	finder info, otherwise the Macintosh  name  is
       based  on  the Unix filename - see the HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES section
       below.

       When using the -apple option, the TYPE and CREATOR are  stored  in  the
       optional	System Use or SUSP field in the	ISO-9660 Directory Record - in
       much the	same way as the	Rock Ridge attributes are.  In	fact  to  make
       life  easy,  the	Apple extensions are added at the beginning of the ex-
       isting Rock Ridge attributes (i.e. to get the Apple extensions you  get
       the Rock	Ridge extensions as well).

       The  Apple  extensions  require	the  resource  fork to be stored as an
       ISO-9660	associated file. This is just like any normal file  stored  in
       the  ISO-9660 filesystem	except that the	associated file	flag is	set in
       the Directory Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as  the  data
       fork  (the  file	seen by	non-Apple machines). Associated	files are nor-
       mally ignored by	other OSs

       When using the -hfs option, the TYPE  and  CREATOR  plus	 other	finder
       info,  are  stored  in  a  separate  HFS	 directory, not	visible	on the
       ISO-9660	volume.	The HFS	directory references the  same	data  and  re-
       source fork files described above.

       In  most	cases, it is better to use the -hfs option instead of the -ap-
       ple option, as the latter imposes the limited ISO-9660  characters  al-
       lowed in	filenames. However, the	Apple extensions do give the advantage
       that the	files are packed on the	disk more efficiently and  it  may  be
       possible	 to  fit more files on a CD - important	when the total size of
       the source files	is approaching 650MB.

HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES
       Where possible, the HFS filename	that is	stored with an Apple/Unix file
       is used for the HFS part	of the CD. However, not	all the	Apple/Unix en-
       codings store the HFS filename with the finderinfo. In these cases, the
       Unix  filename is used -	with escaped special characters. Special char-
       acters include '/' and characters with codes over 127.

       Aufs escapes these characters by	using ":" followed  by	the  character
       code  as	two hex	digits.	Netatalk and EtherShare	have a similar scheme,
       but uses	"%" instead of a ":".

       If mkisofs can't	find an	HFS filename, then it uses the Unix name, with
       any  %xx	or :xx characters (xx == two hex digits) converted to a	single
       character code. If "xx" are not hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), then they are
       left alone - although any remaining ":" is converted to "%" as colon is
       the HFS directory separator. Care must be taken,	as  an	ordinary  Unix
       file with %xx or	:xx will also be converted. e.g.

       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although	 HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case letters,
       the filesystem is case insensitive. i.e.	the filenames "aBc" and	 "AbC"
       are the same. If	a file is found	in a directory with the	same HFS name,
       then mkisofs will attempt, where	possible, to make  a  unique  name  by
       adding '_' characters to	one of the filenames.

       If an HFS filename exists for a file, then mkisofs can use this name as
       the starting point for the ISO-9660, Joliet and	Rock  Ridge  filenames
       using  the -mac-name option. Normal Unix	files without an HFS name will
       still use their Unix name.  e.g.

       If a MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someimage.gif.bin  on
       the Unix	filesystem, but	contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, then
       this is the name	that would appear on the HFS part of the CD.  However,
       as  mkisofs  uses  the  Unix  name  as the starting point for the other
       names, then the ISO-9660	name generated will probably  be  SOMEIMAG.BIN
       and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.bin.  Although the ac-
       tual data (in this case)	is a GIF image.	This option will use  the  HFS
       filename	 as  the starting point	and the	ISO-9660 name will probably be
       SOMEIMAG.GIF and	the Joliet/Rock	Ridge would be someimage.gif.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the  Unix  name	will  be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh
       name.

       The character set used to convert any HFS file name  to	a  Joliet/Rock
       Ridge  file  name  defaults  to cp10000 (Mac Roman).  The character set
       used can	be specified using the -input-hfs-charset option. Other	 built
       in  HFS	character sets are: cp10006 (MacGreek),	cp10007	(MacCyrillic),
       cp10029 (MacLatin2), cp10079 (MacIcelandic) and cp10081 (MacTurkish).

       Note: the character codes used by HFS file names	taken from the various
       Apple/Unix  formats  will not be	converted as they are assumed to be in
       the correct Apple character set.	Only the Joliet/Rock Ridge  names  de-
       rived from the HFS file names will be converted.

       The  existing  mkisofs  code will filter	out any	illegal	characters for
       the ISO-9660 and	Joliet filenames, but as mkisofs expects to be dealing
       directly	with Unix names, it leaves the Rock Ridge names	as is.	But as
       '/' is a	legal HFS filename character, the  -mac-name  option  converts
       '/' to a	'_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If the Apple extensions are used, then only the ISO-9660	filenames will
       appear on the Macintosh.	However, as the	Macintosh ISO-9660 drivers can
       use  Level  2  filenames, then you can use options like -allow-multidot
       without problems	on a Macintosh - still take care over the  names,  for
       example	this.file.name	will  be converted to THIS.FILE	i.e. only have
       one '.',	also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH	but  abcdefghi
       will  be	seen as	ABCDEFGHI.  i.e. with a	'.' at the end - don't know if
       this is a Macintosh problem or mkisofs/mkhybrid problem.	All  filenames
       will be in upper	case when viewed on a Macintosh. Of course, DOS/Win3.X
       machines	will not be able to see	Level 2	filenames...

HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS
       To give a HFS CD	a custom icon, make sure the root (top	level)	folder
       includes	a standard Macintosh volume icon file. To give a volume	a cus-
       tom icon	on a Macintosh,	an icon	has to be  pasted  over	 the  volume's
       icon  in	 the  "Get  Info" box of the volume. This creates an invisible
       file called 'Icon\r' ('\r' is the 'carriage return' character)  in  the
       root folder.

       A  custom  folder  icon	is  very  similar  -  an invisible file	called
       'Icon\r'	exits in the folder itself.

       Probably	the easiest way	to create a custom icon	that mkisofs can  use,
       is  to  format  a  blank	HFS floppy disk	on a Mac, paste	an icon	to its
       "Get Info" box. If using	Linux with the HFS module installed, mount the
       floppy using something like:

		  mount	-t hfs /dev/fd0	/mnt/floppy

       The  floppy  will  be mounted as	a CAP file system by default. Then run
       mkisofs using something like:

		  mkisofs --cap	-o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If you are not using Linux, then	you can	use the	hfsutils to  copy  the
       icon  file  from	the floppy. However, care has to be taken, as the icon
       file contains a control character. e.g.

		  hmount /dev/fd0
		  hdir -a
		  hcopy	-m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where '^V^M' is control-V followed by control-M.	Then  run  mkisofs  by
       using something like:

		  mkisofs --macbin -o output source_dir	icon_dir

       The  procedure for creating/using custom	folder icons is	very similar -
       paste an	icon to	folder's "Get Info" box	 and  transfer	the  resulting
       'Icon\r'	file to	the relevant directory in the mkisofs source tree.

       You may want to hide the	icon files from	the ISO-9660 and Joliet	trees.

       To give a custom	icon to	a Joliet CD, follow the	instructions found at:
       http://www.fadden.com/cdrfaq/faq03.html#[3-21]

HFS BOOT DRIVER
       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD	bootable on a Macintosh.

       A bootable HFS CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or  compatible)  driver,  a
       bootable	HFS partition and the necessary	System,	Finder,	etc. files.

       A driver	can be obtained	from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using
       the  apple_driver  utility.  This  file	can  then  be  used  with  the
       -boot-hfs-file option.

       The  HFS	 partition  (i.e.  the hybrid disk in our case)	must contain a
       suitable	System Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

       For a partition to be bootable, it must have its	boot  block  set.  The
       boot  block  is	in  the	 first	two  blocks of a partition. For	a non-
       bootable	partition the boot block is full of zeros.  Normally,  when  a
       System  file is copied to partition on a	Macintosh disk,	the boot block
       is filled with a	number of required settings -  unfortunately  I	 don't
       know the	full spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the follow-
       ing will	work OK.

       Therefore, the utility apple_driver also	extracts the boot  block  from
       the  first  HFS partition it finds on the given CD-ROM and this is used
       for the HFS partition created by	mkisofs.

       PLEASE NOTE
	      By using a driver	from an	Apple CD and copying Apple software to
	      your CD, you become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Software
	      License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE
       When the	-boot-info-table option	is given, mkisofs will modify the boot
       file  specified	by the -b option by inserting a	56-byte	"boot informa-
       tion table" at offset 8 in the file.  This modification is done in  the
       source filesystem, so make sure you use a copy if this file is not eas-
       ily recreated!  This file contains pointers which may not be easily  or
       reliably	obtained at boot time.

       The  format  of	this  table is as follows; all integers	are in section
       7.3.1 ("little endian") format.

	 Offset	   Name		  Size	    Meaning
	  8	   bi_pvd	  4 bytes   LBA	of primary volume descriptor
	 12	   bi_file	  4 bytes   LBA	of boot	file
	 16	   bi_length	  4 bytes   Boot file length in	bytes
	 20	   bi_csum	  4 bytes   32-bit checksum
	 24	   bi_reserved	  40 bytes  Reserved

       The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit	words in the boot file
       starting	 at  byte  offset  64.	 All linear block addresses (LBAs) are
       given in	CD sectors (normally 2048 bytes).

CONFIGURATION
       mkisofs looks for the .mkisofsrc	file, first in the current working di-
       rectory,	 then  in the user's home directory, and then in the directory
       in which	the mkisofs binary is stored.  This file is assumed to contain
       a series	of lines of the	form TAG=value , and in	this way you can spec-
       ify certain options.  The case of the tag  is  not  significant.	  Some
       fields  in  the volume header are not settable on the command line, but
       can be altered through this facility.  Comments may be placed  in  this
       file, using lines which start with a hash (#) character.

       APPI   The  application identifier should describe the application that
	      will be on the disc.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
	      ters  of information.  The related Joliet	entry is limited to 64
	      characters.  May be overridden using the -A command line option.

       COPY   The copyright information, often the name	of a file on the  disc
	      containing the copyright notice.	There is space in the disc for
	      37 characters of information.  The related Joliet	entry is  lim-
	      ited  to	18 characters.	May be overridden using	the -copyright
	      command line option.

       ABST   The abstract information,	often the name of a file on  the  disc
	      containing an abstract.  There is	space in the disc for 37 char-
	      acters of	information.  The related Joliet entry is  limited  to
	      18  characters.	May  be	overridden using the -abstract command
	      line option.

       BIBL   The bibliographic	information, often the name of a file  on  the
	      disc  containing a bibliography.	There is space in the disc for
	      37 characters of information.  The related Joliet	entry is  lim-
	      ited  to 18 characters.  May be overridden using the -bilio com-
	      mand line	option.

       PREP   This should describe the preparer	of the CDROM, usually  with  a
	      mailing  address	and  phone number.  There is space on the disc
	      for 128 characters of information.  The related Joliet entry  is
	      limited  to  64 characters.  May be overridden using the -p com-
	      mand line	option.

       PUBL   This should describe the publisher of the	CDROM, usually with  a
	      mailing  address	and  phone number.  There is space on the disc
	      for 128 characters of information.  The related Joliet entry  is
	      limited  to  64  characters.   May be overridden using the -pub-
	      lisher command line option.

       SYSI   The System Identifier.  There is space on	the disc for 32	 char-
	      acters  of information.  May be overridden using the -sysid com-
	      mand line	option.

       VOLI   The Volume Identifier.  There is space on	the disc for 32	 char-
	      acters  of  information.	May be overridden using	the -V command
	      line option.

       VOLS   The Volume Set Name.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
	      ters  of information.  The related Joliet	entry is limited to 64
	      characters.  May be overridden using the	-volset	 command  line
	      option.

       HFS_TYPE
	      The  default TYPE	for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
	      ters.  May be overridden using the -hfs-type  command  line  op-
	      tion.

       HFS_CREATOR
	      The default CREATOR for Macintosh	files. Must be exactly 4 char-
	      acters.  May be overridden using the -hfs-creator	 command  line
	      option.

       mkisofs	can  also be configured	at compile time	with defaults for many
       of these	fields.	 See the file defaults.h.

EXAMPLES
       To create a vanilla ISO-9660 filesystem image in	the file cd.iso, where
       the  directory  cd_dir will become the root directory of	the CD ISO im-
       age, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock	 Ridge	extensions  of	the  source  directory
       cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD  with	Rock  Ridge extensions of the source directory
       cd_dir where all	files have at least read permission and	all files  are
       owned by	root, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To  write a tar archive directly	to a CD	that will later	contain	a sim-
       ple ISO-9660 filesystem with the	tar archive call:

       % star -c . | mkisofs -stream-media-size	333000 | \
	       cdrecord	dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

       To create a HFS hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge	extensions  of
       the source directory cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To  create  a  HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir that con-
       tains Netatalk Apple/Unix files:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving  all
       files  CREATOR and TYPES	based on just their filename extensions	listed
       in the file "mapping".:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -map	mapping	cd_dir

       To create a CD with the 'Apple Extensions to ISO-9660', from the	source
       directories  cd_dir and another_dir.  Files in all the known Apple/Unix
       format are decoded and any other	files are given	CREATOR	and TYPE based
       on their	magic number given in the file "magic":

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
	       cd_dir another_dir

       The  following example puts different files on the CD that all have the
       name README, but	have different contents	when seen as a	ISO-9660/Rock-
       Ridge, Joliet or	HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

       % ls -F
       README.hfs     README.joliet  README.unix    cd_dir/

       The  following command puts the contents	of the directory cd_dir	on the
       CD along	with the three README files - but only one will	be  seen  from
       each of the three filesystems:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -hfs	-J -r -graft-points \
	       -hide README.hfs	-hide README.joliet \
	       -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.unix	\
	       -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.unix \
	       README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
	       README=README.unix cd_dir

       i.e.  the  file README.hfs will be seen as README on the	HFS CD and the
       other two README	files will be hidden. Similarly	 for  the  Joliet  and
       ISO-9660/RockRidge CD.

       There  are probably all sorts of	strange	results	possible with combina-
       tions of	the hide options ...

       To create a DVD-Audio of	the DVD-Audio compliant	source directory DVD:

       % mkisofs -o dvda.iso -dvd-audio	DVD

AUTHOR
       Eric Youngdale <ericy@gnu.ai.mit.edu> or	<eric@andante.org>  wrote  the
       first  versions	(1993 ... 1998)	of the mkisofs utility.	 The copyright
       for old versions	of the mkisofs utility is held by Yggdrasil Computing,
       Incorporated.  Joerg Schilling wrote the	SCSI transport library and its
       adaptation layer	to mkisofs and newer parts (starting from 1997)	of the
       utility.	  Joerg	 Schilling  is the primary maintainer since 1999, this
       makes mkisofs Copyright (C) 1997-2014 Joerg Schilling.

       HFS hybrid code Copyright (C) James Pearson 1997	... 2001.

       libhfs code Copyright (C) 1996, 1997 Robert Leslie.

       libfile code Copyright (C) Ian F. Darwin	1986, 1987, 1989, 1990,	 1991,
       1992, 1994, 1995.

NOTES
       Mkisofs	may safely be installed	suid root. This	may be needed to allow
       mkisofs to read the previous session when creating a multi session  im-
       age.

       mkisofs	is  not	based on the standard mk*fs tools for unix, because we
       must generate a complete	copy of	an existing filesystem on  a  disk  in
       the  ISO-9660 filesystem.  The name mkisofs is probably a bit of	a mis-
       nomer, since it not only	creates	the filesystem,	but it also  populates
       it  as  well.   However,	the appropriate	tool name for a	UNIX tool that
       creates populated filesystems - mkproto - is not	well known.

       If mkisofs is creating a	filesystem image with  Rock  Ridge  attributes
       and  the	 directory  nesting  level of the source directory tree	is too
       much for	ISO-9660, mkisofs will do deep directory relocation.  This re-
       sults  in  a directory called RR_MOVED in the root directory of the CD.
       You cannot avoid	this directory in the directory	tree that  is  visible
       with ISO-9660 but it it automatically hidden in the Rock	Ridge tree.

       The sparc boot support that is implemented with the -sparc-boot options
       completely follows the official Sparc CD	 boot  requirements  from  the
       Boot prom in Sun	Sparc systems. Some Linux distributions	for Sparc sys-
       tems use	a boot loader called SILO that unfortunately is	not  Sparc  CD
       boot compliant.	It is annoyingly to see	that the Authors of SILO don't
       fix SILO	but instead provide a completely unneeded "patch"  to  mkisofs
       that incorporates far more source than the fix for SILO would need.

BUGS
       o      Does  not	 properly  read	relocated directories in multi-session
	      mode when	adding data.

	      Any relocated deep directory is lost if the new session does not
	      include the deep directory.

	      Repeat  by:  create first	session	with deep directory relocation
	      then add new session with	a single dir that differs from the old
	      deep path.

       o      Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multi-session	from TRANS.TBL

       There may be some other ones.  Please, report them to the author.

HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS
       I  have	had  to	 make several assumptions on how I expect the modified
       libhfs routines to work,	however	there may be situations	that either  I
       haven't thought of, or come across when these assumptions fail.	There-
       fore I can't guarantee that mkisofs will	work as	expected  (although  I
       haven't	had  a major problem yet). Most	of the HFS features work fine,
       however,	some are not fully tested. These are marked as Alpha above.

       Although	HFS filenames appear to	support	upper and lower	case  letters,
       the  filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC"
       are the same. If	a file is found	in a directory with the	same HFS name,
       then  mkisofs  will  attempt,  where possible, to make a	unique name by
       adding '_' characters to	one of the filenames.

       HFS file/directory names	that share the first 31	characters have	_N' (N
       ==  decimal number) substituted for the last few	characters to generate
       unique names.

       Care must be taken when "grafting" Apple/Unix files or directories (see
       above  for the method and syntax	involved). It is not possible to use a
       new name	for an Apple/Unix encoded file/directory. e.g. If a Apple/Unix
       encoded	file  called "oldname" is to added to the CD, then you can not
       use the command line:

	      mkisofs -o output.raw -hfs -graft-points newname=oldname cd_dir

       mkisofs will be unable to decode	"oldname". However, you	can graft  Ap-
       ple/Unix	 encoded files or directories as long as you do	not attempt to
       give them new names as above.

       When creating an	HFS volume with	the multisession options, -M  and  -C,
       only  files in the last session will be in the HFS volume. i.e. mkisofs
       can not add existing files from previous	sessions to the	HFS volume.

       However,	if each	session	is created with	the -part  option,  then  each
       session	will appear as separate	volumes	when mounted on	a Mac. In this
       case, it	is worth using the -V or -hfs-volid option to give  each  ses-
       sion  a	unique volume name, otherwise each "volume" will appear	on the
       Desktop with the	same name.

       Symbolic	links (as with all other non-regular files) are	not  added  to
       the HFS directory.

       Hybrid  volumes may be larger than pure ISO-9660	volumes	containing the
       same data. In some cases	(e.g. DVD sized	volumes) the hybrid volume may
       be  significantly larger. As an HFS volume gets bigger, so does the al-
       location	block size (the	smallest amount	of space a file	 can  occupy).
       For  a  650Mb CD, the allocation	block is 10Kb, for a 4.7Gb DVD it will
       be about	70Kb.

       The maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about 65500 -  although
       the real	limit will be somewhat less than this.

       The  resulting hybrid volume can	be accessed on a Unix machine by using
       the hfsutils routines. However, no changes can be made to the volume as
       it  is set as locked.  The option -hfs-unlock will create an output im-
       age that	is unlocked - however no changes should	be made	 to  the  con-
       tents of	the volume (unless you really know what	you are	doing) as it's
       not a "real" HFS	volume.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the  Unix  name	will  be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh
       name.

       Although	mkisofs	does not alter the contents of a  file,	 if  a	binary
       file has	its TYPE set as	'TEXT',	it may be read incorrectly on a	Macin-
       tosh. Therefore a better	choice for the default TYPE may	be '????'

       The -mac-boot-file option may not work at all...

       May not work with PC Exchange v2.2  or  higher  files  (available  with
       MacOS  8.1).   DOS media	containing PC Exchange files should be mounted
       as type msdos (not vfat)	when using Linux.

       The SFM format is only partially	supported -  see  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE
       FORMATS section above.

       It  is not possible to use the the -sparc-boot or -generic-boot options
       with the	-boot-hfs-file the -prep-boot or -chrp-boot options.

       mkisofs should be able to create	HFS hybrid images over	4Gb,  although
       this has	not been fully tested.

SEE ALSO
       cdrecord(1), mkzftree(1), sfind(1), magic(5), apple_driver(8).

FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
       Some sort of gui	interface.

AVAILABILITY
       mkisofs	 is   available	  as   part   of  the  cdrecord	 package  from
       https://sourceforge.net/projects/cdrtools/files/

       hfsutils	from ftp://ftp.mars.org/pub/hfs

       mkzftree	 is  available	as  part  of  the  zisofs-tools	 package  from
       ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/zisofs/

MAILING	LISTS
       If  you	want  to actively take part on the development of mkisofs, you
       may join	the developer mailing list via this URL:

       https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/cdrtools-developers

MAINTAINER
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER
       James Pearson

       j.pearson@ge.ucl.ac.uk

       If you have support questions, send them	to:

       cdrtools-support@lists.sourceforge.net

       If you definitely found a bug, send a mail to:

       cdrtools-developers@lists.sourceforge.net
       or joerg.schilling@fokus.fraunhofer.de

       To subscribe, use:

       https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/cdrtools-developers
       or https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/cdrtools-support

INTERFACE STABILITY
       The interfaces provided by mkisofs are designed for long	 term  stabil-
       ity.  As	mkisofs	depends	on interfaces provided by the underlying oper-
       ating system, the stability of the interfaces offered  by  mkisofs  de-
       pends on	the interface stability	of the OS interfaces.  Modified	inter-
       faces in	the OS may enforce modified interfaces in mkisofs.

Version	3.02			  2016/12/13			    MKISOFS(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | HFS OPTIONS | CHARACTER SETS | HFS CREATOR/TYPE | HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS | HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES | HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS | HFS BOOT DRIVER | EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE | CONFIGURATION | EXAMPLES | AUTHOR | NOTES | BUGS | HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS | SEE ALSO | FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS | AVAILABILITY | MAILING LISTS | MAINTAINER | HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER | INTERFACE STABILITY

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